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ticulars with respect to the interior state of the Spanish colonies, and the various schemes formed for their improvement. As this collection of Memorials formerly belonged to the Colbert Library, I have quoted them by that title.

All those books and manuscripts I have consulted with that attention which the respect due from an Author to the Public required; and by minute references to them, I have endeavoured to authenticate whatever I relate. The longer I reflect on the nature of historical composition, the more I am convinced that this scrupulous accuracy is necessary. The historian who records the events of his own time, is credited in proportion to the opinion which the Public entertains with respect to his means of information and his veracity. He who delineates the transactions of a remote period, has no title to claim assent, unless he produces evidence in proof of his assertions. Without this he may write an amusing tale, but cannot be said to have composed an authentic history. In those sentiments I have been confirmed by the opinion of an Author,* whom his industry, erudition, and discernment, have deservedly placed in a high rank among the most eminent historians of the age. Imboldened by a hint from him, I have published a catalogue of the Spanish books which I have consulted. This practice was frequent in the last century, and was considered as an evidence of laudable industry in an author; in the present, it may, perhaps, be deemed the effect of ostentation; but, as many of these books are unknown in Great Britain, I could not otherwise have referred to them as authorities, without encumbering the page with an insertion of their full titles. To any person who may choose to follow me in this path of inquiry, the catalogue must be very

useful. My readers will observe, that in mentioning sums of money, I have uniformly followed the Spanish method of computing by pesos. In America, the peso fuerte, or duro, is the only one known; and that is always meant when any sum imported from America is mentioned. The peso fuerte, as well as other coins, has varied in its numerary value; but I have been advised, without attending to such minute variations, to consider it as equal to four shillings and six-pence of our money. It is to be remembered, however, that, in the sixteenth century, the effective value of a peso, i, e. the quantity of labour which it represented, or of goods which it would purchase, was five or six times as much as at present.

N. B. Since this edition was put into the press, a History of Mexico, in two volumes in quarto, translated from the Italian of the Abbé D. Francesco Saverio Clavigero, has been published. From a person who is a native of New Spain, who has resided forty years in that country, and who is acquainted with the Mexican language, it was natural to expect much new information. Upon perusing his work, however, I find that it contains hardly any addition to the ancient History of the Mexican empire, as related by Acosta and Herrera, but what is derived from the improbable narratives and fanciful conjectures of Torquemada and Boturini. Having copied their splendid descriptions of the high state of civilization in the Mexican empire, M. Clavigero, in the abundance of his zeal for the honour of his native country, charges me with having mistaken some points, and with having misrepresented others, in the history of it. When an author is conscious of having exerted industry in research, and impartiality in decision, he may, without presumption, claim what praise is due to these qualities, and he cannot be insensible to any accusation that tends to weaken the force of his claim. A feeling of this kind has induced me to examine such strictures of M. Clavigero on my history of America as merited any attention, especially as these are made by one who seemed to possess the means of obtaining accurate information; and to show that the greater part of them is destitute of any just foundation. This I have done in notes upon the passages in my History which gave rise to his criticisms.

College of Edinburgh, March 1, 1788

• My Gibbon

CONTENTS.

42

-New war with the Indians

Cruelty of the Spaniards—Fatal

regulations concerning the con-

dition of tho Indians-Diminu.

tion of that people-Discoveries

and settlements—First colony

planted on the Continent-Con-

quest of Cuba-Discovery of

Florida-of the South Sea

Great expectations raised by

this-Causes of disappointment

with respect to these for some

time-Controversy concerning

the treatment of the Indians-

Contrary decisions—Zeal of the

ecclesiastics, particularly of Las

Casas-Singular proceedings of

Ximenes-Negroes imported in-

to America—Las Casas' idea of

a new colony-permitted to at-

tempt it—unsuccessful-Disco-

veries towards the West-Yu-

catan-Campeachy-New Spain

-preparations for invading it . 02

BOOK IV.

View of America wher first dis.

covered, and of the 'manners
and policy of its most unciril-
ized inhabitants-Vast extent
of America-grandeur of the
objects it presents to view-its
mountains-rivers-- lakes its
form favourable to commerce-
temperature-predominance of
cold causes of this-unculti-

.

Page

Page

vated-unwholesome-its ani- warlike spirit-View of other

mals—soil--Inquiry how Ameri- dominions of Spain in America

ca was peopled-various theo-

-Cinaloa and Sonora-Califor.

ries—what appears most proba- nia-Yucatan and Honduras-

ble-Condition and character of Chili–Tucuman-Kingdom of

the Americans-All, the Mexi- Tierra Firmé-New Kingdom of

cans and Peruvians excepted, in Granada

313

the state of savages-Inquiry

BOOK VIII.

confined to the uncivilized tribes

-Difficulty of obtaining infor- View of the interior government,

mation—various causes of this commerce, &c. of the Spanish

-Method observed in the in-

colonies--Depopulation of Ame-

quiry-I. The bodily constitu. rica-first effects of their settle-

tion of the Americans considered ments-not the consequence of

-II. The qualities of their ininds any system of policy--nor to be

- III. Their domestic state—IV. imputed to religion-Number of

Their political state and institu- Indians still remaining-Funda-
tions-V. Their system of war

mental maxims on which the
and public security-VI. The Spanish system of colonization
arts with which they were ac-

is founded-Condition of differ-
quainted—VII. Their religious ent orders of men in their colo-
ideas and institutions - VII. nies--Chapetones--Creoles--Ne.
Such singular and detached cus- groes - Indians— Ecclesiastical
toms as are not reducible to any state and policy-Character of
of the former heads-IX. Gene. secular and regular clergy-Small
ral revicw and estimate of their progress of Christianity among
virtues and defects

122 ihe natives-Mines, chicf object

of their attention-Mode of
BOOK V.

working these--their produce-
History of the conquest of New Effects of encouraging this spe-
Spain by Cortes

197 cies of industry-Other com-

modities of Spanish America,
BOOK VI.

First effects of this new com-
History of the conquest of Peru merce with America on Spain-

by Pizarro—and of the dissen- Why the Spanish colonies have
sions and civil wars of the Spa-

not been as beneficial to the pa-
niards in that country-Origin,

rent state as those of other na-
progress, and effects of these 261 tions— Errors in the Spanish
BOOK VII.

system of regulating this com-

merce-confined to one port-

View of the institutions and man. carried on by annual fleets-

ners of the Mexicans and Pe-

Contraband trade-Decline of

ruvians-Civilized states in com-

Spain both in population and

parison of other Americans-

wealth-Remedies proposed

Recent origin of the Mexicans View of the wise regulations of

-Facts which prove their pro- the Bourbon princes-A new and

gress in civilization-Vice of their more liberal system introduced

policy in its various branches- -beneficial effects of this-pro-

of their arts-Facts which indi- bable consequences—Trade be-

cate a small progress in civiliza. tween New Spain and the Phi-

tion-What opinion should be lippines--Revenue of Spain from

formed on comparing those con-

America-whence it arises-to

tradictory facts-Genius of their what it amounts

34"

religion-Peruvian monarchy

BOOK IX.

more ancient-its policy founded

on religion-Singular effects of History of Virginia to the year 1688, 389

this-Peculiar state of property

BOOK X.

among the Peruvians-Their

public works and arts-roads- History of New England to the

bridges—buildings-- Their un-

year 1652.

426

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А

CATALOGUE

OF

SPANISH BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTS.

A CARETTE de Biscay, Relation des Aldama y Guevara (D. Jos. Aug118Voyages dans la Rivière de la Plata, et tin de) Arde de la Lengua Mexicana. de là par Terre au Perou. Exst. Recueil | 12mo. Mexico, 1754. de Thevenot. Part IV.

Alvarado (Pedro de) Dos Relaciones A Voyage up the River de a Hern. Cortes referiendole sus Expcla Plata, and thence by Land to Peru. diciones y Conquistas en varias Pro8vo. London, 1698.

vincias de N. Espagna. Exst. Barcia Acosta (P. Jos. de) Historia Natu- Historiad. Primit. tom. i. ral y Moral de las Indias. 4to. Ma

Lettere due, &c. Exst. Ram drid, 1590.

mus. ill. 296. (Joseph de) Histoire Natu

Aparicio y Leon (D. Lorenzo de) relle et Morale des Indes tant Orien- Discurso Historico-Politico del Hospital tales qu’Occidentales. 8vo. Paris, San Lazaro de Lima. 8vo. Lim. 1761. 1600.

Aranzeles Reales de los Ministros de Novi Orbis Historia Naturalis la Real Audiencia de N. Espagna. et Moralis. Exst. in Collect. Theod. fol. Mex. 1727. de Bry. Pars IX.

Argensola (Bartolome Leonardo de) De Natura Novi Orbis, Libri | Conquista de las Islas Malucas. fol. duo, et de procuranda Indorum Salute, Mad. 1609. Libri sex. Salmant. 8vo. 1589.

Anales de Aragon. fol. Sara(Christ.) Tratado de las Dro-goça, 1630. gas y Medecinas, de las Indias Occiden

Arguello (Eman.) Sentum Confes tales, con sus Plantas Dibuxadas al sionis. 12mo. Mex. 1703. vivo. 4to. Burgos, 1578.

Arriago (P. Pablo Jos. de) ExtirpaAcugna (P. Christoph.) Relation de cian de la Idolatria de Peru. 4to. Lima, la Revière des Amazones. 12mo. Tom. 1621. ü. Paris, 1682.

Avendagno (Didac.) Thesaurus InAcugna's Relation of the great River dicus, ceu Generalis Instructor pro Reof the Amazons in South America. gimino Conscientiæ, in ijs quæ ad In8vo. London, 1698.

dias spectant. fol. 2 vols. Antwerp, 1660. Alarchon (Fern.) Navigatione a Aznar (D Bern. Fran.) Discurso Scoprere il Regno di sette Città. Ra- tocante a la real hazienda y adminismusio mi, 363.

tracion de ella. 4to. Albuquerque Coello (Duarté de) Memorial de Artes de la Guerra del Bandini (Angelo Maria) Vita é LetBrasil. 410. Mad. 1634.

tere di Armerigo Vespucci. 4to. Firenze. Alcafarado (Franc.) An Historical - 1745. Relation of the Discovery of the Isle of Barcia (D. And. Gonzal.) HistoriaMadeira. 4to. Lond. 1675.

dores Primitivos de las Indias OccidonAlçedo y Herrera (D. Dionysio de) Itales, fol. 3 vols. Mad. 1749. Aviso Historico-Politico-Geografico, . Barco-Centinora (D. Martin de) Arcon las Noticias mas particulares, del gentina y Conquista del Rio de la Peru, Tierra Firmé, Chili, y Nuevo Plata : Poema. "Exst. Barcia HistoReyno de Granada. 4to. Mad. 1740. riad. Primit. iii.

Alredo Compendi Historico de la Barros (Joao de) Decadas de Asia. Provincia y Puerto de Guayaquil. 4to. fol. 4 vols. Lisboa, 1682. Mad. 1741.

Beliesteros (D. Thomas de) OrdeMemorial sobre diferentes nanzas del Peru.fol. 2 vols. Lima, 1685. Puntos tocantcs al estado de la real

Beltran (P. F. Pedro) Arte de el Idihazienda

y del commercio, &c. en las oma Maya reducido a sucintas reglas, Indias. fol.

y Semilexicon. 4to. Mex. 1746. VOL. 1.--2

Benzo (Hieron.) Novi Orbis Histo- Caracas-Real Cedula de Fundacion riæ-De Bry America, Part IV, V, VI. de la Real Compagnia Guipuscoana

Betancurt y Figueroa (Don Luis) de Caracas. 12mo. Mad. 1765. Derecho de las Inglesias Metropolita- Caravantes (Fr. Lopez de) Relacion nas de las Indias. 4to. Mad. 1637. de las Provincias que tiene el Govier

Blanco (F. Matias Ruiz) Conversion no del Peru, los Officios que en el se de Piritu de Indios Cumanagotos y Provien, y la Hacienda que alli tiene otros. 12mo. Mad. 1690.

su Magestad, lo que se Gasta do clla Boturini Bonaduci (Lorenzo) Idea de y le queda Libre, &c. &c. Dedicado al una nueva Historia general de la Ame- Marques de Santos Claros, Agno de rica Septentrional, fundada sobre ma- 1611. MS. terial copiosa de Figuras, Symbolas, Cardenas y Cano (Gabr.) Ensayo Caracteres, Cantares, y Manuscritos de Chronologico para la Historia general Autores Indios. 4to. Mad. 1746.

de la Florida, fol. Mad. 1733. Botello de Moraes y Vasconcellos Carranzana (D. Gonçales) A Geo(D. Francisco de) El Nuovo Mundo : graphical Description of the Coasts, Poema Heroyco. 4to. Barcelona, 1701. &c. of the Spanish West Indies. 8vo.

Botero Benes (Juan) Description de Lond. 1740. Todas las Provincias, Reynos, y Ciu- Casas (Bart. de las) Brevissima Redades del Mundo. 4to. Girona, 1748. lacion de la Destruycion do las Indias.

Brietius (Phil.) Paralela Geographiæ 4to. 1552. Veteris et Novæ. 4to. Paris, 1648.

(Bart. de las) Narratio Icon

ibus illustrata per Theod. de Bry. 4to. Cabeza de Baca (Alvar. Nugnez) Oppent. 1614. Relacion de los Naufragios. Exst. Bar

(Bart. de las) An Account of cia Hist. Prim. tom. i.

the first loyages and Discoveries of the Examen Apologetico Spaniarny in America. 8vo. Lond. 1693. de la Historica Narration de los Nau- Cassani (P. Joseph) Historia de la fragios. Exst. Barcia Hist. Prim. tom. i. | Provincia de Compagnia de Jesus del

Commentarios de lo Nuevo Reyno de Granada. fol. Mad. succedido duarante su gubierno del Rio 1741. de la Plata. Exst. ibid.

Castanheda (Fern. Lop. de) Historia Cabo de Vacca, Relatione de. Exst. do Descobrimento e Conquista do India Ramus. iii. 310.

pelos Portugueses. fol. 2 vol. Lisb. 1552. Cabota (Sebast.) Navigazione do. Castellanos (Juan de) Primera y Se. Exst. Ramus. ii. 211.

cunda de las Elegias de Varones IllusCadamustus (Aloysius) Navigatio tres de Indias. 4to. 2 vol. Mad. 1583. ad Terras incognitas. Exst. Nov. Orb. Castillo (Bernal Dias del) Historia Grynæi, p. 1.

Verdadera de la Conquista de Nueva Calancha (F. Anton. de la) Cronica Espagna. fol. Mad. 1632. moralizada del Orden de San Augustin Castro, Figueroa y Salazar (D. Peon el Peru. fol. Barcelona, 1638. dro de) Relacion di su ancimiento y

California-Diario Historico de los servicios. 12mo. Viages do Mar y Tierra hechos en 1768, Cavallero (D. Jos. Garcia) Brieve al Norte de California di orden del Cotejo y Valance de las Pesas y MediMarques de Croix Vi-rey de Nueva Es- das di varias Naciones, reducidas a las pagna, &c. MS.

que Corren en Castilla. 4to. Mad. 1731. Callo (Juan Diaz de la) Memorial Cepeda (D. Fern.) Relacion Universal Informatorio de lo que a su Magestad del Sitio en que esta fundada la CiuProvien de la Nueva Espagna y Peru. dad de Mexico. fol. 1637. 4to. 1645,

Cieça de Leon (Pedro de) Chronica Campomanes (D. Pedro Rodrig.) del Peru. fol. Seville. 1533. Antiguedad Maritima de la Republica Cisneros (Diego) Sitio, Naturaleza, de Cartago, con en Periplo de su Gene- y Propriedades de la Ciudad de Mexico. ral Hannon traducido e illustrado. 4to. 4to. Mexico. 1618. Mad. 1756.

Clemente (P. Claudio) Tablas Chro Discurso sobre el fonologicas, en que contienen los Sucemento de la Industria popular. 8vo. sos Ecclesiasticos y Seculares de Indias. Mad. 1774.

4to, Val. 1689. Discurso sobre la Cogullado (P. Fr. Diego Lopez) Educacion popular de los Artesanos. Historia de Yucatan. fol. Mad. 1688. 8vo. 5 vol. Mad. 1775, &c.

Collecao dos Brives Pontificos e

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