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Addrefs to the Commander in Chief and Field Officers of the Army, 390

Remarks on General Burgoyne's State of the Expedition from Canada, ibid. Narrative of Lieut. Gen. Sir William Howe, relative to his Conduct in North America,

391 Reply to the Obfervations of Lieut. Gen. Sir William Howe, on Letters to a Nobleman,'



A Poem, occafioned by the late Calamities of England,
Verfes occafioned by the Gray's Inn Affociation,'
Letter from a Burgefs at H-nt-ngd-n,

September, a Rural Poen,

Mifs Lee's Chapter of Accidents, a Comedy,
Pilon's Humours of an Election, a Farce,
Webster's Medicinæ Praxeos Syftema,
Letter to a Lady on the Management of the Infant,
Berrow's Deism not confiftent with the Religion of Reafon and


Robertfon's Sermon at Whitby before a Battalion of Volunteers,

Fellows's Proteftant Alarm,

Thelyphthora; or, a Treat!fe on Female Ruin,

Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting in England, Vol. IV.
Dr. Franklin's Tranflations of the Works of Lucian,
Carver's New Univerfal Traveller,







Companion for the Chriftian in his Field and Garden,
Cole's Oratio de Ridiculo,


Ramfay's Effay on the Qualifications of a Sea-officer, Worthington's Effay on the Refolution of Plane Triangles by

Common Arithmetic, &c.


Temptation, or Satan in the Country,
Hughes's Afcenfion: a Poetical Effay,
The What do you call it, a Poem,
A Satire on the prefent Times,
Farrer's America, a Poem,
Eloifa en Dishabille,

Parody on the Rofciad of Churchill,









Bishop Hurd's Sermons at Lincoln's Inn, Vol. II. and III. 434 The Hiftory of the Civil War in America,

Brett's Tranflation of Feyjoo's Effays,

440 449

Miscellaneous Obfervations on fome Points of Controverfy between the Materialists and their Opponents,



Hedley's Complete Syftem of Practical Arithmetic, Letter to Lieut. Gen. Burgoyne, occafioned by his fecond Edition of his State of the Expedition from Canada, 467 An English Freeholder's Addrefs to his Countrymen, ibid. Enquiry into the Advantages and Difadvantages refulting from

Bills of Inclofure,










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For the Month of July, 1780.

A General Dictionary of the English Language. One main Object of which, is, to establish a plain and permanent Standard of Pronunciation. To which is prefixed a Rhetorical Grammar. By Thomas Sheridan, A. M. 2 Vols. 410. 11. ¡1s. 6d. boards. Dodfley. [Concluded, from Vol. xlix. p. 350.]

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T HERE are two principles by which pronunciation may be regulated, analogy and euphony. Analogy (derived from ava, per, and Moyos, ratio) is a principle of great extent.' Quintilian fays, Ejus hæc vis eft, ut id, quod dubium eft, ad aliquid fimile, de quo non quæritur, referat, ut incerta certis probet. Lib. i. 6. Varro, treating of the declenfion of words, calls analogy, Verborum fimilium declinatio fimilis, non repugnante confuetudine communi.' De Ling. Lat. lib. ix. This definition, with a little alteration, may be applied to the point in queftion, and analogy defined, the fimilar pronunciation of fimilar words, where cuftom has introduced no particular exception. By cuftom, or what Varro calls fuetudo communis,' we are not to understand the pronunciation of the vulgar, but that which is authorized by the learned and judicious.


But though analogy, as we have already obferved, is a principle of great extent in the pronunciation of the English language, there are many anomalies or deviations from it; and thefe deviations are fometimes arbitrary and capricious. The common pronunciation of wind, with i fhort, is a violation of analogy; for this vowel is long in mind, find, blind, kind, bind, hind, rind, and all other monofyllables ending in ind. Mr. Sheridan tells us, that he has often heard Swift fay to those who pronounced it short, in a jeering tone, I have a great mind VOL. L. July, 1780.





to find, why you call it wind. In this Dictionary we have wind and wind'. Perhaps the latter has prevailed in common conversation, because it has a quicker found than the former.

In the ufual pronunciation of grofs, the o is long, but it is fhort in all other words of a fimilar termination; as, moss, loss, cross, drofs, glofs, tofs, &c.

There is no affinity between the pronunciation of bear, pear, wear, fear, and that of dear, near, fear, Spear, year; or between that of froft, loft, croft, loft, coft, and that of host, ghost, most, poft; yet analogy feems to require a uniformity.

2. Where words are spelled alike, it is natural to fuppofe that they fhould be pronounced in the fame manner. But analogy in this cafe is frequently fuperfeded for the fake of diferimination; as in the following inftances: Auguft, the name of a month, and the adjective august; to fow, or diffeminate, and for, a female fwine; Job, the name of a man, and job, a piece of work; does, the third perfon fingular of do, and does, the plural of doe, a female deer; to tear, or face rate, and a tear which falls from the eye.

3. Analogy is fometimes violated for the fake of a more eafy and familiar pronunciation. Thus, fymboi'ic, vitriolic, Eolic, parabolic, bucolic, diabolic, apoftolic, hyperbolic, have the accent on the penultima; but catholic on the antepenultima. When words end in cence, with preceding it, the accent is always on the f; as, quies'cence, excres'cence, intums'cence; but this rule of analogy is violated for the fake of a more agreeable found, in concupifcence.

From thefe examples it appears, that analogy is fubject to many exceptions; yet, notwithstanding this, it is a general rule, which, in all cafes, deferves particular attention, and fhould never be deferted without apparent neceffity.

Another principle of great efficacy in pronunciation is euphony. This has been so much studied by the French, that though their language is naturally as harsh and unmufical as any in Europe, they have rendered it foft and mellifluous, by omitting a very confiderable number of their confonants in the pronunciation.

In doubtful cafes we fhould certainly prefer that pronunciation, which is the most easy and agreeable. No perion, therefore, who has any notion of harmony, will place the accent on the first fyllable of refractory, contemptible, refpectable, corruptible, acaa'emy, pronouncing thefe words refractory, contempt ible, respectable,corʻruptible, academy. The organs of speech and the ear revolt at these difficult and difcordant founds. Mr. Sheridan, however, gives us academy, as well as academy, in his Dictionary.

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