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he hear the Lord, nor did he follow Him; but afterwards, as I said, [attended] Peter, who adapted his instructions L to the needs [of his hearers] but had no design of giving a connected account of the Lord's oracles. So then Mark made no mistake, while he thus wrote down some things 5 as he remembered them; for he made it his one care not to omit anything that he heard, or to set down any false statement therein.
Such then is the account given by Papias concerning Mark. But concerning Matthew, the following statement 10 is made [by him]:
So then Matthew composed the oracles in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them as he could.
The same writer employed testimonies from the First Epistle of John, and likewise from that of Peter. And he 15 has related another story about a woman accused of many sins before the Lord, which the Gospel according to the Hebrews contains.
Quadratus on our Lord's Miracles.
BUT our Saviour's works were always present, for they were true, even the men who were healed, who rose 20 from the dead,-who were seen not only while healed or rising, but always present, and that not only during the Saviour's stay on earth, but also after His departure they remained for a long time, so that some of them came down even to our own times.
The Apology of Aristides.
Caesar Titus Hadrianus Antoninus, Worshipful and Clement, from Marcianus Aristides, philosopher of Athens 1.
And these are they who more than all the nations of the
1 This mutilated inscription is given from the Syriac: the Latin opposite is translated from the Armenian.
καὶ δημιουργὸν τῶν ἁπάντων ἐν Υἱῷ μονογενεῖ καὶ Πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, καὶ ἄλλον θεὸν πλὴν τούτου οὐ σέβονται. ̓́Εχουσι τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις κεχαραγμένας, καὶ ταύτας φυλάττουσι, 5 προσδοκῶντες ἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν καὶ ζωὴν τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος. Οὐ μοιχεύουσιν, οὐ πορνεύουσιν, οὐ ψευδομαρτυροῦσιν, οὐκ ἐπιθυμοῦσι τὰ ἀλλότρια, τιμῶσι πατέρα καὶ μητέρα, καὶ τοὺς πλησίον φιλοῦσι, δίκαια κρίνουσιν, ὅσα οὐ θέλουσιν αὑτοῖς γίνεσθαι ἑτέρῳ οὐ ποιοῦσι, τοὺς το ἀδικοῦντας αὐτοὺς παρακαλοῦσι καὶ προσφιλεῖς αὐτοὺς ἑαυτοῖς ποιοῦσι, τοὺς ἐχθροὺς εὐεργετεῖν σπουδάζουσι, πραεῖς εἰσι καὶ ἐπιεικεῖς, ἀπὸ πάσης συνουσίας ἀνόμου καὶ ἀπὸ πάσης ἀκαθαρσίας ἐγκρατεύονται, χήραν οὐχ ὑπερορῶσιν, ὀρφανὸν οὐ λυποῦσιν· ὁ ἔχων τῷ μὴ 15 ἔχοντι ἀφθόνως ἐπιχορηγεῖ· ξένον ἐὰν ἴδωσιν, ὑπὸ στέγην εἰσάγουσι, καὶ χαίρουσιν ἐπ ̓ αὐτῷ ὡς ἐπὶ ἀδελφῷ ἀληθινῷ· οὐ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ἀδελφοὺς ἑαυτοὺς καλοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα. ̔́Ετοιμοί εἰσιν ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ τὰς ψυχὰς αὑτῶν προέσθαι· τὰ γὰρ προστάγματα αὐτοῦ ἀσ20 φαλῶς φυλάττουσιν, ὁσίως καὶ δικαίως ζῶντες, καθὼς Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς αὐτοῖς προέσταξεν, εὐχαριστοῦντες αὐτῷ κατὰ πᾶσαν ὥραν ἐν παντὶ βρώματι καὶ ποτῷ καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς ἀγαθοῖς. Οντως οὖν αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ ὁδὸς τῆς ἀληθείας ἥτις τοὺς ὁδεύοντας αὐτὴν εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον χειραγωγεῖ 25 βασιλείαν, τὴν ἐπηγγελμένην παρὰ Χριστοῦ ἐν τῇ μελλούσῃ ζωῇ.
Vita Barlaam et Joasaph, p. 252.
Τί δὴ οὖν τοῦτ ̓ ἂν εἴη; ̓Εφ ̓ ἡμῶν ὑπισχνουμένων μηδὲν ἀδικεῖν μηδὲ τὰ ἄθεα ταῦτα δοξάζειν, οὐ κρίσεις ἐξετάζετε, ἀλλ ̓ ἀλόγῳ πάθει καὶ μάστιγι δαιμόνων φαύ30 λων ἐξελαυνόμενοι ἀκρίτως κολάζετε μὴ φροντίζοντες.
earth have found the truth, for they know God the maker and creator in His only Son and Holy Spirit, and other god than Him they worship not. For they have the commands of the Lord Himself, even Jesus Christ, written in their hearts, and these they keep, looking for the resur- 5 rection of the dead and life of the age to come. They commit no adultery or fornication, they bear no false witness, they covet not other men's goods, they honour father and mother and love their neighbours, they judge righteously, and whatsoever things they would not have 10 done to themselves they do not to another. They exhort them that do them wrong, and make them friendly to them. selves, they strive to do good to their enemies, are meek and moderate, restrain themselves from all unlawful intercourse and from all uncleanness, they despise not a widow, 15 and an orphan they grieve not. He that hath giveth help ungrudgingly to him that hath not. If they see a stranger, they bring him under their roof, and rejoice over him as over a brother of their own, for they call not themselves brethren after the flesh, but after the spirit. They are 20 ready to give up their lives for Christ, for they keep His commands firmly, living holily and righteously as the Lord God commanded them, giving thanks to Him every hour at all meat and drink and all other good things.
Heathenism the work of demons.
WHAT does this mean? In our case, though we profess 25 to do no man wrong and to reject these godless opinions, you do not examine charges, but are driven by unreason. ing passion and the scourge of evil demons to punish us without investigation or consideration. For the truth
εἰρήσεται γὰρ τἀληθές· ἐπεὶ τὸ παλαιὸν δαίμονες φαῦλοι, ἐπιφανείας ποιησάμενοι, καὶ γυναῖκας ἐμοίχευσαν καὶ παῖδας διέφθειραν καὶ φόβητρα ἀνθρώποις ἔδειξαν, ὡς καταπλαγῆναι τοὺς οἳ λόγῳ τὰς γινομένας πράξεις 5 οὐκ ἔκρινον, ἀλλὰ δέει συνηρπασμένοι καὶ μὴ ἐπιστάμενοι, δαίμονας εἶναι φαύλους, θεοὺς προσωνόμαζον καὶ ὀνόματι ἕκαστον προσηγόρευον, ὅπερ ἕκαστος αὐτῷ τῶν δαιμόνων ἐτίθετο. ὅτε δὲ Σωκράτης λόγῳ ἀληθεῖ καὶ ἐξεταστικῶς ταῦτα εἰς φανερὸν ἐπειρᾶτο φέρειν καὶ ἀπιο άγειν τῶν δαιμόνων τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, καὶ αὐτοὶ οἱ δαίμονες διὰ τῶν χαιρόντων τῇ κακίᾳ ἀνθρώπων ἐνήργησαν ὡς ἄθεον καὶ ἀσεβῆ ἀποκτεῖναι, λέγοντες καινὰ εἰσφέρειν αὐτὸν δαιμόνια. καὶ ὁμοίως ἐφ ̓ ἡμῶν τὸ αὐτὸ ἐνεργοῦσιν· οὐ γὰρ μόνον ἐν ̔́Ελλησι διὰ Σωκράτους ὑπὸ 15 λόγου ἠλέγχθη ταῦτα, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν βαρβάροις ὑπ ̓ αὐτοῦ
τοῦ λόγου μορφωθέντος καὶ ἀνθρώπου γενομένου καὶ ̓Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ κληθέντος, ᾧ πεισθέντες ἡμεῖς τοὺς ταῦτα πράξαντας δαίμονας οὐ μόνον μὴ ὀρθοὺς εἶναί φαμεν, ἀλλὰ κακοὺς καὶ ἀνοσίους δαίμονας, οἳ οὐδὲ τοῖς 2ο ἀρετὴν ποθοῦσιν ἀνθρώποις τὰς πράξεις ὁμοίας ἔχουσι. JUSTIN, Apol. i. 5.
Ινα δὲ μή τινες ἀλογισταίνοντες εἰς ἀποτροπὴν τῶν δεδιδαγμένων ὑφ ̓ ἡμῶν εἴπωσι, πρὸ ἐτῶν ἑκατὸν πεντήκοντα γεγεννῆσθαι τὸν Χριστὸν λέγειν ἡμᾶς ἐπὶ Κυρηνίου, δεδιδαχέναι δὲ ἅ φαμεν διδάξαι αὐτὸν ὕστερον 25 χρόνοις ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου, καὶ ἐπικαλῶσιν, ὡς ἀνευθύνων ὄντων τῶν προγεγενημένων πάντων ἀνθρώπων, φθάσαντες τὴν ἀπορίαν λυσώμεθα. τὸν Χριστὸν πρωτότοκον τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶναι ἐδιδάχθημεν καὶ προεμηνύσαμεν λόγον ὄντα, οὗ πᾶν γένος ἀνθρώπων μετέσχε. καὶ οἱ μετὰ go λόγου βιώσαντες Χριστιανοί εἰσι, κἂν ἄθεοι ἐκομίσθησαν;
shall be told. It is because evil demons of old made apparitions, and defiled women and corrupted boys, and showed to men such horrors that those were struck with terror who did not judge by reason the acts performed, but were carried away by fear, and in their ignorance 5 that these were evil demons called them gods, and addressed each of them by name according as each demon styled himself. But when Socrates essayed by true reason and examination to bring these things to the light and lead men away from the demons, then these same demons i by means of men who rejoiced in iniquity caused them to slay him as a godless and impious man, saying that he was introducing new divinities-and the same likewise they cause to be done in our case. For not among the Greeks alone were these things through Socrates con- 15 demned by reason, but among the barbarians also by the Reason himself taking shape and made man and called Jesus Christ; and at His persuasion we hold that the demons who did these things are not only not good, but wicked and unholy demons, whose acts are not like even 20 those of men who long for virtue.
Christianity before Christ.
BUT that some may not in reply to our teachings unreasonably say that according to us Christ was born 150 years ago in the time of Cyrenius, and taught what we assert Him to have taught at a later time under Pontius 25 Pilate, and so object that all men who lived before Him were irresponsible, let us solve the difficulty in advance. We were taught that Christ is the firstborn of God, and we have already signified that He is the reason, in which every race of men did share. Thus those who lived with 30 reason are Christians even if they were counted godless,