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Toulouse. They were a people well known to the Romans, for it was in their territory that the city of Narbo was built by the Consul Q. Martius Rex, which became the capital of the province of Narbonensis. The Tectosages joined the Cimbri against the Romans, and were defeated by Sylla, who took prisoner one of their kings named Copillus.

The Tectosagi in the Hercynian Forest, by which name the old geographers designated a vast tract stretching through all the southern part of Germany, from the Schwartzwald in Swabia along the whole course of the Danube as far as the limits of Dacia,* were neighbours and confederates of another Celtic tribe, who, of all others, were most celebrated for their repeated migrations. The Boii were among the most warlike of the tribes of Cisalpine Gauls, and they were joined with the Senones in the sacking of Rome. Posidonius, as cited by Strabo, relates that the Boii formerly inhabited the Hercynian Forest, and there repulsed the invasion of the Cimbri.† Ancient as well as modern writers differ as to the early seats of these people: Strabo was of opinion that the Boii of Germany were emigrants from Italy; that they had been a fugitive part of the Boii who had been long settled to the southward of the Po, in the Cisalpine; but the account which he gives of this passage in their history has been shown to be erroneous by M. Zeuss. Strabo says "the greatest of the Celtic nations, viz. in Cisalpine Gaul, were the Boii, the Insubri, and the Senones, who, together with the Gæsatæ, made an incursion on Rome and gained possession of the city. These last, the Senones, were afterwards entirely destroyed by the Romans; but the Boii were driven out of their country, and passing over to the neighbourhood of the Danube, took up their abode with the Taurisci, and fought with them. against the Dacians till they were completely extirpated, and

⚫ Cæsar de B. G. 6. c. 24. 25. "Oritur ab Helvetiorum et Nemetum et Rauracorum finibus, rectâque fluminis Danubii regione pertinet ad fines Dacorum et Anartium : hinc se flectit sinistrorsus." According to this representation the Hercynian Forest must have occupied Swabia, Bavaria, Austria, and part of Hungary to the river Theiss, and in the neighbourhood of the Theiss have reached northward towards Silesia and Bohemia.

+ Strabo, lib. 7. p. 293. ed. Casaub.

Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme, von Kaspar Zeuss. München, 1837.

left their country, which was a part of the Illyrian territory, a desert and sheep-pasture for the neighbouring people."* "The region on this—the southern-side of the Po had been occupied by the Boii and Ligurians, and Senones, and Gæsatæ, for the most part but after the Boii were driven out and the Gæsatæ and Senones were extirpated, the Ligurian tribes alone remained with the Roman colonies."+ It seems very unlikely, as M. Zeuss observes, that while all the other Celtic nations in Italy were equally pressed by the Roman arms, the Boii should alone take flight; yet their emigration must be considered as an established fact, if Strabo's account should be confirmed by other authorities. But it is in reality contradicted. Strabo, as we have seen, separates the fate of the Boii from that of the Senones: the latter were extirpated, the former were driven out. But Pliny declares that both nations experienced the same fate. He even mentions the place where they were destroyed. "In hoc tractu interierant Boii, quorum tribus cxII fuisse auctor est Cato; item Senones." Livy, who describes circumstantially their subjugation by the Consul P. Cornelius Scipio, A.U.c. 561, or 191 B.C., declares that the Boii perished in an immense and unexampled slaughter, which left no survivors except children and men far advanced in age, and that their country was colonised by Romans,§ to whom the property of half their land was transferred. Thus the name of the Boii perished in Italy not by emigration, but by a massacre destructive of the effective strength of the tribe, and by the remainder becoming Romanised. M. Zeuss has further observed that Strabo, by enumerating, together with the Boii and Senones, the Gæsatæ || as a distinct Cisalpine tribe, proves the carelessness or falsehood of the writer, or of the account which he has followed. There was no particular tribe of that name, and Gæsata was only the epithet of mercenary soldiers, hired from the neighbourhood of the Alps.

+ Ibid. p. 216.

* Strabo, lib. 5, p. 212, 213. Plin. H. N. lib. 3. c. 15. ST. Liv. lib. 36. c. 38, 39, 40. Gæsatæ were a sort of mercenary troops to whom recourse was had occasionally by the Celtic nations. Polybius thinks their name was taken from the circumstance that they were accustomed to serve for hire. Tatoos is the epithet of a sort of iron weapon used by the Gauls. (Polyb. 2. 22.)

and the Rhone, who were thus termed from the nature of their weapons. It seems then highly probable that the story of the expulsion of the Boii arose from a mere conjecture, that the Boii on the Rhine, who bore the same name and probably spoke the same language as the Boii of the Cisalpine, were the descendants of that conquered people.*

It is on the whole the most probable conclusion that the Italian Boii, or the tribe of that nation which had settled in Cisalpine Gaul, never returned into the north, and had no part in the late enterprises and misfortunes of their transalpine kinsmen. The latter were a widely-spread and most restless and warlike race, of Celtic origin, as all historians testify,† but who are not known to have had any fixed abodes to the westward of the Rhine or in proper Gaul: their name might be considered as almost synonymous with Celta of Germany. We find them frequently associated with the Tectosagi, and locally with the Hercynian Forest. There they were so powerful a hundred and fourteen years before the Christian era, as to resist successfully the invasion of the Cimbri. Cæsar describes the Boii as inhabiting the country beyond the Rhine. They had already invaded Noricum and had taken the city of Noreja: ‡ this indicates that their territory, or the country over which they wandered, was very extensive, and reached along the Danube from its source to the heart of Germany. There the city of Boiodurum,-situated on the traject of the Danube at the confines of Noricum and Vindelicia, where the river Oenus, or Inn, flows through both provinces, which, in a period when the Boii had become extinct, is enumerated by Ptolemy among the cities of Vindelicia, seems to preserve a memorial of their abode. The principal country of the Boii was to the northward of the Danube; they bordered towards the west on the Helvetii, who, according to Tacitus, had been the inhabitants of the country between the Rhine and the Mayne, and towards the north-east they reached into Bohemia or Boiohemum, i. e. the Home

* Die Deutschen, &c., von M. Zeuss, s. 246.

+ Tacitus expressly declares that the Helvetii and Boii were Gauls. (Ger. c. 127.)

Bell. Gall. 1. c. 5.

or Heim of the Boii. Thence they were expelled by the Marcomanni, under Maroboduus, in the time of Augustus Cæsar.* The fugitives are supposed to have carried their name into Boioaria, now Bavaria.

The final extinction of the Boiic name in Germany is related at length by Strabo. It seems that after they had taken up their seat in Bavaria, they became allies of the Taurisci or Norici, under a prince named Critasirus: then both parties carried on war with the Dacian king named Boerebistes, and were exterminated in a great battle. A remnant however escaped to the neighbouring Taurisci or Norici.+

Celtic Tribes of the Alps and the neighbouring Countries.

The region of the Alps and the lower countries immediately surrounding those mountains were the immemorial abode of several nations of the Celtic race, who claim this country as its aboriginal inhabitants: that is, there is no record of their having come, whether from Gaul or any other quarter, nor is any trace discoverable in the country of earlier occupants. Polybius, who gives the earliest accounts of them, says that both sides of the Alps, as far as the ascent is practicable, are inhabited by various tribes. On that side which looks towards the north and the river Rhone, dwelt those termed Transalpine Gauls, who are of the same origin with the rest, meaning the Cisalpine tribes, and are only so termed on account of their local situation. On the other side, he adds, are the Taurisci, the Agones (Lingones ?), and other nations.‡ The tribes bordering on the Alps may be more particularly enumerated as follows: 1. Western tribes, including the Helvetii, who, however, had their original seat, according to Tacitus, somewhat further northward than the region now under survey, in the part of Germany between the Mayne and the Rhine, or in Swabia and Wurtemburg. To this

* Strabo, 7. c. 304.

+ The Gothini, tribe who remained in the mountainous borders of Bohemia in the time of Tacitus, and who, according to that writer, were Gauls, were probably a remnant of the Boii, who were left at the expulsion of that people, defended perhaps by their local situation.

Polyb. lib. iii. cap. 2.

division belong several tribes mentioned by Cæsar, as the Veragri, Sedusii and Nantuates, all evidently Celtic tribes. 2. The Rhæti inhabited the southern parts immediately above the valley of the Po. Livy, as it is well known, supposed the Rhæti to be Etruscans. He extended this notion. to other Alpine nations. He says, "Tusci trans Padum omnia loca, excepto Venetorum angulo, usque ad Alpes tenuere. Alpinis quoque ea gentibus haud dubie origo est, maxime Raetis: quos loca ipsa efferarunt, ne quid ex antiquo, præter sonum linguæ, nec eum incorruptum, retinerent.”* Pliny and Justin repeat the story of the Tuscan origin of the Rhæti, supposing them to have derived their name from Rhætus, a Tuscan leader. It seems that a part of the population of the southern Alps was of Tuscan descent.+ M. Zeuss+ supposes this to be confined to the inhabitants of the Euganean hills. Of the Celtic descent of the greater part of the Rhæti, or of the people inhabiting the Rhætian Alps, he observes that we can hardly doubt, when we consider the evidently Celtic names of the places within their territory, as Tarvesede, compared with Tarv-enna and Metio-sedum mentioned by Cæsar; Curia with Tricorii, Curiosolites; Magia with Magus, of frequent occurrence; Magontiacum; Matreja with Medio-matricum, Noreja, Celega; the names found in Ptolemy, Bragodurum, Ectodurum, Ebodurum, Drusomagus; Takyairiov compared with the personal name Tasgetius in Cæsar; Cambodunum, Brigantium, Brixentes; Ovévwves, Ovévvio compared with Veneti, Venelli, Venicontes. These names, most of which appear in the Rhætian Alps, sufficiently prove the Celtic origin of the tribes among whom they are found. 3. All the northern part of Switzerland and the country reaching to the Danube was included in Vindelicia. 4. The eastern region, including the Tyrolese and extensive tracts further eastward, was the abode of the Taurisci, a celebrated and powerful race. That the Vindelici and Taurisci were Celts there is no doubt; it is proved partly by names of

Lib. v. 33.

+ Pliny mentions it as a prevalent conjecture rather than as matter of fact.Plin. v. cap. 20. See likewise Justin, xx. 15.

Zeuss, ubi supra, s. 299.

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