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doctrine of transubstantiation; or, in the conversion of the bread and wine in the Lord's Supper into the real body and blood of Christ, when the priest pronounces the words of pretended consecration, though to all the senses it remains just the same bread and wine unchanged. The evident meaning of our Lord was, that the bread represented his body, and the wine signified his blood. This mode of expression may be seen used in the Old Testament, Gen. xli. 26, 27. Exod. xii. 11, Dan. vii. 24. and by our Saviour him. self in his parables, Matt. xii. 38, 39. John x. 7-9. Also, Christ calls himself the door, John x. 9. a vine, John xv. 1. a shepherd, John X. 11.

FIGURES OF SPEECH. The most common and remarkable figures of speech in the Bible are the following:

I. A Metaphor is a figurative expression, founded on some similitude which one object bears to another, as, To bridle the tongue, Jas. i. 26. For the sword to devour flesh, Deut. xxxii. 42. To be born again, John iii. 3.

II. An Allegory is a continued metaphor, as the discourse of our Saviour concerning eating his flesh, John vi. 35–65.

III. A Parable is the representation of some moral or spiritual doctrine, under an ingenious similitude, as that of the Sower, Matt. xiii. 2–23. The Prodigal Son, Luke xvi. 11-32. and the Ten Virgins. Matt. xxv. 1–13.

IV. A Proverb is a concise, sententious saying, founded on a penetrating observation of men and inanners. Brevity and elegance are essential to a proverb, Prov. x. 15. Luke iv. 23.

V. A Metonymy is a figure of speech in which one word is put for another; as, “They have Moses and the prophets,” Luke xvi. 29. meaning not their persons, but their writings.

VI. Prosepopæia, or Personification, attributes the actions of persons to things, as in Ps. lxxxv. 19. it is said, “ Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other."

VII. Synecdoche puts a part for the whole of anything, or the whole for a part, as Luke ii. 1. “ All the world;" and Acts xxiv. 5. “ Throughout the world," by which is meant the Roman empire, or parts of it. In Acts xxvii. 37. the word “ souls” is put for the whole persons.

VIII. Irony is a figure in which a different thing is intended from that which is spoken. Examples of this kind are not very frequent in the Bible ; yet there are a few. Such is the address of Elijah to the priests of Baal, 1 Kings xviii. 27. and the remark of Job to his friends, Job xii. 2.

IX. Hyperbole is a representation of anything as being much greater or smaller than it is in reality. For examples of this figure, see Num. xiii. 33. Deut. i. 28. ix. 1.

PLAN FOR THE ANNUAL READING THROUGH

OF THE BIBLE. It will be readily perceived that the reading of each day is divided into three parts, containing generally a chapter each of the historical, the prophetical, and the devotional scriptures. While it is readily admitted, that some parts of the oracles of God, are far more important for devotional and family reading than others, it must not be forgotten that the apostle Paul has declared, “ All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: that the men of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works,” 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17.

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