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places and partly by the direct testimony of historians.* The name of Vindelici has the same etymon as Vindobona, Vindomagus, Vindonissa. The Vindelician names Artobriga, Bojodurum, Parrodurum, Consuanetes, compared with Suanetes, and Condrusi, Licus, Licates, compared with Ambilici, leave, as M. Zeuss observes, no doubt as to the origin of the Celtic people termed Vindelici.

The inhabitants of the Eastern Alps and the lower countries adjacent were included in later periods under the general name of Norici, which was synonymous with the older designation of Taurisci. This appears from Pliny: "Juxtaque Carnos quondam Taurisci, nunc Norici." Polybius, as cited by Strabo, connects the names of Taurisci and Norici. He says that gold was found at Aquileia-ἐν τοῖς Ταυρίσκοις τοῖς Nupikois. Strabo† makes Norici a collective epithet, and Taurisci the particular name of a tribe. He says the country near the bottom of the Adriatic is inhabited by some Norici and Carni, and adds that the Taurisci are also Norici. Against this representation, as M. Zeuss observes, we must set not only the authority of Pliny as above cited, who makes the Norici of equal extent with the Taurisci, but also Ptolemy, who mentions no such people as the Taurisci in the Roman province of Noricum, but makes the Norici to be the only race inhabiting the eastern parts of it. Tribes of Taurisci or Norici were scattered through the different Alpine valleys, but the great body of the nation occupied the eastern declivities towards Noreja, their principal town. The Norici had been allies of Rome long before their conquest, and the consul Carbo had led an army to the defence of Noreja when attacked in the Cimbrian war. That the Taurisci, as well as their neighbours towards the west, were of Celtic origin is clear, not only from the names of places in Noricum, but, as M. Zeuss has shown, from two passages of Strabo, in which that geographer expressly asserts them to have been Galatæ, Γαλάται, and Celtic tribes-Κελτικὰ ἔθνη. This last epithet he applies to the Boii, Scordisci, and Taurisci.§

* Plin. iii. 20.

+ Strabo, p. 206. Zeuss, Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme. S Strabo, p. 296.

We hence find that the original settlements of the Celtic race, for no ancient writer has mentioned the Alpine nations as emigrants from Gaul, comprehended, as far as we can collect, nearly all the mountainous barrier to the northward of Italy as far as the Adriatic.

The Celtic tribes in Illyricum were known under the name of Scordisci, who are mentioned in connexion with the Taurisci.* They are described by Strabo, who says that the mountain-plains † of Pannonia extend northward to the Danube, and eastward to the Scordisci, and in the same direction to the mountains of Macedonia and Thrace. He adds that the Scordisci conquered the Triballi, who from the time of Herodotus had been the most powerful Thracian tribe in the neighbourhood of the Danube. Appian gives the same account. He says that the Triballi and Scordisci fought, until the former, who had been a flourishing nation till the time of Philip and Alexander, were destroyed, and their territory left desert. Strabo places the Scordisci on the Danube. He says that they were divided into two sections: one of them dwelt between two rivers flowing into the Danube, the Noavus which runs by Segestica and the Margus; the other a little beyond this river. The Noavus and Margus are, in the opinion of M. Zeuss, the Save and the Morava. The Scordisci also occupied the islands of the Danube, and made themselves formidable to all the neighbouring nations: their chief towns were Heorta and Capedunum. Ptolemy places the Scordisci in the southern extremities of Lower Pannonia, therefore near the mouth of the Save.¶

The Illyrian Celts were, until they were conquered by the Romans, always a warlike tribe, formidable to the surrounding nations, perpetually making hostile incursions into the neighbouring countries. The most celebrated of these was the attack on the temple of Delphi, under a leader named Brennus, of which a full account has been given by Pausanias.

* Pliny (iii. 23.): Mons Claudias, cujus in fronte Scordisci: in tergo Taurisci. + ὀροπέδια. Appian. Illyric. 3. § Strabo, vii. p. 318. Cl. Ptol. ii. 16.

Zeuss, ubi supra, p. 174.

Strabo mentions an embassy sent from the Celts of the Adriatic to the camp of Alexander during his expedition into Thrace. As the Celts had about this time settlements on the Danube, it is perhaps more probable that it was from this quarter that ambassadors were sent, namely, from the country of the Scordisci.

It does not appear that the Scordisci were old inhabitants of the borders of the Lower Danube: they had overspread the countries possessed of old by the Triballi and other Thracian tribes. It is probable that they arrived in this country shortly before the time of Alexander. They may with the greatest probability be derived from the nearest bands of the Celtic race, from those who had advanced furthest towards the east. These were the Taurisci of the Alps and the Boii and Tectosages of the Hercynian Forest.

On a general survey of the tribes spread through southern Germany, and in Pannonia and the Alpine countries, it appears that Celtic races, of whom the Boii and Tectosages are the most remarkable, were the earliest known inhabitants of the tracts comprehended in the Orcynia of the Gauls and the Hercynian Forest of Roman writers. The Boii are not to be traced from Gaul, and not further westward than the confines of the Helvetii: they were probably the primitive inhabitants of the countries on the Danube, and reached as far northward as Bohemia. It is probable that the Gythones, a small tribe who remained in the north-east of Germany in the time of Tacitus and spoke the language of the Gauls, were a remnant of the expelled Boii. The Tectosages appear to have been nearly allied to the Boii, since we find them joined in many parts. The other nations enumerated are evidently Celtic, as the Scordisci, Taurisci, Vindelici, Rhæti, but nothing indicates that they were ever inhabitants of Gaul.

SECTION VII. Of the Colony of Gauls in Asia Minor.

Of all the foreign conquests or settlements of the Gauls none is more celebrated than that in Asia Minor, where this

people were known, as indeed were the Gauls in general, among the Greeks, by the name of Galatæ.

It is important to determine from what tribes of European Gauls originated the Galatæ, or Gauls of Asia Minor. We have seen that of all the Gallic tribes, the Boii were the most powerful in Germany and the most widely spread. From no other tribe should we, upon conjecture, derive the Gallic confederacy in Asia with so much probability as from them. Tolisthoboii was in fact the name of one of the three divisions of people in Asia, into which the Galata were divided. In Greek their name is written Tolisthobogii, as that of the Boii is written Bogii.*

Together with Boii there were in parts of Germany other tribes, as the Volca Tectosages, spread through the Hercynian Forest. These Volca Tectosages came, as we have seen, from Celtica Narbonensis, and from the most remote part of it, near to the Pyrenees, or at least to the southwestward of Mount Cemmenus. Thus we find the Tectosages to have been a wandering warlike people, who had planted their name in two very distant countries, and there is so much the less reason for doubt when we find them in a third region. The Tectosages were in fact the leading and most celebrated tribe among the Galata of Asia. A third name not so easily traced is that of the Trocmi, of the origin of whom Strabo knew nothing, though he was satisfied of the derivation of the Tectosages from the Volcæ of Southern Gaul.

Strabo considered it as a thing ascertained that the Tectosages of Galatia in Asia Minor, were a branch of the Volca Tectosages of Narbonensis. He says that the disappearance of the two other names from Gaul, namely, those of Tolisthoboii and Trocmi, was not to be wondered at, since among tribes of

It is very probable that the Tolisthoboii were tribe of Boii, and that the prefix to their name is taken from some epithet, or perhaps from a place where they settled. In fact Ptolemy mentions a place termed Tóλaora xúpa in their country. Lib. v. c. 6. This is observed by M. Zeuss, who remarks that another Celtic name was preserved in Macedonia. Livy observes that the third region of Macedonia contained the famous town of Edessa, &c., "et Vettiorum bellicosam gentem, incolas quoque permultos Gallos et Illyricos." Vettii appears to be a Celtic clan-name, since Solovettius is a personal name. Liv. lib. xlv. c. 30.

roaming habits, many become either extinct, or intermixed and lost. From the fact that the tribe of Tectosages still remained in the country of the Volcæ, he infers that the Tolisthoboii and Trocmi originated from the same part of Gaul. If the Tectosages of Galatia were really from the Volca Tectosages, they must have had some intermediate halting-place; and this is discovered to have been the fact, since, according to Cæsar, the Gauls of the Hercynian Forest were Volca Tectosages. In the same quarter, as we have observed, other writers place the Boii. Tolisthoboii may have been a particular tribe of Boii.

Livy has given the most detailed and particular account of the settlement of the Galatians in Asia, and of the depredatory attempts of the same people, which preceded their passage of the Hellespont. After mentioning the Tolisthoboii, into whose territories the Romans were led by the Consul Cn. Manlius, he adds, "These Gauls, a vast multitude, had made their way, induced either by the want of lands or by the hope of spoil, to the country of the Dardani under a leader named Brennus." Livy has given no intimation in this passage from what quarter he supposes the Gauls to have first emigrated, but in a speech which he puts into the mouth of Cn. Manlius, the Roman Consul, they are said to have been exiles who left their country for want of room, and sailing along the coasts of Illyricum into Pœonia, and thence into Thrace, gained possession of it by arms.* It is utterly inconceivable that such a multitude of barbarians as the Gauls are represented to have been, could find room in ships; and this must have been a mere conjecture of Livy, who was probably ignorant that there were extensive settlements of the Gauls upon the Danube. Pausanias, who has given a narrative of their invasion, says that the first adventurers who had proceeded to Thrace under their leader Cambaules, returned to their country, in order to

*The names of the chieftains of the Galatians are given differently by the writers who mention them. All however mention Brennus. Pausanias names the chiefs of particular bodies Cambaules (Cunobelin or Conmail ?), Cerethorius (Caradyr ?), Arichorus and Bolgius. Polybius terms the chief leader Brennus, as does Livy : instead of the Lomnorius of Livy he has Comontorius, and he names the last king of the Gauls who remained in Thrace, Cavarus.

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