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their wagons, but the men are accustomed to ride on horseback, followed by their flocks of sheep and oxen and horses: they live upon boiled flesh and drink the milk of mares."

Herodotus mentions several nations bordering on the Scythians. Some of them were of the same race, since they spoke the Scythian language: others were of different races. It is important to observe what he says respecting them.

1. To the eastward of the Tanais the country was no longer Scythia, but the first tract belonged to the Sauromatæ.† Most of the modern writers who have touched on the history of these nations overlook a very positive declaration of Herodotus, which lays the foundation for conclusions of great ethnological interest. He says: Φωνῇ οἱ Σαυρομάται νομίζουσι Σκυθικῇ, σολοικίζοντες ἐν αὐτῇ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀρχαίου· “the Sauromatæ speak the Scythian language with an incorrect expression, which they always had from the beginning." Although this remark is connected with a reference to the partly fabulous story of the Amazons, yet the assertion is directly to the fact that the languages of the two nations were not diverse, but that one was a dialect of the other. The story of the Amazons, from whom the Sauromatæ are said to have been partly descended, is satisfactorily explained by a passage of Hippocrates. "There is in Europe," says that venerable writer, "a Scythian nation, dwelling near the Mæotic lake, different from other nations: they are called Sauromata; their women are accustomed to ride on horseback, and to use the bow and throw javelins while riding, and to fight against the enemies of their country as long as they remain virgins, and they do not cease to be such till they have killed each of them three enemies in battle."

2. A comparison of passages indicates plainly that the Budini were another nation who spoke a Scythian dialect. The Budini were a great and numerous people who lived to the eastward of the Tanais and above the Sauromatæ ; they were feeders of cattle: their country abounded in thick, marshy forests; their complexion was peculiar: they were blue-eyed

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Hippocr. de Aere locis et aquis. Fœs. p. 297.

+ Hippocr. Opera, ed. Fœsii, p. 291.

Adelung, Mithridat. Th. i. Mannert, Geographie der Griech. und Römer. Th. iv. Kap. 8. Niebuhr, ubi supra.

and red-haired. Among the Budini lived the Geloni, who were originally Greeks, but having been expelled from the seaports had established themselves in the country of the Budini; "their language was partly Scythian," which they had acquired from the Budini, " and partly Greek."*

3. The tribes of people who bordered on the country of the Scoloti, towards the north and west, are thus specified: “On the side of the Danube and the region above it, towards the interior, the Scythian territory is bounded, first by the Agathyrsi, next by the Neuri, then by the Androphagi, lastly by the Melanchlæni." The Androphagi are expressly said to have had a distinct language: the Melanchlani resembled in manners the Scythians, but were a different race. The Neuri were a people of Scythian manners; nothing is said expressly respecting the origin and language, either of the Neuri or Agathyrsi. But M. Zeuss has observed that the name of Agathyrsi compared with the proper name of the Scythian Idanthyrsus,‡ and that of the Agathyrsian king Spargapithes,§ which is also the name of a Scythian, and moreover contains the same elements as other Scythian names, Ariapithes, Aripithes,|| and Spargapises,¶ a name occurring among the Massagetæ, whom writers before Herodotus represent as a Scythian people, though he himself distinguishes them**-are striking analogies in words, and afford strong reason for believing the Agathyrsi to have been a tribe of the Scythian race. To the same race he refers, with great probability, the Sigynnæ, a nomadic tribe to the northward of the Danube, who reached westward almost to the country of the Heneti or Veneti.++ Niebuhr supposed the Agathyrsi to have been of the Thracian race, which was distinct from the Scythian. It seems that his only ground for this opinion was their local position.

It results from this examination that the Scoloti, though they considered themselves as a particular nation, were surrounded by tribes connected with them in origin and language: the most remarkable of these were the Sauromatæ.

*Herod. iv. c. 108. Ibid. c. 78.

Ibid. iv. 76. § Ibid. c. 78. ** Ibid. i. 216.

Ibid. iv. c. 100.
Ibid. i. c. 211.
++ Zeuss, ubi supra, p. 278.

We know little of the history of the Scythians during the four centuries after Herodotus. In the time of Strabo we find the Pontic countries inhabited either by new tribes, or by the old ones under different names. The Basilii, or the Royal Tribe, still occur, but they are termed Sarmatians and not Scythians: the Ourgi of Strabo are perhaps the Georgi of Herodotus. The Scythæ are mentioned in descriptions of these times as if they were now one particular tribe. As a general appellation the name of Sarmatæ prevailed, and took the place of Scythæ or Scoloti. Diodorus says that the Sarmatæ had conquered the Scoloti, and this seems not unlikely from the many changes of position which occur. Thracian tribes had now passed to the northward of the Danube: the Sigynni had vanished: the Agathyrsi are placed by Pliny far towards the North. The country between the Danube and the Borysthenes was occupied by Getæ and Tyrigetæ, and above them by the Jazyges Sarmatæ: the Roxolani were the most northerly: they fed their flocks on the plains between the Borysthenes and Tanais, for all these countries consist of plains as far as Germany. Beyond the Roxolani the country was unknown to Strabo. The Tyrigeta by Ptolemy are termed Sarmata Tyrangetæ: they appear to have had their name from the Tyras. This last writer describes the country along all the sides of the Mæotic gulf as inhabited by Jazyges, Roxolani, and further inland by the Amazobii and Alaunian Scythians. Ptolemy places the tribe of Bodeni further towards the north-west, near the Bastarnæ and the Carpathian mountains; and M. Zeuss conjectures that these were the Budini of Herodotus, and probably the ancestors of the Scythian or Sarmatian Alani, who, like the Budini, were famed for xanthous complexions.

The Scythæ or Scoloti were the predecessors and kinsmen of the Sauromatæ or Sarmatæ. The Sarmata were in later times called principally Roxolani and Jazyges. In order to finish the history of the Scythian race as far as we shall attempt to do so at present, and in the method of inquiry on which we have now commenced, it only remains to collect the latest notices of these nations.

The Roxolani are placed by Strabo, as we have seen, furthest


towards the North, in the countries lying between the Don and the Dnieper.* Ptolemy places them, together with the Jazyges, above the whole coast of the Mæotis.+ It appears that the principal body of the Roxolani remained on the eastern border of Europe. Roxolani Sarmatæ are placed in the Peutingerian tables on the rivers to the westward of the Tanais. is probable, as M. Zeuss observes, that on the departure of the Jazyges towards the west, the Roxolani spread themselves towards the Danube.§ They are mentioned as taking part in the wars of the Bastarna, who lived towards the Carpathian hills, and from whom, according to another passage of Ptolemy, they were separated by one small tribe called Chuni.|| Seventy years after Christ they invaded Moesia, when Adrian made peace with their kings.¶

The Jazyges advanced towards the west, passed the Carpathian hills, and settled on the Danube to the westward of the river Theiss or Tibiscus. They occupied the plains between that river and the borders of the German Quadi : here they are termed by Ptolemy Jazyges Metanastæ. Pliny says, "Superiora inter Danubium et Hercynium saltum usque ad Pannonia hiberna Carnunti, Germanorumque ibi confinium campos et plana Jazyges Sarmatæ, montes vero et saltus prope ab his Daci tenent."**

I shall conclude this inquiry with the observation, not unimportant in the ethnology of Europe, that the Scythians and Sauromatæ of Herodotus, who were by that writer himself identified in language, appear clearly to have been the ancestors of the Sarmatian tribes of the later Roman times, the eastern race being the Roxolani, and the western the Jazyges, Limigantes, and Metanasta. From these last, as we have already shown, were descended the Slavonic nations of modern times.

Ρωξολανοὶ δὲ ἀρκτικώτατα τὰ μεταξὺ τοῦ Τανάϊδος καὶ τοῦ Βορυσθένους νεμόμενοι πεδία. Str. vii. p. 306.

+ Cl. Ptol. lib. iii. cap. 5.

Tab. Peutinger. segment. v. à Sarmatis Hamaxobiis usque ad Roxulanos.

§ Zeuss, ubi supra, p. 283.

Spartian in Adrian. c. 6.

Ptol. iii. cap. 7.

** Plin. iv. 12.

SECTION IX. Of the Physical Characters of the Slavonian Nations.

The Slavonian race has the common type of the IndoAtlantic nations in general, and of the Indo-European family to which it belongs. No very accurate observations have been made by which it can be determined whether the Slavonians have any peculiar characters distinguishing them from the other European nations, but if such peculiarities exist, they are of a kind not striking or easily discernible. The various tribes of this race differ among themselves, the variety being apparently in relation to climate and local circumstances, and this variety is much greater than any that can be traced between the Slavic nations in general and other Europeans. In the south-eastern parts of their abode the Slavonians are of dark complexion, with black eyes and hair: this is the fact with respect to the Croats, Servians, and proper Slavonians. The Poles vary in complexion: many of them are of dark eyes and hair, of tall and well-made figures. The northern Russians are very fair. Mr. Tooke observes, that the Russian peasantry have often light brown or flaxen or red hair. Nor is this owing to intermixture with the Finnish race, as some have conjectured. It is too generally spread a character to be ascribed to any such partial and accidental cause. That the xanthous complexion of the northern Russians is not the result of intermixture with foreigners, or particularly with Finns, may be inferred from the fact that other Slavonian nations who have never lived in the neighbourhood of any Finnish tribe have, perhaps in a still more marked degree, the same peculiarity. This may be exemplified in the Slovaks.

The Slovaks are, as we have seen, the old Slavonian inhabitants of Pannonia or Hungary. They held that country at an early period, and are probably the descendants of the Sarmatæ Jazyges, to whom it belonged in the time of Ammianus. However this may be, they had possession of Pannonia at the period of its invasion by the Magyars or Ungrian or Hungarian people, who gave it its modern appellation, and who expelled the Slovaks from the central and more fertile

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