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carefully would she guard against producing confusion, by entering into complicated details; while she would love to dwell upon the most minute incidents that would arrest infantine attention. She would fear the consequences of giving set lectures-but would intersperse narrative with conversation, carefully watching favourable opportunities for dropping a reflection. Verses in the father's praise would be familiar to the baby's lips; yet even those would be taught with discretion, and not forcibly imposed. To infuse a principle of love would be the mother's aim, and she would strive to prepare the child for the performance of filial duties, chiefly by the strengthening of this principle. And has not Christ left his infant family with us? Has he not given us a charge concerning them in the well-known words, -"Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven?” Touching and comprehensive words ! Charge too imperfectly fulfilled! How often have efforts been made to bring these children to their father's bosom, that have in fact driven them further from it? Yet there are many mothers at the present time who are seeking to bring their children to Christ ; and we fervently pray that their number may be increased.

P. D.

THE FEMALES' ADVOCATE.

THE YOUNG WOMEN OF LONDON.

No. 4.-MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS.

We resume our articles on the Young Women of London, only premising that our present paper will be of a miscellaneous character..

The last branch of business to which we referred in our article for March, was that of shirt-making. Another branch employing a considerable number of young female hands, is that of Furs, Caps, and Carpet Bags. It is impossible to ascertain the exact number of females who earn a livelihood in this way; but those most intimately acquainted with the business, estimate the number at 2,000. Mr. J. Lyon, of Finsbury, alone, employs about 300. In the Fur trade, there is a person called Chamber Master, who gets the furs, and the particulars of the way in which they are to be made up, from the warehouses of the merchants, and he arranges with other persons for the execution of the work. The business is not a profitable one to the young women employed in it. The best hands rarely earn more than ten shillings per week; while the earnings of many do not exceed six shillings. The average weekly earnings are about seven and sixpence or eight shillings.

In the making of Umbrellas, which are generally supposed to be the workmanship of men, a considerable number of females are employed. Perhaps not

VOL. IV.

less than 1,700 or 1,800 depend on this branch of business for a livelihood, if such it can be called, where the average weekly earnings are under six shillings, and where many procure no more than four shillings for their six days' labour. The largest house in this trade is that of Messrs. Samuels and Engel, of Goodman's Fields. The number of women usually in their employ, is from 450 to 550.

In the Stay trade an immense number of young women are employed ; but as many of the London houses employ females in the country, on account of the cheaper rate of wages, and as we bave no data as to the number so employed on the premises, we are unable to distinguish between the amount of work done in the country and that executed in town. Comparatively few hands, we believe, are employed in this branch of business in London. The great country towns for the making of staye, are Ports. mouth, Plymouth, Ipswich, and Bristol. The great. est number of hands so employed in any house in London, is about 200. This is in the house of the Messrs. Thomas, of Cheapside. The wages paid for stay-making are very poor. They do not exceed five or six shillings. Every pair of stays, before being exposed for sale, goes through do fewer than nine different hands, and yet the cheaper sort are often to be bought wholesale, so low as fourteen or fifteen-pence per pair.

In the Slop trade a great many females are constantly employed; and in this branch of business there is less Auctuation, perhaps, than in any other that could be named. In most of those we have already mentioned, the briskness of the trade varies with the seasons and other circumstances : in the slop business, consisting as it does of coats, jackete, · trousers, waistcoats, &c., which are necessarily in constant use, the variation is comparatively slight. The best information we have been able to procure, leads us to estimate the number of females employed in London, in the making of slop articles, at 3,000. Of this number, Mr. John Clarke, of Silver Street, City, employs nearly 700; while about 500 are in the employ of Messrs. Farrel and Bansfields. As the lower classes, or persons in reduced circumstances, only purchase slop-work, the earnings of the poor females doomed to spend their days and nights in this branch of business, are necessarily very inadequate. From five to six shillings per week are the average wages they receive. And yet it is one of the most laborious kinds of employment in which females can be engaged,-the material generally consisting of fustian, corduroy, or cloth of the coarsest and roughest kind. The cloth is given out to the female tailors cut in different shapes, for coats, jackets, waistcoats, and trowsers, and is brought home by them in a finished state. For a waistcoat made in the best way, they usually get fourteen pence, and for a pair of trousers one shilling and sixpence.

There is another branch of trade, and it is the last we shall at present mention, in which a large number of females, almost all young, are employed ; we allude to the Drapery business. The number emploved in drapers' shops, is supposed to be about 2,500. In some of these shops there are as many as thirty girls occupied from morning to night at the counter. These girls have, for the most part, re. ceived a fair education, and are remarkable for the gentility of their appearance and manners. They invariably board and live in the houses of their

employers. Their yearly salaries, in addition to their board and lodging, vary from 101. to 301. In perhaps about a dozen instances, when the parties are known to be very experienced shop-women, 35l. and 401. are given. In one single case, that of a young woman who is, or lately was, in the employ of a house in Blackfriars Road, the princely salary of 1001. per annum was given. This young female is said to exhibit wonderful resources as a saleswoman. She discovers the character and peculiarities of her customers, as if by a species of intuition, and so completely adapts herself to them, that it is impossible to withstand her insinuating manner, when pressing on them the purchase of articles. Her persuasive powers are so great, that she not only induces ladies to purchase articles for which they have no immediate use, but she also induces them to purchase three times the quantity they contem. plated before entering the shop, of those articles which they meant to buy. In many, if not most of the drapers' shops, a small commission, varying according to circumstances from one shilling to half-a-crown per pound, is allowed to the young women who can prevail on customers to purchase shawls, gown-pieces, and other articles, which have gone out of fashion. This commission is allowed them as an inducement to put all their ingenuity into requisition to get rid of articles which have ceased to be in demand. And some of the more ingenious of these saleswomen, thus add, we understand, very considerably to their fixed salaries. We know one instance in which a female, adds in this way on an average, 1101. to her 401. of salary, making in all, 1501. per annum. It is right, how. ever, to mention that we are not aware of any other

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