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unknown to the Romans, since there were Suevic bands, as Tacitus informs us, in the army which fought under Agricola against Galgacus. Yet Tacitus had certainly not the slightest suspicion, at least he has suffered no hint to escape him, that the Caledonians had really any affinity in speech with the Germans; and in the passage in which he compares the physical constitution of these two races, there was an opportunity which could not fail to draw out the remark had he known the fact to have been such.
Paragraph 2.-Of the Tribes of North Britons between the two Roman walls, or in the province of Valentia.
We find in the table of provinces belonging to the Roman empire which is appended to the Itinerary of Antoninus a fifth province added to the four into which the Romanised parts of Britain are usually divided. Besides the provinces termed Britannia Prima and Secunda, and those of Flavia and Maxima Cæsariensis, there is one termed Valentia or Valentiana. It was constituted a province at a very late period of the Roman domination in Britain, viz. during the reign of Valentinian, in whose honour it was named. After the Britons had revolted and were reconquered by Theodosius, the country between the two Roman walls, that of Antoninus and Severus, was only kept in control by means of fortifications and a regular government. In this province of Valentia, which reached northward to the line connecting the Gulf of Bodotria, or the Frith of Forth, with the Clotara Sinus, or the Frith of Clyde, were included several tribes of Britons who in former wars had probably been connected with the Caledonians.*
After the formation of this province, the Valentian tribes are still reckoned among Britons, while the new and foreign names of Picts and Scots appear to the northward in the place of the old one of Caledonians.+
Viz. the Novantes, Selgovæ, Damnii, Gadeni, and Ottadini.
+ Provinciarum Romanorum Libellus, ad calc. Itinerar. Antonin. Ammianus Marcellinus gives an account of the war of Theodosius, and the establishment of this province. See Ammian. Marcell. cap. 20, 26, 27, 28. The account usually given of this province and its inhabitants is taken in great part from the work ascribed to Richard of Cirencester, now generally considered as a forgery. It is, however,
Whatever opinion may be formed as to the fate of the northern tribes, whether they were exterminated in the wars against the Romans, and utterly vanished, as some think, to make place for entirely new races, or only appear again under new names, viz. those of Picts and Scots, it is certain that the tribes within the wall of Antoninus remained after the departure of the Romans. We know that these tribes were Britons, and that their language was the Welsh. At least this was the fact in regard to a considerable part of the population of Valentia. The Ottadini and the Gadeni in the eastern part were soon conquered or expelled by the Saxons, who founded the kingdom of Bernicia ; but the Novantes, the Selgovæ, and the Damnii appear to have become the subjects of the kingdom of Strathclyde Britons or Cumbrians, the capital of which is well known to have been Alcluyth or Dumbarton. This town, called by Bede Alcluith (ad Cludam), is described by him as "civitas Brittonum munitissima." Bede says that the frith of Forth formerly separated the Britons from the Picts, and that the Britons have still that strong fortress called Alcluyth. It is called by Adamnan Petra-Cloithe, and by other old writers Arecluta, Alcwith, meaning Ar-Clwyd, a rock or elevation on the Clyde, now Dun-barton, or Dun-Britton. According to the author of St. Ninian's life* this kingdom existed as early as the fourth century, and it can be traced with certainty down to the close of the tenth. Several famous ecclesiastics of the British church were natives of this kingdom, among whom were St. Gildas and St. Kentigern, whose name is written in Welsh Cyndeyrn, and St. Asaph. The princes of Strathclyde, as Morcant Mawr and Aeddon Uragdog, Rederec or Rhydderch, have Welsh names, and many of them are intimately connected with Welsh history. To the southward of Hadrian's wall was the kingdom of the Cumbrians, another Welsh or British state connected more or less with that of Strathclyde, and often reckoned a part
mentioned in the authorities above cited. Ammianus says: "Valentia deinde vocabatur arbitrio principis." Valesius says that this comprehended the country whence the Count or Comes Theodosius had expelled the Barbarians: "Relatione ad principem missa petiit ut pars provinciæ Valentia diceretur, et in eam rector consularis mitteretur." (Lib. xxviii.)
• Vita Nennii, auctore Aethelredo Rievalense, Vitæ Antiq. 88. Scotia. Ritson,
of it. The name of Cumbri or Cambri, as Camden observes, recalls that of Wales; and numerous topographical terms betray a Welsh affinity, as Caerluel or Carlisle, Caerdonoc, Penrith, Penrodoc. According to Caradoc of Llancarvan, the well-known Welsh historian, it is certain that Cumberland, as well as Galloway as far as the Clyde, remained in the possession of Britons till the year 870, when, oppressed by the Scots, Danes, and Angles, and having lost their king Constantinus at the battle of Lochmabar, they were obliged to migrate into Wales and join their kindred the Welsh.*
Even the Ottadini in the eastern parts of Northumbria appear certainly to have been Welsh. Llywarch Hên is supposed to have been a prince of the Ottadini and Aneurin to have been of the royal family of that tribe. The famous Welsh poem, entitled the Gododin, celebrating the battle of Cattraeth fought between the chiefs and people of the Ottadini and the Saxons, is one of the oldest, if not singly the oldest, composition of authentic fame known in the compass of Welsh literature.
Paragraph 3.-Of the Picts and Scots.
After the greater part of this island had been subject nearly three centuries to the Roman power, we find the name of Britanni no longer ascribed to the independent barbarians who inhabited the remote parts in the north. The Britons now formed a civilized and powerful community governed by imperial prefects, who on several occasions assumed the purple, and maintained for years possession of the whole province against the arms of Rome. The barbarians of the north were thenceforward designated by names previously unheard; and it is difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain whether under some of these names the old British tribes are designated, or new piratical bands who had come into the conquered part of the island from beyond seas. The only possible way of coming to any conclusion on this subject is by taking fully into consideration the passages of ancient authors in which the
Caradoc's Hist. of Wales by Wynne, 1697, p. 37. Ritson, Annals of the Caledonians, &c., vol. ii. p. 199.
northern assailants are occasionally mentioned by Roman historians.
In the year 296, as M. Ritson and many other writers have observed, we find the first mention of a nation or people in Caledonia, or the north of Britain, called the Picti or Picts. This occurs in a panegyrical oration delivered in the presence of the emperor Constantius Chlorus, on occasion of his victory over Alectus, a usurper in Britain, at Treves, in Belgica, by Eumenius, a professor of rhetoric at Augustodunum, now Autun, in Gaul. Speaking of the island of Britain as having been first entered by Cæsar, who wrote that he had found a new world, he affects to diminish the value of his conquest, by adding that, in Cæsar's age, Britain was provided with no ships for naval war, while Rome flourished not more by land than by sea. Moreover, he says, the nation he attacked was rude, and the Britons, used only to the Picts and Irish, enemies then half naked, easily yielded to the Roman arms and ensigns. They are mentioned a second time by the same orator in a panegyric pronounced at the same place before Constantine, the son of Constantius, in 309 or 310. "The day would fail," he says, sooner than my oration, were I to run over all the actions of thy father, even with this brevity. His last expedition did not seek for British trophies, as is vulgarly believed, but the gods now calling him, he came to the secret bounds of the earth. For neither did he, by so many and great actions, I do not say the woods and marshes of the Caledonians and other Picts, but not even Ireland, near at hand, nor the farthest Thule, nor the Isles of the Fortunate, if such there be, deign to acquire." It appears, likewise, from the fragment of an ancient Roman historian, that in the year 306, in which Constantius died, he had defeated the Picts, who are afterwards repeatedly noticed by Ammianus Marcellinus and by Claudian the poet. What these new people were, whence they came, or why they were so called, are questions which, though frequently discussed, have never yet been satisfactorily decided.†
"Pictis modo et Hibernis assueta." By Hiberni he perhaps meant the Scots. Ritson, vol. i. p. 71.
There is a passage apparently genuine, but of an unnamed Roman author, in which Constantius, the father of Constantine, is said to have conquered the Picts. "Post victoriam Pictorum, Constantius pater Eboraci mortuus est, et Constantinus, omnium militum consensu Cæsar creatus."*
In the reign of the second Constantius we find the Picts mentioned, together with the Scots, as assailants of Romanized Britain. Ammianus Marcellinus thus expresses himself: "Consulatu Constantii decies, terque Juliani, in Britanniis cum Scotorum Pictorumque gentium ferarum excursus, ruptâ quiete condicta, loca limitibus vicina vastarent,"—" Cæsar verebatur ire subsidio transmarinis, ne rectore vacuas relinquent Gallias." In another passage we find besides the Scots and Picts two other names, viz. Saxones and Attacotti: "Picti, Saxonesque, et Scotti et Attacotti Britannos ærumnis vexavere continuis." All these nations are distinguished from the Britons. The Attacotti appear to have been a tribe of the Scoti, and to have come from Ireland.
Ammianus again mentions the Picts, in the reign of Valentinian, as divided into two nations: "Eo tempore Picti in duas gentes divisi, Dicaledonas et Vecturiones, itidemque Attacotti, bellicosa hominum natio, et Scotti per diversa vagantes multa populabantur." In the following book he says that Theodosius repaired the cities and presidiary camps, and defended the boundaries with watches and out-guards; and that having recovered the province which had been in the power of the enemy, he so restored it to its pristine state that it was thenceforward called Valentia, by the will of the prince, as it were by way of triumph. This was in 369, when he left the island. Claudian alludes to these victories in several passages, which are important notices. He says:
"Ille leves Mauros, nec falso nomine Pictos,
"....maduerunt Saxone fuso
Orcades, incaluit Pictorum sanguine Thule;
Excerpt. ad calc. Ammian. Marcell. Ed. Paris. 1681, p. 657. † Ammian. Marcellinus, lib. xx. c. 1.
Lib. xxvii. c. 9.