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end of which time a new vote may be de- The King then sent for the envoy, and th
been ceded to Japan in the treaty of peace ple petition for it. Another provision with China, ratihed on May 8, but before gives the Government the right to 65 per the Japanese Governor, Admiral Kabay cent of the profits of the sales of liquor ama, could reach there and assume con where allowed, which percentage is to be trol of affairs the people declared their in utilized for an old-age pension fund. Fildependence. The population, estimated at teen per cent of the remainder will go to about 3,000,000, includes between 10,000 the commune for municipal purposes, and and 15,000 of the "Black Flags," an or the other 20 per cent is to be distributed ganization of Chinese brigands. The agri among the temperance societies and other cultural class is composed of poor and ig institutions. norant Chinese peasants, while the native VENEZUELA.-Congress voted a law inhabitants, who live in the interior, are in 1894 decreeing that any person landing savages. The island was turned over to in Venezuela shall be recorded in a special the Japanese Governor by the Chinese register. After the name, profession and Commission on June 2. The Republic col other information required from the newly lapsed early in June and Tang Ching fled. arrived person has been recorded, a per
FRANCE.On April 21, 1894, the Presi mit of sojourn will be issued to him. The dent signed a decree forbidding French enactment of such law is in order to prediplomats, consuls, consular agents, etc., vent the immigration and residence in to marry without the consent of the Minis Venezuela of the "detritus," or "scum of ter of Foreign Affairs. If an Ambassa. other nations' so long as there are no exdor, Minister, Consul or other French of tradition treaties covering such cases. ficial desires to marry a foreigner, permission must be obtained from the Minister of Foreign Affairs one month before the first publication of the bans.
JAPAN-CHINA WAR. GREENLAND.Dr. Nansen in the story The "Yellow War," as that between of a journey across Greenland, recounted Japan and China was called, beginning by him before the Berlin Geographical So with the attack upon the Japanese column ciety in 1890, stated that all Greenland by the Chinese soldiers at Seoul, Corea, south of latitude 75 degrees is covered on July 23, 1894, and ending with the with ice; but how far this icecoat ex treaty of peace in April, 1895, was a war tends over North Greenland is not ac the record of which will occupy a promicurately known. That it must extend be nent place in the future history of the yond latitude 75 degrees is evident from world. No modern war shows such a recthe vast glaciers along the west coast. ord of successes as those achieved by the The glacier at Upernavik has a motion of Japanese arms on land or sea. It was a 99 feet in 24 hours, or 49 inches an hour. record unbroken by a single serious reThe great glaciers, like the Humboldt, at verse, and one which abounds in instruc80 degrees latitude, do not show any con tive lessons to students of military, and siderable movement, and as Grinnell Land especially of naval, methods and tactics. is not completely covered with ice, it is The beginning of the trouble dates back probable that the extreme north of Green to the uprising of the peasantry in Chulluland is not wholly overlaid with an ice do, the granary of Corea, in May, 1894. covering. It is estimated that the thick The cause of the Agrarian uprising was ness of the ice-coat is 5,000 to 6,000 feet the frightful oppression of the peasantry over the valleys. As there is no melting by the official classes. On May 16 the of the surface ice, and practically no Government troops were defeated by the evaporation, the accumulation of ice is insurgents at Reisan, and Ming Ei-Shun, checked by the glacier discharge, and, ap the Corean Minister of War, appealed to parently, by the terrestrial heat. Given China for help to crush the insurrection, the mean annual temperature of the island which was at once granted, Early in ice at minus 22 degrees Fahr., and the June about 2,000 Chinese landed on Corean geothermic scale of depth of the ice at soil, which was in violation of the terms about 554 feet per degree Fahr., the tem of the convention between China and perature of the ice would, even at 3,000 Japan that neither country should send feet, stand at melting point. A melting troops into Corea without previously process goes on at the bottom of the ice, notifying the other. Japan made every and rivers pour into the sea from under effort to secure a peaceful settlement, the ice in winter as well as in summer, offering China equal co-operation to carry and the erosive force of such streams out the necessary reforms in Corea, but must be enormous.
China curtly rejected every proposition, NORWAY. -On Jan. 1, 1896, the local op Japan then set to work alone and found tion law relative to the sale of spirits the friends of progress in Corea favors went into effect. One of the sections of able, and proposals were submitted to a the new statutes of this so-called Gothen commission of fifteen Coreans. The burg scheme. also known as the “Sam treachery of the Mings, acting under the lag,
provides that before it can be in influence of the Chinese, caused an in stituted in any locality a vote shall be solent reply; the Japanese were placed taken, in which all men and women over under surveillance, and the crisis came 25 years of age have a right to take part, when the Japanese envoy sought an in to decide whether the "Samlag' shall be terview with the Corean sovereign on July established or maintained within the lim 23. The Japanese column entered Seou its of the town or village. If a majority by the South Gate, and as the head o vote is against it, then prohibition is en
line passed the Royal Palace it was forced for a period of five years, at the fired on by the troops assembled there manded if a sufficient number of the peo
King deposed the entire body of his treacherous councillors, appointed new officers, and proceeded to suppress the social and political abuses, The King made a formal resolve to free himself from the domination of China, and trust his destiny to the more liberal and civilizing influences of the Japanese.
Some of the principal events of the war which followed are as follows:
July 25, 1894—The Kow-Shing, a Chinese transport chartered from the English to carry troops to Corea, was sunk by the Japanese Chinese warship Tsao-Kiang captured off Round Island.
July 30-Chin-Yuen, Chinese ironclad, was sunk by Japanese.
August 1-Japan declared war against China.
September 15—Engagement at PingYang; Chinese abandoned place during night and Japanese took possession on following morning. Chinese lost 2,000 killed and wounded and 700 prisoners; Japanese loss, 192 killed, 487 wounded.
September 17-Yaloo River naval fight. Japanese had 11 ships; Chinese had 14 battle-ships and cruisers and 4 torpedo boats. Chinese cruiser Chin-Yuen was sunk after being struck 200 times; ChingYuen was also sunk, Yang-Wai was stranded, Tsao-Yung was set on fire and beached,' Chen-Yuen had 120 shotholes in her sides, and the Ting-Yuen was badly damaged. The Japanese vessels were little damaged. Fight lasted five hours, in which the Chinese had 600 officers and men killed, besides a large number wounded. The total loss to the Japanese was 67 killed and 197 wounded.
October 9 Che-Foo taken by Japanese. October 24-Japanese forces invaded Chinese territory by crossing the borders into Manchuria.
November 19—The Chinese warship Chen-Yuerr was stranded to avoid sinking by torpedoes
November 21-Port Arthur was occupied by Japanese troops. The capture of Moukden followed immediately afterward.
December-Hal-Tcheng taken by Japanese.
December 20-LI Hung Chang was superseded in the chief command of the Chinese armies by Lin Kum Yo.
January 7, 1895-King of Corea announced with formal ceremonies the independence of his kingdom.
January 7-John W. Foster sailed from the United States for China, at the Chinese Emperor's request, to aid in the negotiations for peace.
January 10-Kai-Phing taken by the Japanese.
January 27–Wei-Hai-Wei invested by the Japanese.
February 4Chinese battle-ship TingYuea sunk by torpedo.
February 5-Battle-ship Lai-Yuen and two other Chinese warships sunk by torpedoes.
February 12-Chinese Admiral Ting sent to Japanese Admiral Ito a proposal to surrender all Chinese ships, arms, forts, etc., under his command. This was assented to and the surrender was completed on the following day. Ting and the other officers under him were reported to have committed suicide to escape the more dis
graceful punishment by the Chinese Emperor. February 12-Ning-Hai-Chu taken by Japanese.
March 4-Old city of Niu-Chwang taksa by Japanese. Chinese loss, 1,880 killed and wounded; 500 prisoners. Japanese los3, 206 killed and wounded,
March 6-Ying-Chow, the port of NiuChwang, taken by the Japanese.
March 24-Li Hung Chang, as Chinese Peace Envoy, was shot at Simonoseki by a young Japanese, who was immediately arrested and sentenced to penal servitude for life.
Peace Negotiations-After the United States Ministers to China and Japan had, as agents, completed preliminary steps toward negotiations for peace the real movement began. Japan had announced at the outset its willingness to receive the Chinese envoys, provided they were clothed with full and absolute power. The meeting with the first envoys was held at Hiroshima on February 1, but when the credentials were exchanged those of China were found to be defective and the negotiations were suspended and the Chinese envoys were requested leave the country as soon as possible. addressing them Count Ito said that it was the wish of Japan to avoid results which had been the experience in the past, wherein treaties that had been solemnly concluded had afterward been repudiated by China without reason. The result was that China finally resolved, in the latter part of February, to make overtures in a form consonant with the traditions of diplomacy. She appointed L Hung Chang, who remained practically Prime Minister, in spite of the machinations of his enemies, with full power to negotiate, and Mr. Foster as advisory counsel. Bona fide negotiations were begun on March 21, and the treaty of peace was signed at Simonoseki on April 16. These were the terms: The independence of Corea; the cession to Japan of the Liau Tong Peninsula and the Island of Formosa; the payment by China of an indemnity of $100,000,000; and the opening of a large part of China to international commerce, especially for the introduction of machinery. Subsequently, on the strenuous demand of Russia, backed by Germany and France, Japan waived the cession of the Liau-Tong Peninsula, accepting in lleu thereof an additional indemnity of $50,000,000.
JAPANESE TREATY. The new Treaty made between the United States and the Empire of Japan will go into operation on July 17, 1893, and remain in force for the period of twelve years from that date. Either party is allowed the right, however, at any time thereafter to give notice to the other of its intention to terminate the Treaty, and at the expiration of twelve months after such notice has been given the Treaty is to cease. The great principle of recognizing Japan's supreme right as a modern civilized nation to control its domestie af. fairs relating to imports, for which the United States had contended for many years, was made immediately operative
French and on November 27, 1894, the importance in the Treaty is the protocol Chamber of Deputies voted a credit for
by a protocol. The United States is, there fecting American goods should cease to fore, the first Nation to make this recog be binding, and Japanese autonomy in nition of Japan's remarkable progress customs duties should be complete. The toward civilization. The Treaty was con protocol does not, however, limit or qualicluded between the representatives of the fy the right of the Japanese Government two countries on November 22, 1894; the to restrict or to prohibit the importation ratification was advised by the Senate on of any article which for sanitary reasons, February 5, 1895; it was ratified by Presi or in view of public security or morals, dent Cleveland on February 25, and by might offer any danger. Pending the the Emperor of Japan on February 27; opening of the country to citizens of the the ratifications were exchanged at Wash United States the Japanese Government ington on March 21, 1895, and the procla agreed to extend the passport system in mation of the President bears the same such a manner as to allow citizens of the date.
United States, on the production of a Article 1 declares that the citizens or certificate of recommendation from the subjects of either country shall have full representative of the United States at liberty to enter, travel or reside in any Tokio, or from any of the Consuls of the part of the territories of the other, and United States at the open ports of Japan, shall enjoy full and perfect protection for to obtain passports available for any part their persons and property in whatever of the country and for any period not exrelates to rights of residence and travel; ceeding twelve months from the Japanto the possession of goods and effects of ese Foreign Office at Tokio. any kind; to the succession to personal estate, and the disposal of property of any sort and in any manner whatsoever
MADAGASCAR. which they may lawfully acquire; in the right of private or public exercise of their
The France-Madagascar war, which beworship and of burying their dead accord
gan on December 10, 1894, ended on Seping to their religious customs. The sub
tember 30, 1895, by the surrender of the jects of either are also exempted from
Malagassy capital, Antananarivo. The all compulsory military service, from all controversy between France and the isl
and was of long standing. In 1891 John contributions imposed in lieu of personal
L. Waller, an American Consul, arrived service, and from all forced loans or mili
at Tamatave and required recognition, tary exactions or contributions.
technically termed the exequatur." The Article 2 provides that there shall be
French Resident assumed that it was his reciprocal freedom of commerce and navigation between the two countries, but the
prerogative to determine upon the matter,
the stipulations contained in this and
but the Queen resented the claim as an
interference with the internal administrapreceding article do not in any way af
tion of her realm, fect the laws, ordinances and regulations
The Queen also prowith regard to trade, the immigration of
tested against the interference by the
French Resident in matters of trade and laborers, police and public security in
concessions to foreigners. The continued force or which may be enacted in either
resistance to their policy of encroachof the two countries.
ment the French regarded as a just cause Article 3 provides that it shall not be
for war. allowable to search the premises, or ex
Early in October, 1894, France
sent its ultimatum to the Queen, which amine or inspect books, papers, or ac
interdicted her from holding any relations counts of the citizens or subjects of either
with foreign Governments, or their repcountry except under conditions and laws
resentatives, except through the French prescribed for citizens of the country.
Resident; that concessions to foreigners Article 4 provides that no other or
engaged in trade or industry must be higher duties shall be imposed on the im
submitted for approval; and that if the portations into either country than on
Queen declined to authorize the constructhe like article provided or manufactured
tion of harbors, roads, railways, canals, in any other foreign country.
etc., the French were to have the right Article 5 provides similar conditions
to construct them and to collect all tolls upon exports.
and dues. A week's grace was granted to Article 6 prescribes that the citizens or
the Queen to acquiesce, but as no response subjects of either country shall enjoy a
was made, the French envoy took his deperfect equality of treatment with na
parture from the capital and went to tive citizens in all that relates to ware Tamatave. A few weeks later the Queen housing, bounties, facilities and draw
sent her reply, which was, in effect, that backs. Other articles follow governing the French Resident should become the Importations, tonnage and harbor dues,
intermediary between Madagascar and the etc.,, relating to maritime commerce. Powers; that France might effect such
Article 17 provides that the several for public works on the island as the Hovan eign settlements in Japan shall, from authorities should deem necessary; that the date the Treaty comes into force, be the matters in dispute between France incorporated with the respective Japan and Madagascar should be adjudged by a ese communes, and shall thenceforth
mixed court; that the boundaries of the form part of the general municipal system French territory around Diego Suarez of Japan.
should be definitely ascertained, and that The new Treaty will be substituted for
the Government should reserve the right the treaties of 1854, 1858, 1866 and 1878,
arms and munitions of war. and all arrangements and agreements sub
This reply was not satisfactory to the sidiary thereto. Of the most immediate
21, , port tariff then in operation in Japan af
10 by the French occupying
of the war, and it began on
do everything possible to secure the release of Mr. Waller from the French prison, was laid before the Secretary of State on October 19.
Tamatave. In April an additional force of 15,000 French troops, under command of General Duchesne, landed in Madagascar, after which collisions took place between them and the Hovas, the former being usually successful, especially when assisted by the French squadron. The French captured Maravvay, Fort Dauphin, etc., and on September 30, 1895, entered Antanarivo, the Hovan capital.' The Queen then concluded terms of peace with the French, the conditions being that the French should be permitted to maintain a rigorous protectorate; that Madagascar should not be annexed to France, but that the reign of the Queen should be continued; that the Prime Minister, husband of the Queen, should be exiled. and that the Hova Governmental organization should be retained, but upon such terms as would insure to the French exclusive control. France, then, has definitely added to her possessions one of the largest islands in the world, an island nearly 1,000 miles in length and 350 miles in width at the broadest part, with an area of at least 230,000 square miles.
The case of ex-United States Consul John L. Waller has also attracted universal attention toward Madagascar. He was commissioned as United States Consul at Tamatave, and
Hova Government granted him an exequatur in 891. successor was appointed in January, 1894, and he then secured a concession of about 144,000 acres of land on March 15, 1894, over and against the protest of the French Resident. Much of the land is rich and fertile, and in great demand for agricultural purposes,
while the forests abound in mahogany. ebony and rosewood; but most valuable of all are the innumerable rubber trees. The French had long before set covetous eyes upon this land, and were determined to wrest it from the American. The first move was a proposition to Mr. Walter to relinquish the concession and to accept of 12,800 acres and sufficient money to develop and make it productive. This offer was rejected by Mr. Waller, and the French then declared the original lease null and void. This was done on May 16, 1894, but was in direct contravention to the France-Madagascar treaty of 1885, and with the treaty of 1883 between the United States and Madagascar, both of which were formed to protect concessions to American citizens. On July 18, 1894, the French Resident issued another semiofficial note, in which it was declared that the French Government would consider as null and void any concessions granted to foreigners by the Hova Gov. ernment, which had not been ratified by him and registered at the Residency. Finally, on March 5, 1895, Mr. Waller was arrested and thrown into prison by the French authorities, and fifteen days later he was convicted by a French court-martial upon a charge of conspiring with the Hovas against the French, and was conlemned to twenty years imprisonment. The charge was that Mr. Waller had sent sut private correspondence to his wife ind others in violation of an order of the French Resident, on January 18, 1894, hat all correspondence must be submited for official examination. A petition, ligned by members of the Chicago bar ind others, urging President Cleveland to
NATURALIZATION LAWS. DECLARATION OF INTENTION.-An alien seeking naturalization as a citizen of the United States must declare on oath before a Circuit or District Court of the United States, or a District or Suprerne Court of the Territories, or a court of record of any of the States having common law jurisdiction and a seal and a clerk, at least two years before his admission that it is, bona-fide, his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign State or ruler, and particularly to the one of which
he may be at the time a citizen or subject.
OATH ON APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION.-At the time of his application for admission he must also declare on oath, before some one of the courts above specified, "that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, potentate, State or sovereignty, and particularly, by name, to the prince, potentate, State or Sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject."
CONDITIONS OF CITIZENSHIP. - It must appear to the satisfaction of the court to which the alien has applied for final admission that he has resided continuously within the United States for at least five years, and in the State or Territory where the court is held at least one year, and that during that time "he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same."
TITLES OF NOBILITY.-If the applicant bears any hereditary title or belongs to any order of nobility, he must make an express renunciation at the time of his application.
SOLDIERS AND NAVY SAILORS.-Any alien twenty-one years old and upward who has been honorably discharged, har. ing served five consecutive years, from the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States, may become a citizen on his petition, without any previous declaration of intention, provided the court admitting such allen shall, in addition to proof of good moral character, be satisfied of the proof of the service and honorable discharge of such allen.
MINORS.-Any alien under the age of twenty-one, who has resided the United States three years next preceding his twenty-first birthday, and has continued to reside therein up to the time he makes application to be admitted a citizen, may, after he arrives at the age of twenty-one, and after he has resided tive years within the United States, including the three years of his minority, be admitted a citizen: but he must make a declaration on oath and prove to the satisfaction of the court that for the two years
next preceding it has been his bona-fide Librarian of Congress, or deposit in the intention to become a citizen.
mail within the United States, addressed CHILDREN OF NATURALIZED CITI to him at Washington, D. C., a printed ZENS.--The children of persons who have copy of the title of the book, map, etc., been duly naturalized, being under twen or a description of the painting, drawing, ty-one at the time of the naturalization of statue, or model or design for a work of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the the fine arts for which he desires a copyUnited States, be considered as citizens. right. He must also not later than the
CITIZENS' CHILDREN BORN day of publication in this or any foreign ABROAD.-The children of persons who country, deliver at the Librarian's office, now are or have been citizens of the or deposit in the mail within the United United States are considered as citizens, States, addressed to him at Washington, though they may be born out of the lim D. C., two copies of a book, photograph, its and jurisdiction of the United States. chromo or lithograph printed from
CHINESE.-The naturalization of China type set within the United States, or men is prohibited by Section 14, Chapter from plates made therefrom, or from 126, Laws of 1882.
negatives or drawings on stone made PROTECTION OF NATURALIZED within the United States, or from transCITIZENS.-Section 2,000 of the Revised fers made therefrom, or a photograph of Statutes of the United States expressly a painting, drawing, statue, model or declares that "all naturalized citizens of design. Free mailing labels are furnished the United States while in foreign coun by the Librarian. The legal fee for recordtries are entitled to and shall receive ing each copyright claim is 50 cents, and from this Government the same protection for a copy of this record (or certificate unof person and property which is accorded der seal of the office) an additional fee of to native-born citizens."
50 cents is required if certificate is wantTHE RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE.-The ed. For publications which are the proright to vote is conferred by the State, duction of persons not citizens or residents naturalization by the United States. In of the United States, the fee for recording several States aliens who have declared title is $1, and 50 cents additional for a their intentions enjoy the right vote copy of the record. Certificates covering equally with naturalized or native-born more than one entry in one certificate are citizens. But the Federal Naturalization not issued. The Secretary of the Treasury laws apply to the whole Union alike, and prints weekly catalogues of copyright pubno alien may be naturalized until after lications deposited, for distribution, at $5 five years' residence, except an honorably annual subscription, discharged soldier or a person whose par Failure to deposit two copies forfeits ents have been naturalized while he was copyright, and involves a penalty of $25. under twenty-one years of age, as above Proprietors of copyrights must send to recited. Even after five years' residence the Librarian copies of all subsequent and due naturalization he is not entitled editions in which substantial changes to vote unless the laws of the State con are made. Authors have exclusive right fer the privilege upon him.
to dramatize or translate their works copyrighted in the United States. An author or designer, or his widow or
children, may secure an extension ol COPYRIGHT IN THE UNITED the copyright for 14
cording the title a second time within
6 months before the expiration of the Under the International Copyright act first period. The penalty for unauthor(approved March 3, 1891; took effect ized use of а copyright notice is July 1, 1891) any United States citizen, $100. or citizen or subject of foreign nations Each number of a periodical claiming granting copyright to United States citi copyright must be entered separately, the zens on substantially the same basis with same as a book. their own citizens, or which become Every person who shall "without the parties to an international agreement for consent of the proprietor of the copyreciprocity in copyright, who is "the right first obtained in writing, print, author, inventor, designer or proprietor publish, dramatize, translate or import, of any book, map, chart, dramatic or or knowing the same to be so printed, musical composition, engraving, cut, print published, dramatized, translated or im. or photograph or negative thereof, or of ported, shall sell, or expose to sale' any a painting, drawing, chromo, statue, stat copy of a copyrighted book, must forfeit uary, and of models or designs intended every copy to the proprietor and is liable to be perfected as works of the fine arts, for damages in a civil action. In the and the executors, administrators, or as cnse of paintings or statuary, the insigns of any such person," may secure fringer forfeits $10 for every copy he for 28 years the sole liberty of printing, sells, possesses or exposes for sale. With reprinting, publishing, completing, copy other copyrighted articles, he forfeits the ing, executing, finishing and vending the plates and $1 for every sheet he possesses same; and, in case of a dramatic com or exposes for sale. Persons purchasing position, of publicly performing or rep for use, and not for sale, may import, resenting it or causing it to be performed subject to duty, not more than two foror represented by others.
eign copies of a copyrighted book. An amendment was made by Congress Switzerland, France, Belgium, Great March 2, 1895, relative to penalties for a Britain, Germany, Denmark, Portugal violation of the laws.
Italy and Spain have been admitted to the The applicant, on or before the day of benefits of the new law. For an American publication in this or any foreign coun citizen to secure copyright in Great Britain try, must deliver at the office of the the title must be entered at Stationers'