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ported that by the Greeks they were termed Celti and by the Romaus Galli. It does not appear clear that the Gauls ever recognised the name of Celta as a national appellation. It probably grew into general use among the Greeks from some particular tribe at first so termed.*

It will be important to my purpose to take notice in this place of Cæsar's division of Gaul. As the principal resource for investigating the relations of the Belgae and Celtæ, and their colonies and languages, must depend upon what can be made out respecting the history of particular tribes, it will be requisite to examine the geographical division of Gaul laid down by Cæsar, and to compare it with those of Strabo and other writers. If it can be determined in some instances that particular tribes belonged to the Celtic, and in others to the Belgic division, we shall be enabled on this ground to pursue some further inquiries as to the history of these races.

SECTION III-Subdivisions of Gaul according to the Races of its Inhabitants. Tribes in Aquitania, Narbonensis, Celtica or Lugdunensis.

In the introduction to Cæsar's account of his Gallic war the boundaries of the three great divisions of Gaul are laid down in the clearest manner. The division is founded not on any political partition of the country, but merely on the different races of people whose limits are marked out. "The Gallic or Celtic Gauls are separated from the Aquitani by the river Garonne, from the Belge by the Marne and the Seine." "That part of the whole country which has been said to be inhabited by the Galli, takes its beginning, as Cæsar says, from the Rhone, and reaches thence towards the north :" that is, on the side towards Italy it was bounded by the Rhone, so that a traveller from Italy would enter it after passing that

This may be collected from Strabo. I do not think it worth while to discuss here the conjectures of Welsh etymologists.

The Roman province itself is excluded from this tripartition, though occupied, as we have seen, as well as the Cisalpine, by subdued Celti.

river. "It is surrounded by the river Garonne, the ocean, and the boundaries of the Belgæ, but reaches to the Rhine, on the side of the Sequani and Helvetii."* It seems then that the Rhone, from its source to its great bending towards the south, was the south-eastern limit of Celtica; on the southern side of that river was a part of the Roman province.

We learn from this account that Celtic Gaul, in the time of Cæsar, comprised all the interior of France, bounded towards the sea by the Bay of Biscay, the Atlantic, and the British Channel; the Celtic coast extending from the mouth of the Garonne to the mouth of the Seine. Its northern and eastern boundary was formed by the Sequana or Seine, from the mouth of that river as far as its junction with the Marne, distant a few leagues from Paris: thence it turned eastward and continued along the Marne to the source of that stream in the Vosges mountains. From the Vosges the north-eastern boundary of Celtica appears to have taken nearly a direct transit to the Rhine, since on the side of the Sequani and Helvetii, including Franche Compté and parts of Upper Alsace and Switzerland, we are expressly told by Cæsar that the country of the proper Galli had for its frontier the Rhine, of which it occupied the left bank. The Belgæ, according to Caesar's division of Gaul, reached southward not farther than the Seine and Marne, touching upon the Rhine a little to the southward of Strasburg. The territories of the Sequani and the Helvetii were therefore comprehended in Gallic Celtica.

Cæsar is so clear and consistent with himself in his account of the divisions of Gaul, that he seems to leave no room for doubt as to the different tribes which belonged to each nation; and the controversies which have been agitated on that subject would never have arisen if his successors had been equally accurate. The opportunity for mistake has arisen from the

Germania, cap. 28. Tacitus expressly affirms that the Helvetii were a Gallic nation. With respect to the Sequani it may be collected that they were Celtic people, from all that we learn of their history and political relations, from their situation, and from the fact that they are never once mentioned among the Belgæ, or in any connexion with them; lastly, from the express declaration of Cæsar, that, on the side of the Sequani and Helvetii, Celtica Proper reaches to the Rhine.

fact that a new partition of Gaul was made in the time of Augustus, and the parts belonging to one division have been confounded with those of the other. Celtica, which after the time of Augustus was generally called Lugdunensis, from its capital city Lugdunum or Lyons, was now scarcely half so large in extent as the old land of the Celta. All the country between the Garonne and the Loire was taken from it and added to Aquitania, and all the territory eastward of the Saone and reaching from the Vosgesian mountains to the Rhine, was added to Belgica. The new province of Gallia Lugdunensis comprised only the countries between the Loire, the Seine, the Marne, and the Saone.* Such was the limitation of the different parts of Gaul, according to Pliny and Ptolemy. Unfortunately Strabo has confounded the older with the later division. He has taken Cæsar as his principal guide, but has so misunderstood his account as to have introduced numerous errors into the geography of Gaul, which have furnished a basis for a variety of hypothetical suppositions.

Strabo was so careless of his authority as to mistake entirely the situation of Gallia Celtica. He perceived not that Cæsar in his division of the three countries of independent Gaul, purposely omitted the Roman province, or Gallia Narbonensis, so named from its capital city Narbo, built by the consul Q. Martius Rex, 138 years before Christ, immediately after the conquest of that district by the Romans. Strabo terms the Roman province Gallia Celtica, or KEAT), and mentions no Celtic region in the northern parts of Gaul, or beyond Mons Cemmenus, the Cevennes, which he makes the northern boundary of Celtica. Gallia Celtica, according to Strabo, occupied the coast of the Mediterranean it reached northward to the ridge or chain of hills just mentioned, and in length extended from the feet of the Pyrenees to those of the Ligurian Alps, or to the river Varno, in the neighbourhood of Nice and Antibes. The principal Celtic nations in this province were, as Strabo informs us, the Volcæ Tectosages and the Volcæ Arecomici, to the westward of the Rhone and in the mountainous countries to the eastward of that river, and * See Mannert, Geographie der Griecher und Römer. Th. 2, i. b., i. 140.

the Salyes or Salluvians, considered by the early Greeks as a Ligurian tribe, but declared by later writers to have been Gauls. Strabo terms the Celtica of other writers merely Lugdunensis, from its capital city, and appears to have had no idea that it was inhabited by Celtic Gauls: he does not mark out the boundary between that province and Belgica. We therefore cannot wonder that he even looks upon the tribes in Britanny-the Veneti, Osismii, and others,—as Belgians, and terms them "Béλya Tарwкɛaviraι," or Belgians of the sea coast.

Strabo's account throws everything that relates to the division of Gallic tribes into confusion, and his mistakes, as I have hinted, have furnished a pretence for some opinions maintained by later writers, which are quite at variance with what we collect from all other authorities. It is so much the more important to remark that his peculiar notions are entirely erroneous; and this will be the more readily admitted as he professes to follow Cæsar, while he has given a statement extremely different from that of his predecessor. In representing the Armoricans as Belgian nations he is not less in opposition to all other writers than in confining Gallia Celtica within the boundaries of the Roman province.

Pliny and Ptolemy, the latter apparently with the greatest accuracy, have enumerated the "civitates," or states, comprehended in the different Roman provinces of Gaul, as well as the principal towns in each district. A survey of the boundaries given to each province by these writers will assist us in coming to a conclusion in the inquiry what particular tribes belonged to each race.

It would appear that most of the tribes who lived on the northern border of Celtica, namely, on the Seine, possessed both banks of that river. These frontier nations are generally reckoned to belong to Gallia Lugdunensis or Celtica, though some of them appear from Cæsar's account to have been Belgæ: they were at least associated with Belgian nations in the great confederacies of that people. Thus, next to the mouth of the Seine we find the Caletes of Cæsar, the Caleta and Calleti of Ptolemy and Pliny. On the sea-coast they reached nearly to the mouth of the Somme, and by Cæsar they are reckoned



as a Belgic tribe. Next to these, southward, were the Veliocasses, or Velii Casii, whose capital was Rotomagus, supposed to be Rouen. These were likewise, according to Cæsar, a Belgic tribe, though included in Lugdunensis. All the other tribes of the northern frontier appear to have been Celtic, namely, the Parisii, who inhabited the banks and islands of the Seine ; and whose close alliance with the Senones indicates that they were of the same division of Gaulish nations; the Meldi or Meldæ, who lived in the corner of land between the Seine and Marne, a little below Paris, and the Tricasses, about Troyes or Augustobona, which was their capital. These were probably Celts.

With respect to all the principal tribes of Gallia Lugdunensis, who were situated remotely from the boundaries which Cæsar assigns to Belgic Gaul, and in the central parts, there seems to be no room for doubt that they were of Celtic race. The Sequani and Helvetii in the east were transferred to Belgica, but the other nations known to the Romans before the first war of Cæsar against the Belga were always included among the Celts. They lived within the frontier marked out by Cæsar as the utmost limit of Celtica, and were further from Belgica than the Senones, who appear clearly from Cæsar's account of the Belgic war to have been Celts, and much nearer than the Rhemi, who, as the same writer affirms, were of all the Belgic tribes nearest to the Celtic frontier. Most of them were associated in the different confederacies of Celtic tribes which were formed on a principle of clanship or consanguinity. We do not indeed find in ancient writers the slightest hint that communities belonging to either of the great divisions were intermixed with or interspersed between others, or that nations living to the southward of the Seine were of Belgic origin, or that those far to the northward of that river were Celtæ. In the absence of particular information we have, therefore, a right to assume that tribes in the heart of Gallia Belgica were Belgians, and that those who were surrounded by the nations of Lugdunensis were really Celts. This is an important observation, because, if conceded, it will overturn the hypothetical systems of some late writers, who have assumed, without the slightest evidence, that there were Belgic tribes in the

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