« PreviousContinue »
middle of Celtic Gaul. It will still be worth while, for reasons which will hereafter appear, to enumerate the most remarkable tribes both of the Celtic and Belgic races. I shall begin with a short notice of the Aquitani and the nations to the southward of the Gallia Celtica of Cæsar.
I. Within the limits of Aquitania properly so termed, that is the old Aquitania of Cæsar before it was extended in the reign of Augustus, we have the following tribes :
The Vasates or Vasatæ of Ausonius and Ammianus, are probably the Vocates of Cæsar, the Basavocates of Pliny, the Vasarii of Ptolemy, who inhabited the little territory of Bazadois. Their city was Cossium, soon termed Vasatæ, now Bazas.
The Elusates of Cæsar and Pliny in the present Condomois. The Auscii or Avσktot were the most famous of the Aquitanian tribes: they inhabited Armagnac. Their city was Augusta, the Climberrum of Mela, the Peutingerian Table and Antonine's Itinerary, the Auscius of the Jerusalem Itinerary, now Auch, distant thirty-four leagues from Tolosa.
The Convenæ, a colony of mixed descent, relics of the Sertorian army, whose towns were Lugdunum, now St. Bertrand, Aquæ Convenarum, now Bagnères, Calagorris, Beneharnum, now Bearn. The Sociates, the Tarusates, the Garumni, the Bigerriones, the Preciàni, the Garites, Sibuzates, Cocosates are mentioned by Cæsar or Pliny. The Lectorates of Antoninus are supposed by Mannert to be the Sociates of Cæsar, whose town, not named by him, was perhaps the Lectura of the Itinerary. * The Tarbelli reached to the Pyrenees.
Nearly all these tribes bear names which evidently bespeak their Euskarian or Iberian origin. Except the Convenæ they were of the genuine Spanish, or Aquitanian race.
II. Tribes of the Roman Province, or of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman Province was considered by the ancients as a parallelogram, bounded by the Pyrenees on one side, and the feet of the Alps on the opposite, to the northward and southward by the sea and the ridge of Mount Cemmenus. It was
• These tribes and places are enumerated from Ptolemy and Pliny and from the geographical treatise of Mannert, in whose work they are mentioned more at length.
partly inhabited in remote times by Iberians and Ligurians. The principal Gallic tribes were-1. The nation called Voicæ, of whom the Tectosages and Arecomici were both branches. Nemausus and Tolosa, or Toulouse, were their principal towns. In the latter the Tectosages had deposited treasures accumulated in their expedition into Germany. The Arecomici inhabited the eastern parts of Languedoc. 2. The Allobroges, between the Rhone and the Isère. 3. Cavares. 4. Vocontii, between the Isère and the Durance. 5. Salluvii, reckoned by the Greeks of Marseilles as Ligurians.* These tribes came, long before Cæsar's time, under the Roman domination, and their country was called Gallia Braccata as distinguished from the Cisalpine, and Narbonensis at the foundation of Narbo; afterwards commonly the Province.+ The names of rivers in the Province are evident relics of the Euskarian or Iberian languages, as Illerris, and Illiberris. ‡
III. The following tribes are enumerated in that part of Gallia Celtica which was added to Aquitania.
1. The Pictones, from the mouth of the Loire southward to Poictou, which preserves their name. 2. The Agesinates. 3. Santones, from the mouth of the, Gironde to Perigord eastward. 4. Bituriges Vibisci, or Iosci, or Vivisci, the only Celtic tribe to the southward of the Garonne. In the inland country were 1. the Lemovici in Limousin. 2. The Cadurci. 3. Petrocorii, of Perigord. 4. Nitiobriges. 5. Bituriges Cubi, of Berry, a powerful tribe who had twenty towns, separated from the Hædui by the Loire. 6. The Arverni, one of the most celebrated nations of Gaul. 7. Velauni. 8. Gabali, who worked silver mines in the Cevennes. 9. Ruteni.
• The Salyes or Saluvii, in whose country Marseilles was founded, were called by the Greek colonists Ligurians, as Strabo informs us, and they are so termed by Pliny in later times, says Strabo, they were Celto-Ligyes, and Livy calls them "Salluvii Galli."-See Strabo, iv. p. 204. Zeuss conjectures that the Celtæ from the interior had conquered and had become mixed with the sea-coast Ligurians, who were hence called Celto-Ligurians, and by Livy, Galli. Zeuss, ubi supra, p. 163.
+ These tribes of the Roman Province were, as we have seen, the nations who were first called Celti: to assume that they were Belgæ, on mere conjecture, as some late writers have done, seems to be setting all historical evidence at defiance. Humboldt, Prüfung der Untersuchungen, &c.
It may be remarked that all the tribes in the three subdivisions already mentioned, were separated from the Belgæ by the whole breadth of proper Celtic Gaul. The supposition that any of them were Belgians seems to contradict all historical evidence.
IV. Tribes of Gallia Celtica proper. 1. Tribes on the coast, from the Loire to the Seine.
1. Near the Loire were the Nannetes, Namnitæ, also Samnitæ, perhaps by mistake, in part of the diocese of Nantes. 2. The Venetes, in Vannes, known long before Cæsar to the Greeks, and mentioned by Scymnus Chius as a maritime people. 3. Corisopiti. 4. Osismii, near the promontory of Quimper-Corentin, known, according to Strabo, to Pytheas, who termed them-rpiovs,-honourable. 5. Biducesii, or Viducasses, in the duchy of Penthievre. 6. The Curiosolites, reckoned by Cæsar among the Armorican people. 7. Veneli. 8. Bodiocasses. 9. Lexubii.
2. Northern tribes in the interior.
1. Rhedones, near Rennes, reckoned among the Populi Aremorici, as were-2. The Ambibari. 3. Andicavi, the Andes of Cæsar. 4. Turones, in Touraine. 5. Aulerci, of whom there were three divisions, viz. the Diablintæ, the Cenomani, and the Eburovices or Eburaici, the two last of which were celebrated nations. The Aulerci Brannovices lived in the vicinity of the Hædui, to whose clientela or clanship they belonged. 6. Arvii, or Arubii. 7. Namnetæ of Ptolemy, different from the Nannetæ. 8. Abringcatui, supposed to have inhabited Avranches in Western Normandy. 9. Parisii.
3. Southern tribes in the interior.
1. Carnutes, inhabited an extensive territory on both sides of the Loire. Autricum, afterwards Civitas Carnotum, was their capital, now Chartres. 2. Trecasses. 3. Senones. 4. Meldi. 5. Vadicassii. 6. Mandubii. 7. Segusiani. 8. Hædui, who inhabited the country between the Liger and Arar, the Loire and the Saone, down as far as Lyons, namely, the greater part of Burgundy and the Nivernois. There is not the slightest reason for doubt that the Hædui were a Celtic tribe, as they were always considered by the ancients. They were most intimately connected with the Romans, whom they
assisted in wars against the Allobroges and Helvetii, and had they been of a different race from the other people of Celtica the fact would not have remained either concealed or unnoticed. 8. The Ambarri, mentioned, together with other tribes of this region of Gaul, in the celebrated invasion of Italy. 9. The Boii were, as Mannert observes, an ancient people of Celtic race, who dwelt, from the earliest times when known to us, partly in northern Italy, partly in the south of Germany, near the Danube. Pressed by German and other neighbouring nations, a part of the Boii passed into Bohemia; a part going westward became allies of the Helvetii, with whom they were defeated by Cæsar, and forced to seek refuge in the country of the Hædui, who took them into their protection. In all their political relations the Boii were quite separate from the Belgæ, among whom they have been reckoned by some late writers without a shadow of historical evidence. Cæsar was well acquainted with the Hædui and Boii at the time of his first war against the Belgæ, of whom he speaks as of a people hitherto altogether unknown. Cæsar indeed expressly affirms that the Rhemi were, of all the Belgian tribes, that situated most nearly to Celtica, that is the furthest towards the south.
SECTION IV. Of the Belga.
The existence of the Belga appears, as I have observed, to have been wholly unknown to the Romans until the time of Cæsar. They became an object of interest to the conqueror of Gaul on the occasion of a confederacy entered into by many of the Belgic tribes, with the view of resisting the encroachment of the Roman arms, under which a great part of Celtica had been already subjugated. On the first tidings of this confederation, Cæsar enjoined on the Senones and other Celtic tribes on the borders of the Belga, to watch their movements, and from the Rhemi, who of all the Belgic tribes lived nearest-viz. to the border of Celtica and to Italy -he inquired into the number and power of the states that were in league against him. "Quum ab his quæreret
quæ civitates, quantæque in armis essent, et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat; plerosque Belgas esse ortos ab Germanis; Rhenumque antiquitus transductos, propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse, Gallosque qui ea loca incolerent, expulisse; solosque esse, qui, patrum nostrorum memoria, omni Gallia vexata, Teutones Cimbrosque intra fines suos ingredi prohibuerint. Qua ex re fieri, uti earum rerum memoria, magnam sibi auctoritatem, magnosque spiritus in re militari sumerent." Cæsar afterwards enumerates the different Belgic tribes who entered into this alliance against the Romans, and it seems to be clearly implied that they constituted the great body of the Belgic nation. The tribes mentioned on this occasion are the Bellovaci, or people of the country about Beauvais, who were the most powerful of the Belgæ; the Suessiones, who had twelve towns; the Nervii, the most distant and the most barbarous tribe; the Atrebates, in Artois, the Ambiani, the Morini, the Menapii, the Caleti, the Velocasses and Veromandui, the Advatuci; lastly, the Condrusi, Eburones, Cæræsi and Pamani, who are comprehended under the common appellation of " Germans." From this enumeration it is worthy of remark that the Treveri are omitted, though they are elsewhere mentioned among the principal Belgian nations.
It is remarkable that although Cæsar had been told by the Rhemish people, in general terms, that most of the Belgæ were of German origin, he yet in coming to a particular enumeration mentions four tribes who were by distinction termed Germans, as if the claim of a German extraction was not so well established with respect to the rest.
The question, what Belgic tribes were of German origin and what were of the Celtic stock, or allied to it, seems to have recurred to several subsequent writers, and Tacitus and Strabo have attempted a solution.
Tacitus thinks it probable that Gallic tribes in earlier times frequently emigrated into Germany: he mentions the Boii, who occupied Bohemia, and the Helvetii, as undoubtedly Gauls. Respecting the Osi of Germany, and the Aravisci of Pannonia, both having the same manners and language, he is in doubt whether the Osi migrated into Germany or the