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people and the maintenance of freedom watchful care and recognition of their among men. We therefore declare anew just claims upon a grateful people. our devotion to liberty of thought and HARRISON'S ADMINISTRATION. conscience, of speech and press, and ap "We commend the able, patriotic and prove all agencies and instrumentalities thoroughly American Administration of which contribute to the education of the President Harrison. Under it the country children of the land; but, while insisting has enjoyed remarkable prosperity, and upon the fullest measure of religious lib the dignity and honor of the Nation at erty, we are opposed to any union of

home and abroad have been faithfully Church and State.

maintained, and we offer the record of TRUSTS. -"We reaffirm our opposition, pledges kept as a guarantee of faithful declared in the Republican platform of performance in the future.” 1888, to all combinations of capital organized in trust or otherwise, to control arbi

THE REPUBLICAN NOMINAtrarily the condition of trade among our

TIONS. citizens. We heartily indorse the action

On June 11 Senator E. O. Wolcott, of already taken upon this subject, and ask

Colorado, nominated for President James for such further legislation as may be

G. Blaine. R. W. Thompson, of Indiana, required to remedy any defects in exist: ex-Secretary of the Navy, nominated Bening laws and to render their enforcement jamin Harrison. On the first ballot Presi. more complete and effective. POSTOFFICE REFORM.-"We approve

dent Harrison was chosen for re-election.

At the evening session State Senator the policy of extending to towns, villages Edmund O'Connor, of New York, nomiand rural communities the advantages of nated Whitelaw Reid, of New-York, for the free delivery service now enjoyed by Vice-President. The nomination was made the larger cities of the country, and re unanimous. affirm the declaration contained in the Republican platform of 1888, pledging the THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL reduction of letter postage to one cent at the earliest possible moment consistent

CONVENTION. with the maintenance of the Postoffice This body met in Chicago on June 21, Department and the highest class of 1892. William C. Owens, of Kentucky, postal service.

was made temporary chairman, and willCIVIL SERVICE.-"We commend the iam L. Wilson, of West Virginia, permaspirit and evidence of reform in the Civil nent chairman. Service, and the wise and consistent enforcement by the Republican party of the

DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM, laws regulating the same.

Adopted at Chicago, June 22, NICARAGUA CANAL.-"The construc

1892. tion of the Nicaragua Canal is of the highest importance to the American peo- party of the United States, in National

"The representatives of the Democratic ple, both as a measure of National defence and to build up and maintain

convention assembled, do reaffirm their American commerce,

and it should be allegiance to the principles of the party controlled by the United States Govern

as formulated by Jefferson and exemplis ment.

fied by the long and illustrious line of TERRITORIES.-"We favor the ad- his successors in Democratic leadership mission of the remaining Territories at

from Madison to Cleveland; we believe the earliest practicable date, having due

the public welfare demands that these regard to the interests of the people of principles be applied to the conduct of the Territories and of the United States.

the Federal Government through the ac. All the Federal officers appointed for the

cessicn to power of the party that advo. Territories should be selected from bona

cates them, and we solemnly declare that fide residents thereof, and the right of

the need of a return to these fundamental self-government should be accorded as far principles of a free popular government as practicable.

based on home rule and individual liberty ARID LANDS.-" We favor cession,

was never nore urgent than now, when subject to the Homestead laws, of the the tendency o centralize all power at arid public lands to the States and Ter- the Federal Capital has become a menace ritories in which they lie, under such to the reserved rights of the States that Congressional restrictions as to disposi- strikes at the very roots of our Governtion, reclamation and occupancy by set- ment under the Constitution as framed tlers as will secure the maximum benefits by the fathers of the Republic. to the people.


the COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. - " The people of our common country, Jealous for World's Columbian Exposition is a great the preservation of their free institutions, National undertaking, and Congress should that the policy of Federal control of promptly enact such reasonable legisla- elections, to which the Republican party tion in aid thereof as will insure a dis- has commended itself, is fraught with the charge of the expenses and obligations in gravest dangers, scarcely less momentous cident thereto, and the attainment of re than would result from a revolution prac. sults commensurate with the dignity and tically establishing monarchy on the ruins progress of the Nation.

of the Republic. It strikes at the North INTEMPERANCE. - "We sympathize as well as the South, and injures the with all wise and legitimate efforts to colored citizens even more than the white; lessen and prevent the evils of intemper- it means a horde of deputy marshals at ance and promote morality.

every polling place armed with Federal PENSIONS.-'Ever mindful of the ser-power, returning boards appointed and vices and sacrifices of the men who saved controlled by Federal authority, the outthe life of the Nation, we pledge anew to rage of the electoral rights of the people the veteran soldiers of the Republic a in the several States, subjugation of the

colored people to the control of the party strictive taxes against the importation of in power, and the reviving of race an- foreign wealth, in exchange for our agritagonisms now happily abated, of the cultural surplus, the homes and farms utmost peril to the safety and happiness of the country have become burdened of all, a measure deliberately and justly with a real estate mortgage debt of over described by a leading Republican Sena- $2,500,000, exclusive of all other forms of tor as 'the most infamous bill that ever indebtedness; that in one of the chiet crossed the threshold of the Senate.' Such agricultural States of the West there apa policy, if sanctioned by law, would pears a real estate mortgage debt avermean the dominance of a self-perpetuating aging $165 per capita of the total popuoligarchy of office-holders, and the party lation, and that similar conditions and first intrusted with its machinery could tendencies are shown to exist in other be dislodged from power only by an ap- agricultural exporting States. We depeal to the reserved rights of the people nounce a policy which fosters no industo resist oppression which is inherent in try so much as it does that of the sherifi. all self-governing communities. Two years RECIPROCITY.-"Trade interchange on ago this revolutionary policy was em the basis of recip.ocal advantages to the phatically condemned by the people at the countries participating is a time-honored polls, but in contempt of that verdict the doctrine of the Democratic faith, but we Republican party has defiantly declared denounce the sham reciprocity which jugin its latest authoritative utterance that gles with the people's desire for en its success in the coming elections will larged foreign markets and freer exmean the enactment of the Force bill, and changes by pretending to establish closer the usurpation of despotic control over trade relations for a country whose artielections in all the States. Believing that cies of export are almost exclusively agrithe preservation of republican govern- cultural products with other countries that ment in the United States is dependent are also agricultural, while erecting a upon the defeat of this policy of legal- custom-house barrier of prohibitive tarifi ized force and fraud, we invite the sup taxes against the rich and the countries port of all citizens who desire to see the of the world that stand ready to take Constitution maintained in its integrity our entire surplus of products and to exwith the laws pursuant thereto which change therefor commodities which are have given our country a hundred years necessaries and comforts of life among of unexampled prcsperity, and we pledge our people. the Democratic party, if it be intrusted with power, not only to the defeat of the

TRUSTS.-"We recognize in the trusts

and combinations which are designed to Force bill, but also to relentless opposition to the Republican policy of profligate

enable capital to secure more than its expenditure which, in the short space of

just share of the joint product of capital

and labor a natural consequence of the two years, has squandered an enormous surplus, emptied an overflowing Treasury,

prohibitive taxes which prevent the free after piling new burdens of taxation upon

competition which is the life of honest the already overtaxed labor of the coun

trade, but we believe their worst eyils try.

can be abated by law, and we demand TARIFF.-"We denounce Republican

the rigid enforcement of the laws made protection as a fraud, a robbery of the

to prevent and control them, together

with such further legislation in restraint great majority of the American people of their abuses as experience may show for the beaefit of the few. We declare it

to be necessary. to be a fundamental principle of the Democratic party that the Federal Gov

PUBLIC LANDS. -" The Republican ernment has no constitutional power to

party, while professing a policy of reservimpose and collect tariff duties, except

ing the public land for small holdings by for the purpose of revenue only, and we

actual settlers, has given away the peodemand that the collection of such taxes

ple's heritage, till now a few railroads shall be limited to the necessities of the

and non-resident aliens, individual and Government when honestly and econom

corporate, possess a larger area than that ically administered. We denounce the

of all our farms between the two seas. McKinley Tariff law enacted by the LIst

The last Democratic Administration reCongress as the culminating atrocity of

versed the improvident and unwise policy class legislation; we indorse the efforts

of the Republican party touching the made by the Democrats of the present public domain, and reclaimed from corCongress to modify its most oppressive

porations and syndicates, abroad and dofeature in the direction of free raw mate

mestic, and restored to the people nearly rials and cheaper manufactured goods

one hundred million acres of valuable that enter into general consumption, and

land to be sacredly held as homesteads we promise its repeal as one of the benef

for our citizens, and we pledge ourselves icent results that will follow the action

to continue this policy until every acre of of the people in intrusting power to the

land so unlawfully held shall be reclaimed Democratic party. Since the McKinley

and restored to the people. tariff went into operation there have been SILVER.-"We denounce the Republiten reductions of the wages of the laboring can legislation known as the Sherman man to one increase. We deny that there

act of 1890 as a cowardly makeshift, has been any increase of prosperity to the fraught with possibilities of danger in country since the tarifl went into opera the future, which should make all of its tion, and we point to the dulness and supporters, as well as its author, anxious distress, the wage reductions and strikes for its speedy repeal. We hold to the use in the iron trade as the best possible of both gold and silver as the standard evidence that no such prosperity has money of the country, and to the coinage resulted from the McKinley act. We call of both gold and silver, without discrimthe attention of thoughtful Americans to inating against either metal or charge for the fact that after thirty years of re mintage, but the dollar unit of coinage or

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both metals must be of equal intrinsic mand the rigid enforcement of the laws and exchangeable value or be adjusted against Chinese immigration or the imthrough international agreement, or by portation of foreign workmen under consuch safeguards of legislation as shall in tract to degrade American labor and lessure the maintenance of the parity of the sen its wages, but we condemn and detwo metals and the equal power of every nounce any and all attempts to restrict dollar at all times in the markets and in the immigration of the industrious and payments of debts and we demand that worthy of foreign lands. all paper currency shall be kept at par PENSIONS.-"This convention hereby with and redeemable in such coin.


renews the expression of appreciation of insist upon this policy as especially neces the patriotism of the soldiers and sailors sary for the protection of the farmers and of the Union in the war for its preservalaboring classes, the first and most de tion, and we favor just and liberal penfenceless victims of unstable money and sions for all disabled Union soldiers, their a fluctuating currency.

widows and dependents, but we demand BANKING. -"We recommend that the that the work of the Pension Office shall prohibitory 10 per cent tax on State bank be done industriously, impartially and issues be repealed.

honestly. We denounce the present adCIVIL SERVICE."Public office is a ministration of that office as incompetent, public trust. We reaffirm the declaration corrupt, disgraceful and dishonest. of the Democratic National Convention of WATERWAYS. -- "The Federal Govern1876 for the reform of the civil service,

ment should care for and improve the and we call for the honest enforcement of

Mississippi River and other great waterall laws regulating the same. The nomi ways of the Republic so as to secure for nation of a President, as in the recent

the interior States easy and cheap transRepublican Convention, by delegations portation to the tidewater. When any composed largely of his appointees, hold waterway of the public is of sufficient ing office at his pleasure, is a scandalous importance to demand the aid of the Govsatire upon free popular institutions and

ernment-that such aid should be extenda startling illustration of the methods by

ed, a definite plan of continuous work, which a President may gratify his ambi

until permanent improvement is secured. tion. We denounce a poucy under which

NICARAGUA CANAL.-"For purposes Federal office-holders usurp control of party conventions in the States, and we

of National defence, the promotion of pledge the Democratic party to the re

commerce between the States, we recogform of these and all other abuses which

nize the early construction of the Nicthreaten individual liberty and local self

aragua Canal and its protection against

foreign control as of great importance to government. FOREIGN POLICY.-"The Democratic

the United States. party is the only party that has ever

WORLD'S FAIR. - "Recognizing the given the country a foreign policy con

World's Columbian Exposition as a Nasistent and vigorous, compelling respect

tional undertaking of vast in portance, in abroad and inspiring confidence at home.

which the General Government has inWhile avoiding entangling alliances, it has

vited the co-operation of all the powers aimed to cultivate friendly relations with

of the world, and appreciating the acother nations, and especially with our

ceptance by many of such powers of the neighbors on the American continent,

invitation so extended, and the broadest whose destiny is closely linked with our

liberal efforts being made by them to own, and we view with alarm the ten

contribute to the grandeur of the underdency to a policy of irritation and bluster

taking, we are of the opinion that conwhich is liable at any time to confront

gress should make such necessary finanus with the alternative of humiliation or

cial provisions as shall be requisite war. We favor the maintenance of a

to the maintenance of the National honor navy strong enough for all purposes of

and public faith. National defence, and to properly main

PUBLIC SCHOOLS.-"Popular educatain the honor and dignity of the country

tion being the only safe basis of popular abroad.

suffrage, we recommend to the several FOREIGN OPPRESSION.-"This coun

States most liberal appropriations for the try has always been the refuge of op

public schools. Free common schools are pressed from every land-exiles for con

the nursery of good government, and they science sake-and in the spirit of the

have always received the fostering care founders of our Government we condemn

of the Democratic party, which favors the oppression practised by the Russian

every means of increasing intelligence. Government upon its Lutheran and Jew.

Freedom of education, being an essential ish subjects, and we call upon our Na

of civil and religious liberty as well as a tional Government, in the interests of

necessity for the development of intellijustice and humanity, by all just and

gence, must not be interfered with under proper means to use its prompt and best

any pretext whatever. We are opposed effort to bring about a cessation of these

to State interference with parental rights cruel persecutions in the dominions of

and rights of conscience in the education the Czar, and to secure to the oppressed

of children as


infringement of a equal rights. We tender our profound

fundamental Democratic doctrine that the and earnest sympathy to those lovers of largest individual liberty consistent with freedom who are struggling for home rule

the rights of others insures the highest I and the great cause of local self-govern

type of American citizenship and the best ment in Ireland.

government. IMMIGRATION.--"We heartily approve TERRITORIES.-"We approve the acall legitimate efforts to rrevent the

United tion of the present House of RepresentaStates from being used as a dumping tives in passing bills for the admission ground for the known_ criminals and pro into the Union as States of the Territories fessional paupers of Europe, and we de of New Mexico and Arizona, and we favor

the early admission of all the Territories | process of reform must be subject in the having necessary population and resources execution of this plain dictate of justice." to admit them to Statehood, and while On motion of Lawrence T Neal, of they remain Territories we hold that the Ohio, the above paragraph was struck officials appointed to administer the Gov from the Platform and the following subernment of any Territory, together with stituted: the District of Columbia and Alaska, "We denounce Republican Protection as should be bona fide residents of the Terri a fraud, a robbery on the great majority tory or district in which their duties are

of the American people for the benefit of to be performed. The Democratic party the few. We declare it to be a fundabelieve in home rule and the control of mental principle of the Democratie party their own affairs by the people of the that the Federal Government has no convicinage.

stitutional power to impose and to collect LABOR. - 'We favor legislation by Con tariff duties, except for the purpose of gress and State Legislatures to protect the revenue only, and we demand that the lives and limbs of railway employes and collection of such taxes shall be limite those of other hazardous transportation to the necessities of the Government when companies, and denounce the inactivity of honestly and economically administered." the Republican party, particularly the Republican Senate, for causing the defeat of

DEMOCRATIC NOMINATIONS measures beneficial and protective to this

FOR PRESIDENT. class of wage-workers. We are in favor

Governor Leon Abbett, of New Jersey. of the enactment by the States of laws presented the name of Grover Cleveland. for abolishing the notorious sweating sys- of New York, for President; Wm. c. De tem, for abolishing contract convict labor Witt, of Brooklyn, that of David B. Hill, and for prohibiting the employment in of New-York, and John F. Dunscombe, of factories of children under fifteen years Iowa, that of Horace Boies, of Iowa. Mr. of age.

Cleveland was nominated on the first balMISCELLANEOUS.-"We are opposed lot. to all sumptuary law as an interference




VICEthe citizen. Upon this statement of principles

PRESIDENT. and policies the Democratic party asks

On June 23 Adlai E. Stevenson, of 1111the intelligent judgment of the American

nois, was nominated by acclamation for people. It asks a change of administra

the Vice-Presidency after one ballot had tion and a change of party, in order that been taken. there might be a change of system and a Nicholas E. Worthington, of Illinois.

His name was presented by change of methods, thus assuring the maintenance unimpaired of institutions under which the Republic has grown THE PEOPLE'S PARTY COXgreat and powerful."

VENTION. The Platform, as reported from the

This body met at Omaha, July 2, 1892 Committee on Resolutions, contained this declaration, as the first paragraph of Sec-C. H. Ellington, of Georgia, was chosen tion 3, with the heading "Revenue Tar- temporary chairman, and H. L. Loucks

of South Dakota, permanent chairman. iffs": “We reiterate the oft-repeated doctrines

THE PLATFORM. of the Democratic party that the necessity "Assembled upon the one hundred and of the Government is the only justifica- sixteenth anniversary of the Declaration of tion for taxation, and whenever a tax is Independence, the People's Party of Amerunnecessary it is unjustifiable; that when ica, in their first National Convention custom-house taxation is levied upon arti- invoking upon their action the blessing cles of any kind produced in this country, of Almighty God, puts forth, in the name the difference between the cost of labor and on behalf of the people of this country, here and labor abroad, when such a dif the following preamble and declaration of ference exists, fully measures any possible principles: benefits to labor, and the enormous addi **The conditions which surround us best! tional impositions of the existing tariff justify our co-operation. We meet in the fall with crushing force upon our farmers midst of a nation brought to the verge and workingmen, and for the mere ad of moral, political and material ruin. vantage of the few whom it enriches, ex Corruption dominates the ballot-box, the act from labor a grossly unjust share of Legislatures, the Congress, and touches the expenses of the Government, and we even the ermine of the Bench.

The per demand such a revision of the tariff laws ple are demoralized; most of the States as will remove their iniquitous inequali- have been compelled to isolate the voters ties, lighten their oppressions and put at the polling places to prevent universal them on a constitutional and equitable intimidation or bribery. The newspapers basis. But in making reduction in taxes are largely subsidized or muzzled, publie it is not proposed to injure any domestic opinion silenced, business prostrated, our industries, but rather to promote their homes covered with mortgages, labor imhealthy growth. From the foundation of poverished, and the land concentrating in this Government taxes collected at

the hands of capitalists. The

urban Custom House have been the chief source workmen are denied the right of organizaof Federal revenue. Such they must con tion for self-protection; imported paupertinue to be. Moreover, many industries ized labor beats down their wages; a: have come to rely upon legislation for hireling standing army, unrecognized by successful continuance, so that any change our laws, is established to shoot them of law must be at every step regardful of down, and they are rapidly degenerating the labor and capital thus involved. The | into European conditions. The fruits of

the toil of millions are boldly stolen to annual agricultural productions amount to build up colossal fortunes for a few, un- billions of dollars in' value, which must precedented in the history of mankind, within a few weeks or months be exand the possessors of these in turn de- changed for billions of dollars' worth of spise the Republic and endanger liberty. commodities consumed in their producFrom the same prolific womb of govern- tion; the existing currency supply is mental injustice we breed the two great wholly inadequate to make this exchange; classes-tramps and millionaires.

the results are falling prices, the forma**The national power to create money tion of combines and rings, the impovis appropriated to enrich bondholders; a erishment of the producing class. We vast public debt, payable in legal tender pledge ourselves that, if given power, we currency, has been funded into gold-bear- will labor to correct these evils by wise ing bonds, thereby adding millions to the and reasonable legislation, in accordance burdens of the people. Silver, which has with the terms of our platform. We bebeen accepted as coin since the dawn of lieve that the powers of Government-in history, has been demonetized to add to other words, of the people should be the purchasing power of gold by decreas- expanded (as in the case of the postal ing the value of all forms of property as service) as rapidly, and as far as the well as human labor, and the supply of good sense of an intelligent people and currency is purposely abridged to fatten the teachings of experience shall justify, usurers, bankrupt enterprise and enslave to the end that cppression, injustice and industry.

poverty shall eventually cease in the vast conspiracy against


mankind has been organized on two continents, reform are naturally upon the side of

"While our sympathies as a party of and it is rapidly taking possession of the world. If not met and overthrown at make men intelligent, virtuous and tem

every proposition which will tend to cnce, it forebodes terrible social vulsions, the destruction of civilization, perate, we nevertheless regard these quesor the establishment of an absolute des: tions-important as they are-as secondary potism. We have witnessed, for more

to the great issues now pressir.g for soluthan a quarter of a century, the strug- vidual prosperity, but the very existence

tion, and upon which not only cur indigles of the two great political parties of free institutions depends; and we ask for power and plunder, while grievous all men to first help us to determine wrongs have been inflicted upon the suffering people. We charge that the con- administer, before we differ as to the

whether we are to have a Republic to trolling influences dominating both these conditions upon which it is to be adminparties have permitted the existing dread-istered; believing that the forces of reful conditions to develop without serious form this day organized will never cease effort to prevent or Neither do they now promise us any sub-to move forward until every wrong is stantial reform. They have agreed to ileges securely established for all the men

righted, and equal rights and equal privgether to ignore, in the coming campaign, and women of this country. We declare, every issue but one. They propose to

therefore, drown the outeries of a plundered peo

"1. That the union of the labor forces of ple with the uproar of a sham battle

the United States this day consummated over the tariff, so that capitalists, corporations, National banks, rings, trusts,

shall be permanent and perpetual; may its watered stock, the demonetization of sil: spirit enter into all hearts for the salvaver, and the oppressions of the usurers

tion of the Republic and the uplifting it

mankind. may all be lost sight of. They propose to

*2. Wealth belongs to him who creates sacrifice our homes, lives and children multitude in order to secure corruption any will not work, neither shall he eat.' on the altar of Mammon; to destroy the it, and every dollar taken from industry

without an equivalent is robbery. IP funds from the millionaires. "Assembled or the anniversary of the

The interests of rural and civic labor birthday of the Nation, and filled with the are, the same; their cnemies are identical. spirit of the grand general and chieftain

"3. We believe that the time has come who established our independence, we seek

when the railroad corporations will either to restore the Government of the Re

own the people or the people must cwn public to the hands of the "plain people'

the railroads; and should the Governwith whose class it originated. We assert managing all ralleads, we should favor

ment enter upon the work of owning and our purposes to be identical with the pur

an amendment to the Constitution by poses of the Natic nal Constitution, form a more perfect union, and establish

which all persons engaged in the Govjustice, insure domestic tranquility, pro

ernment service shall be placed under a vide for the common

civil service regulation of the most rigid

defence, promote character, so as to prevent the increase the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty for ourselves and our pos

of the power of the National Administraterity. We declare that this Republic

tion by the use of such additional Govcan only endure as a free' government

ernment employes. while built upon the love of the whole MONEY.-'1. We demand a National people for each other and for the Nation; currency, safe, sound and flexible, issued that it cannot be pinned together by bayo- by the General Govean.nent only, a full nets; that the Civil War is over, and that legal tender for all debts public and prievery passion and resentment which grew vate, and that without the use of bankout of it must die with it, and that we ing corporations; a just, "quitable and must be in fact, as we are in name, one efficient means of distribution direct to united brotherhood of freedom.

the people at a tax not to exceed 2 per *Our country finds itself confronted by cent per annum, to be provided as set conditions for which there is no prece- forth in the Sub-Treasury plan of the dent in the history of the world; our Farmers' Alliance, or better system;


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