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Day.

Polaris. O
tance of

Dis.
Polar

290

330

North North/330

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AZIMUTH TABLE OF POLARIS, OR NORTH STAR, 1895. The azimuths in the annexed table, applied properly to the magnetic bearing of Polaris at the time of its greatest elongation east or west, will give the true variation of the magnetic needle from a true north direction, and will be of great use to all surveyors and engineers. When the elongation is east the azimuth will be east and vice versa. At the present time, the line of "No Variation"of the needle runs southeasterly from near Toledo, Ohio, to a point on the Atlantic coast about fifty miles southwest of Cape Fear, N. C. East of that line the north end of the needle points west of a true north, and west of that line east of the true north. The country may therefore be divided into eastern and western magnetic regions. In the "Eastern Region" the bearing of Polaris at its western elongation, if eastward, added to the azimuth, gives the desired variation west;

but

westward, the bearing taken from the azimuth gives the variation west. The bearing of Polaris at its eastern elongation will be eastward, and the azimuth subtracted gives the variation west. In the "Western Region" the bearing of Polaris at its eastern elongation, if westward, added to the azimuth, gives the variation east; but if eastward, the bearing taken from the azimuth gives the variation east. The bearing of Polaris at its western elongation will be westward, and diminished by the azimuth gives the variation east. The azimuths in the table, zones, are practically sufficient for all the United States except Alaska.

given for two degree

For intermediate latitudes, or dates, the azimuths may be found by proportion sufficiently correct, or exactly by the formula, log-sine azimuth equal log-sine Polar Distance of Polaris, minus log-cosine latitude. The surveyor or engineer is on the line of "No Variation" when the bearing of Polaris at greatest elongation is the same as the azimuth.

Azimuth of Polaris at its Greatest Elongation East or West.

For the Latitudes and Dates Given Below. Month.

370 390 410

430 45° North North North North North North North O 01

110 111 O1 11 January... 1 1 14 431 25 261 27 101 29 61 31 13 1 33 34 1 36 9 1 39 011 42 101 45 40 January.... 11 43 26 10

6 13 34

9

10 40 January.... 21 43 26

10
6 13 34

9

0 10 40 February... 1 43 26 10 6 13

9

10 40 February.. 11

27 11
7 14 35 10

11

42 February 21 46 29 14

9 17 37 13

14 45 March.. 48 31 16 12 19 40 15

17 March..

47 11 50 84 18 14 21 42 18 10 20 March.

50 21 33 37 22 17

46

14 24 55 April.

1 1 14 56 41 25 21 29 50 26 18 28 1 45 59 April. 11 1 15 0 45 30 26 34 55 31

33 1 465 April 21 49 34 29 37 1 33 59

35 May.

1
5 51
32 40 1 34

12 May.

11
8 54 39 35 43

41

16 121 10 57 42 38 46

44 36 49 19 June. 12 1 25 59

40 48 10 46 39 50 21 June

11 13|1 26 00 45 41 50 11 47 40 31 23 June. 21 13 0 45

50

10 47 40 51 23 13 0 45 41 50

10 47 40 51 July 11 13|1 260 45 41 50

10 47 40 51 July

21
121 25 59

40 48

10 46 39 50 21 August. 1 10 57 42 38 46

36 49 18 August 11 8 54 39 35 43

5 41 33

16 August 21 5 51 36 32 40 (1 34 0 37 30 40 12 September.. 11 15 2 48 32 28

36 1 33 58 33

36

7 September.. 11 1 14 59 45

26
55 31

33|1 46 5 September.. 21 56 41 25 21 29 50 26 18 28 1 45 59 October.... 1 52 36 21 16 24 45 20 12 22 53 October..... 11 48 31 16 12 19 40 15

7 17 47 October... 121

27 11

7 14 35 10 1 39 2 11 42 November.. 1 40 23 71 29 2

9 30 51 38 57

6. 36 November.. |11 36 18 1 27 21 28 57

4 25 1 36 0 511 42 1 30 November.. 21 33 141 26 58 54|1 31 1 21|1 35 5G 4711 41 57 26 December.. 1 30

11

50|1 30 67 17 52 43 51 22 Decernber.. 11 27

46 53

48 39 47 18 December.. 21 25

5 49

51 11 46 37 44 15 December., 31 1 14 23|1 25 3 1 26 47|1 28 42 1 30 49'1 33 91 35 43 1 38 34 1 41 43)1 45 12

PERPETUAL CALENDAR. Showing the Day of the Week of any Date, Old Style or New, Before or After Christ.

EXPLANATION.-Under or over each year of the century for which that semonth will be found the names or ab quence may be used-old style dates, or breviations for the days of the week, ar reckonings under the Julian Calendar, ranged in seven different orders or se marked at the left; new style dates, acquences, reading from left to right.

cording to the Gregorian Calendar, at the These are marked as sequence A, se right; thus 16 at left of sequence D shows quence B, and so on. At the right or left that this sequence is to be used for all old of each sequence is given the centurial style dates from 1600 to 1699, as the cate

May

July

30

of landing of Pilgrims, Dec. 11, 0. S., cause an irregularity of 12 years, either in 1620. At the right of sequence F, 16 one period, or in two intervals of 6 years shows that this is the sequence for all each, or in one of 7 and another of 3 new style dates in the same period, as the years, after which the regular intervals landing of Pilgrims, Dec. 21, 1620. The 18 will be successively repeated again. But at right of sequence D indicates this as notice the difference in the grouping of the one to use for the present century, the years un er January and February, 1800 to 1899.

and that of the other ten months. Take Above or beneath those sequences are the years in the column in which we find given, for each month, the odd years of 3 under any other month, and the calen. the century, from 00 to 99, reading from dar for those months repeats as follows: left to right and so arranged that all the 3, 8, 14, 25, 31, showing that the order years of a century in which the first of for an entire year recurs less frequently, the month falls on a certain day of the as in 3, 14, 25, 31. The order for any week are in the same column. Thus, take leap year is repeated at intervals of 28 the table for January and the sequence for years; thus the calendar for 1856 correthe present century, D, all the years in sponds with that for 1884, and this order the first column, 4, 9, 15, 26, etc., are over would obtain again in 1912 but for the Sunday in the sequence named; so the 1st omission of leap year in 1900, by which of January in all these years is Sunday. the interval is extended 12 years, and the In the second column are all the years in 29th of February will not fall on Friday which the 1st falls on Monday, and so on. again until 1924. The order for any year If we bear in min) that the 8th, 15th, 220 next succeeding a leap year will be reand 29th of any month will come on the peate in 6 years, while the orders for the same day of the week as the 1st, this ar second and third years following a leap rangement gives at once the day of the year will be repeated in 11 years. Then week of five dates in any month, and from the calendar for '81 will be repeated in these the day of any other date in that '87; the order that obtained in '82 will month can easily be found.

occur again in '93, but that for '83 correNow with a given date to find the day sponds with '94. of the week, as Aug. 23, 1841. In the What has been shown as to leap year table for August find the given year 41; dates, as Feb. 29th, recurring on the same take the sequence in line with the centur day of the week, is of course true of Inial year 18, D, and in this sequence abovo auguration Day, March 4th, of every 41 we find Sunday. The August 1 in that fourth year. This came on Sunday in year was Sunday, and the 8th, 15th and 1821, 1819 and 1877, an! if 1900 were a 22d must have fallen on Sun 'ay also; and leap year it would occur again in 1900, if the 22d was Sunday, the 23d was Mon but owing to that omission it will not reday. What day of the week was Dec. 11, cur until 1917. The irregular interval O. S., 1620? Use sequence D for 1600s O. caused by the omission of leap year is s. and in this above 20 in December find sometimes 40 and sometimes 12 days. Friday. Then the 1st and the 8th came Under the Julian Calendar, established 40 on Friday, and the 11th must have been B. C. by Julius Caesar, the calendar for Monday,

an entire century was repeated every 700 Take the same date as given, new style, years, and therefore the sequence of days Dec. 21, 1620. Use sequence Ffor the given here for 1700 O. S., G., answers also 1600s N. S. and above 20 find Tuesday, for the time 700 years earlier, i. e., the which was the 1st and the 22d, and the century 1000 to 1099; also for the years 21st was Monday. Then the Pilgrims 300 to 399. In this way the sequences landed on Monday.

given may cover the time back to the beIf the last Thursday in November, 1885, ginning of the Christian Era. Under the be Thanksgiving Day, what will be the Gregorian Calendar the orders are repeatdate? We find that in 1885 the 1st, and therefore the 29th, of November comes on

ed every 400 years, and only four of the

sequences are required, viz., C, D, E and Sunday; then the preceding Thursday, or

F; F serving alike for 1600 and 2000, E Nov. 26th, is the last Thursday, or for 1700 and 2100, etc. Thanksgiving Day.

Pope Gregory Xul in 1582 undertook to This arrangement involves no compari- reform the Julian Calendar. To correct son or distinction further than this: For the errors that had accumulated and to the months of January and February of guard against future inaccuracies, he supcentesimal leap years only, as 1600, 2000, presse 1 ten days and provided for the etc., by the Gregorian Calendar, the omission of leap year every centesimal heavy-faced 00s in the first column are to be used, but for centesimal years not leap

year, excepting every fourth centesimal

year. Under the Gregorian Calendar 1700, years the 00s in the secon 1 column are re 1800 and 1900 are not counted as leap quired. By the Julian Calendar every years, but 1600 and 2000 are. This calencentesimal year was leap year; by the dar was adopted by Germany in 1700 and Gregorian Calendar only every fourth cen by England not until 1752, by which time, tesimal year is a leap year, 1700 O. S. then should be regarded as a leap year,

as 1700 had passed as leap year, the dit

ference amounted to 11 days, and Parlia. while 1700 N. S. is not.

ment rectified the error by suppressing 11 As to the intervals between the times days in September of that year. The when a given day of the month falls on a Julian Calendar still prevails in Russia, certain week day, as Jan. 1st on Saturday, an) as 1800 has passed with them as leap this occurred in 1803-14-20-25-31, and so year, the difference between their reckonon at intervals of 11, 6, 5 and 6 years, ing and ours is 12 days, so that August 7 which intervals are repeated and would in Russia is the same as August 19 with continue without interruption but for the us. omission of leap year in 1900, which will

(See Page 9.)

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JANUARY

FEBRUARY.

MAY

JUNE.

Perpetual

Calendar

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A 18 W T F SA SUM TUW THF SASU M TUWTH F SASUM TUW THF SASUM TU W THF SASUM TU
B 15 M TU W T F SA SUM TUW TIF SA SU MTU W T F SA SU

MTU W T F SA SU
011 F SA SUM TU W T F SASUM TU W TIF SA SUM TUW THF SASU M Tu W TH F SASUM TUW Th 19
D 16 Su M Tu W Th F Sa Su M Tu W Th F Sa
E 14 TU W T F SA SU MTU W THF SA SUM

Su M Tu W Th F Sa 181
TU W
Su M Tu W Th F Sa Su M Tu W Th F Sa
THF

TU W THF SASUM Tu W T F SA SUM 17
F12 THF SA SUM TU W TIF SASUM TUW TIF SA SUM TUW TIF SASUM TUW TIF SASUM TUW 16
G 17 SA SUM TUW THF ISA SUM TU W TUF ISA SU MTU W TAF SASUM TU W T F SASUM TUW THF

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96 97 98 99
APRIL.
JULY.
AUGUST.

MARCH. NOV'R.
COPYRIGHT, 1884, BY WILMOT H. THOMPSON, ORANGE, N. J.

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Calendar for Me. Calendar for Boston, Mase, Calendar for N. York city Cal. for Wash.,D.C.; Calendar for Charleston, S.
N.S., Ont., No. N. N. Hampshire, Vermont, So. New York, Conn.. Del., Md., Va., W. C.; Georgia, Ala., Miss.,
York, Mich., Wis.,

Central New York, So. B. I., Pa., N.J., North VA., ,9. Ohio. Ind., South Ark., North Lou
Minn., N. and S. Michigan and Wisconsin, em part of Ohio, Ind., mi., N. Mo., Kan., Biana, North Texas, 8o.
Dak. Mon.,Wash., North lowa, Wyoming, and in., 89, lowa, Neb., Cent. Col., C. Utah, New Mexico, Southern
N. Ore., N. Idaho. So, Idaho, So. Oregon. N. Col., Utah, Nev., Cal. C. Neb., O. Cal. Arizona, So. California,
SOD San Moon Sun Sun Moon R. W. Sun Sun Moon A. W. Bun Sun Moon Son Sun Moon H. W.

rises. Bets eets. rises. Bets. Bete. Doston Bee. Hets. Hets. N. Y. rises. Beta. sete. Пеев весе. Bets. Ch't'n.
H. M. s. H.M.H.M. H. M. H.M.H.M. H. M. H. M. H.M. H.M. H.M. H. M. H.M. H.M. H.M.H.M. H.M. H.M. H.M.
1 1 Tu 12 3 537 37 4 31 10 817 30 4 38 10 10 2 4617 254 44 10 12 mo. 17 19 4 49 10 137 315 5 10 16 11 25
2 2 W 12 4 217 37 4 32 11 12 17 30 4 39 11 12 3 257 25 4 44 11 12 10 7 19 4 50 11 1217 35 611 12 mo.
3 3 Th 12 4 4817 374 33 mo. 17 30 4 40 mo. 4 417 25 4 45 mo. 517 19/4 51 mo. 17 35 7|mo. 4
4 4 Fr 12 5i6|7 37 4 34 1717 30 4 41 14 4 4817 25 4 46 13 I 347 19 4 52 1217 35 8 8 48
5 5 Sa 12 5 4317 37 4 35 1 24 17 30 4 42 1 19 5 337 25 4 47 1 16 2 227 19 4 52 1 1317 4 5 8 1 5 1 33
6 6 S 12 / 9 7 37 4 36 2 357 30 4 43 2 27 6 337 25 4 48 2 23 3 1717 19 4 53 2 19 7 4 5 9 2 7 2 33

M 12 6 357 37 4 37 35217 30 4 44 341 7 34 7 24 4 49 3 35 4 1917 1914 54 3 307 45 10 3 14 3 34

Tu 12 7 017 36 4 38 5 917 29 4 45 4 55 8 3817 24 4 50 4 48 5 237 19 4 55 4 4217 45 11 4 22 4 38 14 ans
9 9 W 12 7 25 7 36 4 39 6 237 29 4 46 6 7 9 437 24 4 51 6 0 6 2917 19 4 56 553|7 45 12 5 31 5 43
1010 Th 12 7 507 36 4 40 7 297 29 4 47 7 13 10 4717 24 4 52 7 6 7 31 7 19 4 57 6 557 35 12 6 376 47
un Fr|128 1317 36 4 41 rises 17 28 4 48 rises 11 437 24 4 53 rises 8 267 19 4 58 rises 7 3 5 13 rises 7 43
12 12 Sa 12 8 37 7 354 42 6 3517 28 4 49 6 44 ev 377 23 4 54 6 48 9 2317 18 4 596 5217 35 14 7 5 8 37

12 8 59|7 35 4 44 7 5917 28 4 50 8 4 1 27 7 234 55 8 7 10 12 7 18 5 0 8 1017 35 15 8 18 9 27

12 92117 344 45 9 19 7 27 4 52 9 21 2 167 22 4 56 9 22 10 5817 18 5 1 9 237 35 16 9 27 10 16 1515 Tu 12 9 42 7 34 4 46 10 3617 27 4 53 10 35 3 0 7 22 4 57 10 34 11 457 18 5 2 10 3417 35 17 10 33 11 O 1616 W 12 10 3 7 33 4 47 11 51 17 26 4 5411 47 3 467 22 4 59 11 45 ev 327 1815 311 437 35 18 11 37 11 46 17 17 Th|12 10 2317 32 4 49 mo. 17 26 4 55 mo. 4 3617 215 o mo. I 237 175 4mo. 17 25 19 mo. ev 36 18 18 Fr 12 10 42 7 32 4 50 1 417 25 4 56 581 5 3017 215 I 55 2 167 17 5 6 5117 25 20 411 I 30 1919 Sa 12 II 0 7 314 51 2 1817 25 4 58 2 8 6 27 7 20 5 2 2 4 3 1317 16 5 7 1 59 7 215 21 1 45 27 20/20 S 12 11 1817 30 4 53 3 297 24 4 59 3 17 7 287 20 5 3 3 12 4 157 15 5 8 3 67 15 22 2 48 3 28 21 21 M 12 11 35 7 30 4 54 4 39 7 23 5 0 4 25 8 2917 195 4 4 18 5 147 155 9 4 117 15 22 3 50 4 29 22 22 Tu 12 11 5117 29 4 55 5 4017 235 1 5 24 9 257 185 65 17 6 12 7 14 5 10 5 1017 15 23 4 48 5 25 2323 W 12 12 717 284 57 6 337 225 3 6 17 10 1817 18 5 7 6 10 7 417 13 5 11 6 317 05 24 5 41 18 24 24 Th 12 12 227 27 4 58 7 1417 215 4 7 011 817 17 5 8 6 53 7 49 7 135 12 6 47 Z 05 25 6 26 7 8 2525 Fr 12 12 30 7 26 4 59 sets 17 20 5 5 sets 11 457 16 5 9 sets 8 2817 12 5 13 sets 6 59 5 26 sets 7 45 26 26 Sa 12 12 4917 25 5 1 5 4817 205 65 56 mo. 17 15 5 10 6 1 9 97 115 15 6 416 595 27 6 17 8 12 27 27 S 12 13 17 245 2 6 5417 195 8 7.0 127 15 5 12 7 3 9 47 7 115 16 7 66 585 28 7 14 9 I 28 28 M 12 13 1217 225 4 8 07 185 9 8 3 1 117 14 5 13 8 5 10 2017 10 5 17 8 66 57 5 29 8 11 935 2929 Tu 12 13 2317 225 5 9 37 17 5 10 9 4 1 357 13 5 14 9 410 527 95 18 9 56 57 5 30 9 6 10 10 30 30 W 12 13 33 7 215 610 617 16 5 12 10 5 2 10 7 12 5 1510 411 2817 815 1910 36 56 5 31 10 0 10 46 31/31 Th|12 13 4217 2015 8 11 14 17 15.5 13 9 2 4617 115 1711_7\mo. 17_715 2011 516 56/5 32 10 58|11 24'

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