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Aravisci into Pannonia. Tacitus here seems to reckon Pannonia a part of Gaul, or rather of the country inhabited by Celtic nations, which we shall hereafter find to have been the case. The river which he supposes once to have been traversed by these two nations must be the Danube, and not the Rhine. He adds, speaking more particularly of the Belgæ, that the Treveri and Nervii are ambitious of being thought of German origin, as if the reputation of their descent would distinguish them from the Gauls, whom they resembled in person and effeminacy. The Vangiones, Tribocci, and Nemetes, who inhabit the bank of the Rhine, are, as he says, without doubt German tribes. To these Tacitus adds the Ubii and the Batavi, the last a tribe of the German Chatti.
We have here three Belgian tribes, besides the Ubii and Batavi,-which last are scarcely ever mentioned as Gauls,comprehended, besides the four of Cæsar, under the appellation of Germans. It is plain that Tacitus disbelieved the claim to a German descent set up by other tribes. None of the great nations of Belgic Gaul are among the tribes allowed by Tacitus to have been of German origin. The Belgic communities really German were some small tribes near the Rhine, among whom the Ubi and Tribocci are hardly reckoned as Gauls, but as tribes recently descended from the Germans.
Strabo has taken some pains to distinguish the German tribes who had settled themselves among the Belgæ. He says-" Next to the Helvetii, in the descent of the river, the bank of the Rhine is inhabited by the Sequani and the Mediomatrices, among whom are settled a German nation, the Tribocci, who passed over from their own country. In the country of the Sequani is Mount Jura, which separates them from the Helvetii. Beyond the Helvetii and Sequani, towards the west, dwell the Hædui and Lingones, beyond the Medromatrices, the Leuci, and part of the Lingones." He then
"In another passage Tacitus seems to conclude that the Osi were from Pannonia, because they spoke the Pannonian language, viz. probably the dialect of the Aravisci. If these were not a Celto-Pannonian people, there seems to be no reason for mentioning them in this passage cited in the text, which refers simply to the mutual inroads of the Gauls and Germans on each other.
goes on to describe the situation of other Celtic tribes, and returns to the Belgae and the Rhemi. "Next to the Medromatrices and Tribocci, the border of the Rhine is inhabited by the Treveri, in whose territory the bridge was lately built by the Romans in their invasion of Germany. The opposite side of the Rhine was the country of the Ubii, who were brought, with their own consent, by Agrippa to inhabit the southern bank of the river. Contiguous to the country of the Treveri is that of the Nervii, who are likewise a German nation."
It appears then that the Ubii and Tribocci are, according both to Tacitus and Strabo, certainly Germans; to these Strabo adds the Nervii. By thus admitting, in express and distinguishing terms, the German relations of some particular tribes, it is evident that these writers deny the same pretensions to the other tribes. The Treveri seem to be purposely excluded by Tacitus, and they are never once mentioned by Strabo as a German people. *
On comparing these observations and inspecting M. d'Anville's map of ancient Gaul, the reader will easily perceive what parts of Belgica were, in the age of Strabo and Tacitus, in the possession of German tribes. The Belgic Germans of Cæsar were the four tribes of Condrusi, Eburones, Cæresi, and Pamani. These were afterwards included, together with the Batavi, Tungri†, and Toxandri, in the Roman province of Germania Secunda, or Inferior, the Cæresi alone among them encroaching upon that of Belgica Prima. On the banks of the Rhine in the same province were the Ubii, reckoned by Cæsar as Germans, but, by Strabo and Tacitus, mentioned among the German tribes settled in Belgica. The province of Germania Inferior bordered on the Lower Rhine, the Meuse, and the Saave. Germania Prima, or Superior, reaching along the Rhine from above Strasburg to
That they were Gauls and not Germans is proved by the testimony of St. Jerom, already cited, who says that they spoke nearly the same language as the Tectosages. It cannot be imagined that the Volca Tectosages, who lived in Upper Languedoc, were a German people. Hordes of the same nation who invaded Thrace, under Brennus, were the ancestors of the people of whom Jerom made this remark.
† Mannert supposes that the Tungri, whose name was unknown in Cæsar's time, were a confederate people, comprehending the tribes of Condrusi, Eburones, Caresi, and Pæmani.-Mannert, b. 1. p. 199.
Mentz or Moguntiacum, comprehends the country of the Nemetes, Tribocci, and Vangiones, who are the German Belgic tribes mentioned by Tacitus. The only tribe added to this number by Strabo are the Nervii, who inhabited the parts of Belgica Prima bordering on Germania Inferior.
It is very observable that the Romans, in distributing the countries of Northern Gaul into provinces, termed respectively Germania Superior and Inferior, and Belgica Prima and Secunda, appear to have recognised the difference of population above noticed.* The two Germanies on the left bank of the Rhine comprehended almost precisely the districts occupied by the tribes of undoubtedly German origin. These tribes are thus separated by a distinct line from the more populous and extensive nations, who inhabited the heart of Belgica, and to whom all the principal Belgic cities belonged. These Belgic Germans are still further separated from those Belgic tribes, who appear to have sent colonies across the channel, and to have constituted a part of the population of South Britain.
* The division of the genuine Belgic from the German tribes, which I have thus collected from the Roman writers, agrees nearly with the opinion of Schoepflin, of which coincidence I was not aware, until I had completed the enumeration in the
Schoepflin reckons the Eburones, Tungri, Nervii, Condrusi, Pæmani, Menapii, and Treveri as the "advenas Germaniæ populos, qui ante Cæsaris tempora in Galliam transierant." He adds, "Mediomatrici, Rhemi, Suessiones, Bellovaci, Veromandui, Ambiani, Atrebates, aliique plures ex priscis Galliæ indigenis fuerant.”—Alsatia Illustrata, Period. Celt. s. 118.
M. Raoux, in a late memoir, which obtained the prize offered by the Royal Academy of Science and Belles-Lettres of Bruxelles, in 1825, has investigated the history of the different Belgic tribes. He concludes that those tribes were of German origin who occupied the districts between the Rhine and the Marne, Liége, Brabant, the two Flanders, and the provinces of Namur and Hainault, while the Belgic tribes nearer to the Marne, the Seine, and the Somme, viz. the Rhemi, Suessiones, Veromandui, Bellovaci, Ambiani, Caleti, Atrebates, and Morini, were proper Belgæ, having no affinity to the Germans. But Schoepflin and M. Raoux appear to have admitted the Treveri into the list of German tribes on no sufficient grounds. I must refer to what has been said upon this point above, where my reasons have been stated for believing them to have been Belgic Gauls, and I shall have occasion for some further remarks on this subject in a following section. In other respects, these writers appear to be nearly correct. M. Raoux thinks the boundaries of the ancient Belgic Germans to have been nearly those of the Flemish and Dutch languages; and that the Belgic Gauls occupied the country of the present Walloons.-Mémoire en réponse à la question proposée par l'Académie de Sc. et de Belles-Lett. de Bruxelles.
The original Belge were distinguishable from the Germans in many respects. They had more settled abodes, and cities well known by name, and what is a greater distinction, they had with the Celts one common religion, and submitted to the Druidical hierarchy. I shall hereafter adduce sufficient proof, that they had a language cognate to that of the Gauls, and unlike the German. At present I shall only venture on this assertion in reference to one of the Belgic tribes. The Treveri preserved their native language, which they spoke in the time of St. Jerom. That father of the church asserts that nearly the same language was spoken by the Galatians, in Asia Minor. The Galatians, as we shall find, came originally from the remote parts of Celtic Gaul. Their language was certainly not German.
It is probable that in Cæsar's time some of the most warlike tribes in the Belgic confederation were of the number of emigrants from Germany, who had lately taken their place among the inhabitants of Belgica, and had, perhaps, assumed the name of Belgians. The greater prowess and valour of these tribes rendered them conspicuous among the nations enrolled in the league for common warfare and mutual defence. They were not the great number, but it became a matter of boast and affectation, as Tacitus informs us, to be considered as belonging to that party. Even the Treveri affected it; and perhaps some families or clans among them may have crossed the Rhine, but the great mass of the nation were Gauls.
After this survey of the principal nations of Gaul, I shall proceed to enumerate the various colonies sent out by the Gauls into different countries; and, subsequently, I shall attempt to investigate the relations of the Belga and the Celts.
SECTION V. Of the Settlements of the Celtic Nations beyond the Limits of Gaul. First, of the Celtic Colonies in Italy.
The Gauls, as we have seen, inhabited extensive districts beyond the boundaries of the country which bore their name, and was considered as their proper abode. It is not clear that all these settlements were colonies from Gaul, but in
some instances we have evidence that this was the fact, as in that of the colonization of Britain, which however falls beyond the reach of history. There were historical traditions of the conquest of northern Italy by the Gauls, and of a migration, supposed to have taken place at the same period, into some parts of Germany. I shall collect the accounts. which are left of these events before I proceed further.
In the time of Cæsar, and perhaps for some ages before, the power of the Celts seems to have been-owing to causes for ever hidden from our research-on the decline. We have the testimony of that writer that they had, in earlier periods, possessed much greater sway: "There was formerly," he says, "a time when the Gauls surpassed the Germans in bravery, and made war upon them, and on account of the multitude of their own people and the scarcity of land, sent colonies beyond the Rhine."* Tacitus confirms this account. "That great writer, Divus Julius, asserts that the Gauls were formerly the superior people, in comparison with the Germans, whence it is probable that some Gallic colonies passed over into Germany: for how small an obstacle would a river be to prevent any nation, as it increased in strength, from occupying or changing settlements as yet lying in common and unappropriated by the power of monarchies!"
The earliest expedition of the Gauls, of which we have any account that bears at all the appearance of historical narrative, is that of the Bituriges and other confederate tribes, who are said to have overrun and conquered Cisalpine Gaul from the Etruscans, and, after expelling that people, to have retained the permanent possession of their country till the period of the Roman conquest. The following is the account of this event given by Livy: he says, "In the reign of Tarquinius Priscus at Rome, the Bituriges held the supreme authority among the Celta, and gave them a king named Ambigatus. The kingdom of Ambigatus was very flourishing, and so populous that in his own age the king found the multitude too great for easy government, and ordered his sister's sons, Bellovesus and Sigovesus, to lead a colony whither the gods
Cæsar de Bell. Gall. vi. 24. + Tacitus, De Germ. Mor. c. xxiii.