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ants of Sicily is so important a feature in the history of that people, that I shall adduce at some length the authorities by which it is supported.

Thucydides commences his narrative of the war of the Athenians in Sicily with a particular account of that island, and of the races of people who inhabited it. He says, "it was thus peopled originally, and contains altogether the following races. The Cyclopes and Læstrygones are said to have been the first inhabitants in some parts of the country; concerning whom I have nothing to say, either as to their race or whence they came, or whither they have gone; suffice the poetical stories which are reported of them, and the notions in any way attainable. The Sicani appear to have been the next settlers after the aforesaid; they were as themselves report still more ancient, since they term themselves indigenous; but as it is ascertained to be true,—ç dè ñ áλýðɛia EpiσKETα, they were Iberes or Iberians: having been expelled from the river Sicanus, in Iberia, by the Ligurians, from them the island was named Sicania, which had previously been called Trinacria. They still continue," he adds, "to inhabit the western parts of Sicily."* It appears from

what follows that the Sicani possessed the whole island before the arrival of later colonists, for Thucydides goes on to relate that the Trojan refugees, who reached Sicily, settled in their country, and mixing with them, formed the Elymi, whose towns were Eryx and Egesta. Afterwards the Siculi came from Italy in great numbers, and having conquered the Sicani, drove them to the southern and western parts of the island, and gained possession of the best parts of it. This happened about three hundred years before the arrival of Greek colonies in Sicily. †

Dionysius of Halicarnassus has given nearly the same account. It appears that Philistus, the Syracusan historian, who is cited by Diodorus, agreed with Thucydides in declaring that the Sicani were an Iberian race.

• Thucyd. lib. vi. c. 2.

+ Diodor. Sic. Bibl.

Strabon, Geog. lib. vi. p. 270.

*

Strabo fully corroborates the statement that the old inhabitants of Sicily were an Iberian race. This geographer cites at length the historical account of the island given by Ephorus. Before the foundation of the Greek colonies Sicily, according to Ephorus, was inhabited by barbarians, whose cruelty prevented all intercourse with foreigners. At the era of the foundation of Syracuse several tribes of barbarians inhabited the interior, among whom were Siceli, Sicani, and Morgetes, as well as Iberians, whom Ephorus reported, says Strabo, " to have been the first barbarians who colonized Sicily." The city of Morgantium, destroyed in the time of Strabo, was, as he says, probably inhabited by the Morgetes. Diodorus terms this city Margantia ; § and from this name, compared with that of Margis, an ancient town in Spain, M. de Humboldt concludes the Morgetes to have been likewise Iberians.

It seems from these accounts that the island of Sicily was inhabited in very ancient times by people of the same race as the Iberi of Spain, who were likewise, as we shall find, among the earliest occupants of Sardinia and Corsica. Whether they reached Sicily from Gaul or Spain, or made their way to these countries from Sicily, is uncertain.

Frêret reckoned the Sicani among the most ancient inhabitants of Italy; and this conjecture derives probability from the fact observed by M. de Humboldt, that several names which have the structure of Euskarian words and are descriptive in the Euskarian speech, are appropriated to towns and districts in various parts of Italy.+

• Diodor. Sic. lib. xiv. c. 78. De Humboldt, p. 96, p. 168. Niebuhr, Rom. Geschichte. i. 110. Mannert, i. 447, 448.

Iria is the Euskarian word for town: and Iria Flavia is the name of a town in the Callaici. So Iria in Taurinis on the frontier of Italy. Hence also Urium in the Turdulian, and Uria in Apulia. Astura, a very distinct Euskarian epithet, was an inland town near Antium. Asta occurs in the interior of Liguria. Basta, Basterbini, Biturgis, Campania, Curensis, Hispellum, Osci, and Ausones, are, according to M. De Humboldt, clearly Iberian names. See his "Untersuchungen." That there was some connexion between the Spaniards and the ancient Italic nations, would appear from the fact observed by Gesenius, in his late admirable work on Phoenician Inscriptions, that the characters used in Spain, and termed commonly Celtiberian, are nearly allied to the old Italic alphabets. They approach most nearly to the Oscan. This might seem a confirmation of M. de Humboldt's opinion, who derives the name of Oscan from the Iberian

Sardinia and Corsica were likewise inhabited by people who were partly of Iberian descent.

:

Pliny enumerates three tribes as the principal inhabitants of Sardinia he terms them Ilienses, Balari, and Corsi. The Ilienses of Pliny were termed by Strabo Ioläenses. A myth respecting their origin reported them to have descended from the sons of Hercules, who came to the island under Iolaus. The barbarous inhabitants whom they found there, and among whom they took up their abode, were, according to Strabo, Etruscans. Several other writers mention the Ilienses or Iolaenses, as Diodorus, Aristotle, and Pausanias, and they are represented by some as Trojans, by others as Greeks. From Strabo, however, we learn that they were barbarous inhabitants of the mountainous parts of the island, who dwelt in caves, and scarcely cultivated the ground, but supported themselves by predatory attacks upon their more industrious neighbours, and chiefly upon the people of the opposite coast of Pisa. Strabo terms them Diagebres. He says that there were four tribes of those mountaineers in Sardinia, the Tarati, Sossinati, Balari, and Aconites. Pausanias, who has given a long and detailed account of Sardinia, terms the inhabitants of the mountainous parts in general Balari. He says that after the Carthaginians had conquered the island, the higher districts in the interior remained in the possession of the Balari. They were descended from a mixture of Iberians and Libyans. The first city that was founded in the island of Sardinia was Nora, which was built by Iberians.* Solinus confirms this account, which represents the early population of Sardinia to have been partly Libyan and partly of Iberian origin.†

Euski. But we shall hereafter show that the Oscans were of a very different stock, Their characters were but a slight modification of the Etruscan. Between the Etruscans, who were a trading people, and the Bætic Spaniards, it is likely that intercourse existed.

• Pausan, in Phocicis, 10.

+ The Phoenicians, however, colonized Sardinia at an early period, and it was afterwards conquered and held in subjection by the Carthaginians, till the first Punic war. They built the towns of Calaris, Sulchi, and Caralis.-Pausan (10. 17.-Diodor. 4, 29. 5. 15, 15, 24.) Polybius (i. 79.) Cicero expressly declares, that the Sardinians in his time were considered as in great part Carthaginians, (Cicero pro Scauro, c. 14, 18.) See Gesenius Script. Ling. Phon. Mon. p. 154. A Phœnician or rather Punic in cription in Sardinia has been illustrated by Gesenius.

The population of Corsica, called by the Greeks Cyrnos, is said likewise by ancient writers to have been in part Iberian and partly Libyan. Eustathius, in his commentary on Dionysius, says, that the first inhabitants of the Isle of Corsica were Iberians.* Isidore and Servius say that it was peopled by Ligurians, but Pausanias derives its primitive inhabitants from Lybia. The former account is confirmed by the philosopher Seneca, who was himself a native of Spain, and was banished to the Isle of Corsica. He remarked that the Corsicans resembled the Cantabri in Spain in their dress, and retained some relics of their old Iberian language, although the island was much frequented by Ligurians and Greeks.

SECTION VII.-Observations on the Origin of the Celtic and Iberian Inhabitants of Spain.

It has been a general opinion that the Iberians were the aboriginal inhabitants of the entire Spanish peninsula, and that the Celtic tribes, who occupied some parts of it, were invaders from the other side of the Pyrenees, who forced their way among the earlier and less warlike inhabitants, and gained possession of some provinces. Against this opinion strong doubts have been raised.

That the Celti were invaders of Spain, and long posterior to the Iberi, and that these were the aborigines, was the general persuasion of ancient writers. Strabo mentions the Celti among the foreign invaders, who gained a footing in the peninsula, and he speaks of the Celtiberians, as having been originally Celts. Appian says that the Celta, at some time or another, passing over the Pyrenees and mixing their dwellings with the Iberians, acquired thence the name of Celtiberi.+ Diodorus seems to have obtained the same report;+ he says that the Iberians and Celts, after long wars about the possession of the country, at length made peace and agreed to inhabit it in common, and their races becoming intermixed,

* Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. 458.

+ Appian. Bell. Hisp. 256.

Diodor. Bblioth. lib. v. c. 309.

the name of Celtiberi thence originated. Lucan has alluded to the same tradition, as likewise Silius Italicus.*

It has been observed by Niebuhr and by M. de Humboldt, that this opinion, though prevalent among the Greek and Roman writers, appears rather to have been taken up by them as a probable way of accounting for the existence of Celtic people in Spain, and as an obvious inference, than derived from any historical tradition. No reference has been given to ancient authority, or even to local tradition, for such an event as the passage of Gauls into Spain. In the recorded instances of Celtic migrations into Italy, Germany, and the East, we are always told what tribes emigrated, and some attempt has been made to affix a particular period to such events. In the instance of the Celti of Spain, no intimation of time has been given. We are not informed from what part of Gaul they emigrated, or at what conjuncture, or under what circumstances. The local positions in which the Celtic tribes of Spain were found, have been thought to weigh strongly against the opinion that they entered the country as conquerors. We trace them where we should rather expect to find the relics of a primitive population, in the mountainous fastnesses of the interior, where the nature of the country would seem likely to afford them a retreat secure from foreign invaders, and in the remote extremities of the peninsula, near the western promontories, which would naturally be the last refuge of people flying from more powerful enemies. The results of M. de Humboldt's researches tend to support the same argument. It appears to have been proved by these researches that the Celtic people had been at one time more widely spread, that they had given way to the Iberians, through a great part of the peninsula, where they had left no other vestiges of their existence, than the names of places or of tribes.

Lucan says:-" Profugique à gente vetusta

Gallorum Celtæ miscentes nomen Iberis."
Silius Italicus :-" At Pyrenæi frondosa cacumina montis
Turbata-

Divisos Celtis late prospectat Iberos."
And,

"Venêre et Celtæ sociati nomen Iberis."

Luc. 4, 9. Silius 415-340. Ritson, p. 21

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