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Hall, London, the fee for which is five trade-mark has been used by the applishillings; the work must be published in cant on the class of goods described. Great Britain simultaneously with its 3. A fee of $25 is required on filing each publication in the United States, and five application. copies of the publication are required. An application will consist of a state A foreigner may secure copyright in

ment or specification, a declaration or France by depositing two copies of the

oath, and the fac-simile with duplicates publication at the Ministry of the In

thereof. It shall contain a full and clear terior in Paris.

specification of the trade-mark, particuIn Germany a foreigner must enter his

larly discriminating between its essential work in the general registry book of and con-essential features. It should also copyrights at Leipzig, and have it pub- state for what time the trade-mark has lished by a firm having its place of busi been used by the applicant, the class of ness within the German Empire.

merchandise, and the particular goods Copyright in Canada has lately assumed comprised in such class to which the serious complications. The Canadian au

trade-mark is appropriated, and the manthorities have presented to the British Gov ner in which the trade-mark has been ernment for approval an act requiring the applied to the goods. manufacture of books within the Dominion

No trade-mark will be registered unless as a condition of copyright, the claim be

it shall be made to appear that the same

is used as such by the applicant in coming that by the Canadian Act of Confederation legislation on this subject was to

merce between the United States and be a prerogative of the Dominion. The

some foreign nation or Indian tribe, or

is within the provisions of a treaty, conapproval of this act would contravene the guarantee of Great Britain to the United vention or declaration with a foreign States of rights in the entire empire, Power, nor which is merely the name which was the condition precedent of the

of the applicant, nor which is identical admission of British subjects to the securi

with a known or registered trade-mark

owned by another and appropriated to ty of the American law. The British Government has refused to assent to the act

the same class of merchandise, or which

so nearly resembles some other person's in its present shape, and negotiations are

lawful trade-mark as to be likely to cause now in progress looking to its modification. (Oct. 1, 1895.)

confusion in the mind of the public or to Copyright entered in 1893...... 58.356

deceive purchasers, or which is merely

descriptive in nature. Copyright entered in 1894.

58,956

All letters should be addressed to the Copyright fees received in 1894.. $49,401 00

Commissioner of Patents, Washington,
AMERICAN COPYRIGHT LEAGUE.-D. C.
Secretary, R. U. Johnson, 33 East 17th-
st., New-York.

SUGAR BOUNTY.
TRADE MARKS LAWS.

On September 5, 1895, R. B. Bowler,

Controller of the Treasury, rendered a deThe following classes may obtain regis- cision on the constitutionality of the sugar tration:

bounty appropriated in the Sundry Civil 1. (a) Any person, firm, or corporation

Bili by the LIIId Congress, the case being domiciled in the United States or located the claim of the Oxnard Beet Sugar Comin any foreign country which, by treaty, pany, of Nebraska, for $11,782 50. The convention or law, affords similar privi- Controller asserted his jurisdiction and his leges to citizens of the United States, right to refuse payment of these bounties and who is entitled to the exclusive use on the ground of the unconstitutionality of any trade-mark and uses the same in of the appropriation. He quoted the de commerce with foreign nations or with cision of the Court of Appeals of the DisIndian tribes.

trict of Columbia, in a suit brought for a (b) Any citizen or resident of this coun

mandamus to compel the Secretary of

Treasury and the Commissioner of Intertry wishing the protection of his trade

nal Revenue to pay the sugar bounties mark in any foreign country, the laws of which require registration in the United

provided by the McKinley law, and held, States as a condition precedent.

in substance, that the court having de

cided all such bounties to be unconstitu2. Every applicant for registration of a tional, its decision was one of which he trade-mark must cause to be recorded in was bound to take cognizance. He quoted the Patent Office

other decisions on this point and held that (a) The name, domicile and place of the claim was one involving & conbusiness or location of the firm or cor troverted question of law, coming directly poration desiring the protection of the within the provision of the statutes pertrade-mark, and the residence and citi

mitting an appeal from the decision of the zenship of individual applicants.

Court of Claims to the Supreme Court of (b) The class of merchandise and the the United States, and thus obtain a final particular description of goods comprised decision. He therefore ordered the papers

to be returned to the Auditor for transin such class to which the trade-mark has been appropriated.

mission to the Court of Claims, in ac

cordance with the Revised Statutes, "in (c) A description of the trade-mark it

order that there may be furnished a precself with fac-similes thereof, and the

edent for the future action of the Exmode in which it has been applied and ecutive Department in the adjustment of used.

the class of cases involved in these sugar (d) The length of time during which the Hounties."

MARRIAGE LAWS.

[graphic]

States

and Territories.

Other prohibited or punishable

marriages.

a, k.

Alabama .... 17| 14| 21 18 Ancestors, descend-Prohibited degrees. l, m, b,

ants, brothers,
sisters, uncles,
aunts, nephews,
nieces, step-rela-

tives.
Arizona
18| 16 First cousins and b, d.

e, m. nearer of kin. *Arkansas 17] 14 21 18 Same as Arizona. b, d, m, e.

m. California 18) 15] 18) 15 Same as Arizona, a, b, d,'t, e, , m. b.

except as to first

cousins. *Colorado c14 12 21 18 Same as Arizona. b.

m. *Connecticut 18| 16 21 18 Same as Alabama. e, h.

Pauper
*Delaware
14 12' 2121 Same as Alabama; a, b, g.

also great-ne-
phews and great-

nieces.
*Dist. of Col. 14) 12| 21) 16 Same as Alabama. a.
Florida ....
141 12( 211 21 Within the Leviti- a, b.

cal degrees. *Georgia 17) 14 21 18 Same as Florida, a, b, d, e, 8. m.

and step-relatives *Idaho

18 16 Same as California. a, b, d, f, e, g, h, m d. Illinois 17 14 21 18 Same as Arizona, b, g, h,

e. *Indiana (1) 18] 16 21 18 Same as Arizona.

b (penalty of fine of $100 to $1,000, and im

prisonment), f, d. *Iowa 16 14 21| 18 Same as Alabama, a, f, d, g.

m. Kansas

15| 12
Same as Arizona.

m, *Kentucky 16 14 21 21 Same as Alabama. a, b, g, h, e, f, m. Louisiana 14 12 21 21 Same as Alabama, a, m, and mistake m.

except as to step

in person.

relatives. *Maine ......c14 12 21 21 Same as Alabama. b (or mulatto or

Indian), f, g. Maryland ..[c14( 12 21 16 Same as Alabama. a, b. Massachus'ts . c14) 12 21 18 Same as Alabama. a, f, g, h,

Clandestine mar

riage of wom

an under 16, *Michigan(1) 18 16 16 16 Same as Alabama. a, b, e, f, g, h, m. m, and persons

divorced

less

than 2 years. *Minnesota 18) 15) 21) 18 Nearer of kin than a, k, e, m,

e. first cousins. Mississippi ...c14 12] 21 18 Same as Alabama. a, b.

e, f, m. Missouri 15 12 21 18 Same as Arizona.

e, 1, m. • Montana 181 16 21 18 Same as Arizona. a.

m, •Nebraska 18 16 21 18 Same as California a, b, d, e, f, g, h. Nevada 18 16 21 18 Same as Arizona.

a, e, k.

b (also Indian *N. Hamps're 14 13 Same as Alabama. a. Also knowledge Chinese, (m).

and first cousins. that former hus

band or wife is

living.
New Jersey 14 12 21 18 Same as Alabama. a, d, f, m.
New Mexico 18| 1521 18 Same as Arizona. f, d.
New-York 181 16

18 Ancestors, descenda, d, e, f, k, m.

ants, brothers

and sisters. N. Carolina.. 16 14 18 18 Same as Minnesota a, b, f, d. N. Dakota.. 181 15 21 18 Same as Arizona, a

d, e, f, g, h, m.

and first cousins. Ohio

18) 16 21 18 Same as Arizona,

a, b.

a, b, f.

None declared.

MARRIAGE LAWS-Continued.

of marrying.
are capable

Age at
which

Age at
parental con
which minors Female.
sentis req'l. Male....

Male..
Female. :

[graphic]

*Oklahoma 18/ 15

Same as Alabama, a, d, e, f, g, h, m.

and first cousins.
Oregon
18) 15 21 18 Same as Minnesota a b (Chinese or

Kanaka, or more
than half Ind-

ian), e, k, m, d.
Pennsylvania. c14 12 21 21 Same as Alabama. a.
Rhode Island. 14 12 c21 21 Same as Alabama. a, g, h.
S. Carolina...

8. h.
14 12 16 Same as Alabama. a,

b (mestizo or

half-breed), e, m. S. Dakota...

18 15 18 16 Same as N. Dakota a, e, f, g, h, j, m. b, m. Tennessee c14 12

Same as Alabama. a, b, e, f, g, m. *Texas

16 14 21 18 Same as Alabama. b, j. Utah

a, f, m. 14 12 21 18 Same as Arizona. a, b, e, f, m. •Vermont

16 14 21 18 Same as Alabama. a, e, f, h, d, m. *Virginia

14 12 21 21 Same as Alabama. a, b, d, f, g. Prohibited degt Washington 21 18 21 18 Same as Arizona,

a, e, k, West Virginia c14 12 21 21 Same as Alabama. a, b, d, f, g. Wisconsin

181 151 21 18 Same as Minnesota a, b, e, i, m. *Wyoming 18 16 21 21 Same as Arizona. a, e, f, g, h, m.

*License required. a Bigamous. b White with negro, c Without parents or guardians, those over 18 do not require consent. d Mentally or physically incapable. Fraud. f Under age of consent. g Insane. h Idiot. i Also penalty of $100 to $1.000 fine and imprisonment where white marries with colored. k Incapable from want of age or understanding. 1 Except Friends. m Marriage by force, menace or duress. n No law for parental consent.

e

DIVORCE LAWS.

CAUSES FOR ABSOLUTE DIVORCE. ADULTERY-In all States and Terri etc.-In all except Maryland, New Jersey, tories, excepting South Carolina, which New-York, North Carolina, South Caro. has no divorce laws.

lina, Virginia and West Virginia. For IMPOTENCE.-In all excepting Arizona, this cause in Alabama, Kentucky and Ten

nessee divorce is granted to the wife only. California, Connecticut, the Dakotas, Ida

FELONY

OR

OTHER ho, Iowa, Louisiana, New Mexico, New

INFAMOUS York, South Carolina, Texas and Vermont. lumbia, Florida, Maine, New

Jersey, New

CRIME.-In all except the District of CoDESERTION.-In all except New-York Mexico, New-York, North Carolina and and South Carolina, as follows: Period:

South Carolina. Six months' abandonment-Arizona. One

NEGLECT TO SUPPORT WIFE.-For year, in Alaska, Arkansas, California, Col

six months, Arizona; for one year, Caliorado, the Dakotas, Florida, Idaho, Kan-fornia, Colorado, the Dakotas, Idaho, Ne sas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mis

vada and Wyc ming; for two years, Indlsouri, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah,

ana; for three years, Delaware and New Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming: Hampshire; time not specified, Maine, two years, in Alabama, District of Co- Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New lumbia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Mexico, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina,

Vermont, Washington and Wisconsin (at i Pennsylvania, and Tennessee; three years, discretion of court.) in Delaware, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, OTHER CAUSES.-Voluntary separaMassachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jer- tion-Kentucky and Wisconsin. Former sey, Ohio, Texas, and West Virginia; five

husband or wife living-Arkansas, Coloyears in Rhode Island, or shorter term (in rado, District of Columbia, Florida, Ildiscretion of court), and Virginia; seven

nols, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Monyears, in Connecticut and Vermont.

tana, New-Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania and HABITUAL DRUNKENNESS.-In all Tennessee. If member of religious sect except Maryland, New-Jersey, New York, which believes marriage unlawful--KenNorth Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Caro- tucky, Massachusetts and New Hamplina, Texas, Vermont, Virginia and West shire. Indicted for felony and fugitive Virginia. In Arizona divorce is granted from justice-Louisiana and Virginia. for this cause to the wife only.

Husband indicted for felony and a figiCRUELTY, INHUMAN TREATMENT, tive-North Carolina. Refusal of wife to

[graphic]

Ar

"remove with her husband to this State" plaintiff is in good faith a resident of the Tennessee. Indignities to the person of State of South Dakota for at least six the other to render his or her condition months preceding the granting of such intolerable-Alaska, Arkansas, Missouri, divorce, and in no case shall a divorce be Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Wash- granted without personal service of the ington and Wyoming. Conduct rendering summons within the State, or personal It unsafe for wife to live with husband, or service of the summons and complaint turning wife out of doors-Tennessee. Vio in case of non-residents without the State. lent and ungovernable temper-Florida. It such personal service as aforesaid, Attempt by either upon the life of the within or without the State, be not had, other-Illinois, Louisiana and Tennessee. then in that event the plaintiff shall not Gross neglect of duty-Kansas and Ohio. be entitled to a decree of divorce until Wife given to intoxication-Wisconsin. the plaintiff shall have been a resident of Husband a vagrant-Missouri and Wyom- this State one year preceding the granting ing. Mental incapacity at time of mar of such divorce. riage-District of Columbia, Georgia and The statutory grounds remain the same Mississippi. Permanent and incurable in as before. In effect the law requires a sanity occurring subsequent to marriage- residence in South Dakota of three months Arkansas. Incurable chronic mania, or before an action can be begun, and three dementia, of ten years or more existence months more are required before a decree Washington. Any cause rendering mar can be granted. The weak point in the old riage originally void-Maryland and Rhode divorce law was that in case the defendant Island. (See "Marriage Laws.") Mar could not be found, a decree could be obriage within prohibited degrees-Florida, tained by default, but in such cases the Georgia, Mississippi, New Jersey and courts always held that the defence could Pennsylvania. Marriage by duress

or

come in and reopen the case, which often fraud-Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, Ken resulted in embarrassing complications. tucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Washing- The present law does away with the diffiton. Marriage of either party under the cult feature. age of consent-Delaware. When either OKLAHOMA.-Divorces granted prior to party has obtained a divorce in another 1895 by Probate Courts are made legal; State-Florida, Michigan and Ohio. Def

hereafter divorces can be had only through amation-Louisiana. Any other cause the District Court. deemed by a court sufficient and when the

SOUTH CAROLINA.-The Constitutioncourt shall be satisfied that the couple al Convention adopted a clause forbidding can no longer live together-Washington.

the passing of any laws by the State LegInsanity for six years-Idaho.

Islature recognizing divorce.
LIMITED DIVORCE.-Alabama,
kansas, Delaware, District of Columbia,
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,

BALLOT REFORM. Michigan, Minnesota (in favor of wife only), Nebraska, New Jersey, New-York, The following States and Territories North Carolina, Pennsylvania (in favor of have adopted new ballot laws, based more wife only), Rhode Island, Tennessee (in or less on the Australian system: Alafavor of wife only), Virginia, West Vir- bama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, ginia, Wisconsin.

Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Alabama.-Courts of Alabama have de Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, cided that the Legislature cannot grant Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mindivorces.

nesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, PREVIOUS RESIDENCE REQUIRED. Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New

Five years, Massachusetts (if when mar Jersey, New-Mexico, New-York, North ried both parties were residents three | Dokota Ohio Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennyears); three years, Connecticut, New- sylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Jersey; two years, District of Columbia, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Florida, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, (when the cause for divorce occurred out Wyoming. of the State, otherwise one year), North Under the New-Jersey laws each party Carolina, Tennessee; one year, Alabama ticket is printed on a separate ballot.Con(abandonment, three years), Arkansas and necticut uses the envelope system. In Vermont (if cause occurred out of the New-York and all the other States having State), Colorado (unless cause for divorce the ballot-reform laws the single or occurred within the State, or while one or "blanket" ballot is used; that is, all the both of the parties resided in the State); names in nomination are printed on one Illinois (same as Colorado), Iowa, Kansas, sheet, the voter's choice to be indicated Kentucky (if cause occurred out of the by marking. State, plaintiff must ve been a resident The only States in which ballot-reform of the State at time of occurrence), Maine, does not yet exist are: Florida, Georgia, Minnesota, Mississippi (in case of deser- Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carotion, two years); Missouri (same as Col lina. orado), Montana New Hampshire, Ohio. The Alabama Legislature, immediately Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, after the conclusion of the campaign of Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Vir 1892, enacted what is known as the Sayre ginia Wisconsin; six months, Arizona, Election law. This law in its general California, Idaho, Nebraska, Nevada, effect is a modification of the Australian New Mexico, Texas, Wyoming: ninety ballot. But the Sayre law contains one days, the Dakotas.

provision which requires that election reThe new divorce law of South Dakota turns from no county shall record a numreads:

ber of votes greater than the registration A divorce must not be granted unless the list of that county warrants, and then it

goes on with almost preternatural in stitutional by the Supreme Court of that genuity to guard against fraudulent regis. State in October, 1893. tration lists. As soon as the registration Women formerly voted in Washington, is completed the lists are required to be but the Territorial Supreme Court subdisplayed in the courthouse, where, dur-sequently decided against the right being ing June and July. they are subject to in given to them. When the State Constituspection and to whatever investigation in tion was adopted a clause allowing woterested parties may see fit to prosecute. men to vote was defeated. A false registration makes the offenders subject to prosecution for perjury and

In some form, mainly as to taxation and

school matters, women may vote in the forgery, and the mere presence on the list of the name of a voter

following States and Territories: Arizona,

who did not actually register is held to be prima-facie | Illinois,

Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho,

Iowa, evidence of guilt.

Kansas, Massachusetts,

Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Everybody has heard of the "eight Hampshire, New-York, North Dakota, boxes'' used in South Carolina. The law Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, says:

Vermont and Wisconsin, "At each precinct a space or inclosure, The Suffrage Act of Ohio reads that such as the managers of election shall every woman born or naturalized in the deem fit and sufficient, shall be railed off United States," possessing the other nec or otherwise provided with an opening at essary qualifications, may vote for school one end or side for the entrance of the officers. A woman not born in the United voter, and an opening at the other for States and who had not obtained naturalihis exit, as a polling-place in which to zation papers, but whose husband had hold the election for the State, circuit been naturalized, was denied the right to and county offices." The statute then de vote and the case went before Judge clares that "but one voter shall be allowed Ricks, who decided that, although a womto enter any polling-place at a time, and an was born an alien, her marriage to no one except the managers shall be al a citizen of the United States made her lowed to speak to the voter while in the a naturalized citizen. Unmarried women polling-place casting his vote."

born in other countries are compelled to The new method of voting in Australia, apply for naturalization before they can

vote. adopted in 1892, is thus described by Chief Justice Griffith, of Queensland: It allows

The Woman Suffrage law of California the voter to indicate his first and second

was declared unconstitutional early choice candidates by placing the figure 1 March, 1875. opposite the name of his first choice and

The Constitutional Convention of Utah the figure 2 opposite his second choice. adopted the clause on woman suffrage on Then if the first choice candidate proves April 5, 1895, by a vote of 75 to 15. to be unpopular, the first choice is dis The New-York Legislature of 1895 regarded, and the vote is given, according passed an amendment to the Constitution to the second choice, to some other can providing for full woman suffrage, but it didate. By this means a great economy of must be repassed by the next Legislature votes is effected. Where there are three to be of effect. candidates the least popular candidate The Cape Colony, the Russian colonies would fall of election and the votes of his in Siberia, Australia, New Zealand and supporters would go to one of the two re Tasmania have municipal woman suffrage, maining candidates according to the wish Iceland, the Isle of Man and Pitcairn of the voter. In this way two minorities Island have full woman suffrage. may become a majority. This method was described in The Tribune of October 28,

EUROPE-In England, Scotland

and 1891.

Wales women vote for all elective officers

but members of Parliament. In France NOTE.-See "Tribune Almanac," 1893, the women teachers elect women memfor dates when ballot-reform laws passed.bers of all boards of education. In Sweden

women vote for all elective officers but Representatives; also, indirectly, for mem

bers of the House of Lords. In Norway WOMAN SUFFRAGE.

they have school suffrage. In Ireland

they vote for harbor boards, poor-law Women have equal suffrage with men guardians, and in Belfast for municipal at elections in Colorado and Wyoming, officers. In Russia women householders In Montana women who are taxpayers

vote for all elective officers and on all have the same voting privilege as men at

local matters. In Finland for all elective elections.

officers. In Austria-Hungary they vote, by Judge Dixon, of the Supreme Court of

proxy, for all elective officers. In Croatia

and Dalmatia they do so at local elections New Jersey, on November 8, 1894, handed down a decision in the Vineland School

in person. In Italy widows vote for memcase, which, in substance, declared that

bers of Parliament. In Prussia women women can vote on all questions at school

vote, mainly by proxy, at local elections district meetings, but not for election of

and for members of provincial Diets. In trustees. At the 1894 election the propo

Belgium women taxpayers have municipal sition to give women equal suffrage with

suffrage by proxy, and in Luxemburg for men at elections was rejected by a vote

members of the Legislature also. In

Switzerland women real estate of 130,129 against to 95,302 in favor.

Owners

have local suffrage in the canton of The act of the Michigan Legislature of Berne. In Rumania women taxpayers 1893 giving women the right to vote at have municipal suffrage by proxy. Women municipal elections was declared uncon have full suffrage in Iceland.

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