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Again, Mr Mill does not include in the nomenclature such general names as denote conceptions artificially formed in the course of induction and investigation. Accordingly, besides a terminology suited for describing with precision the individual facts observed, there is a branch of language containing “ a name for every common property of any importance or interest, which we detect by comparing those facts : including (as the concretes corresponding to those abstract terms) names for the classes which we artificially construct in virtue of those properties, or as many of them, at least, as we have frequent occasion' to predicate any thing of.” As examples of this class of names he mentions Circle, Limit, Momentum, Civilization, Delegation, Representation. While the nomenclature contains the names of natural classes, this third branch of language would apparently contain the names of artificial ideas or classes.

But I feel great difficulty in giving a clear account of Mr Mill's views on this subject, and, as my object in these Lessons does not allow of the discussion of unsettled questions, I must conclude by referring the reader who desires to continue the subject, to the 4th and 6th chapters of the 4th Book of Mr Mill's System of Logic, which treat of the Requisites of a Philosophical Language.

See Dr Whewell's “ Aphorisms concerning the Lan

guage of Science," at the end of his Philosophy of

the Inductive Sciences. Thomson's Outline of the Laws of Thought, con

tains most interesting remarks on the general nature and use of Language, SS 17–31.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.

LESSON 1.-Introduction. 1. What are the meanings of a Law of Nature, and a

Law of Thought? 2. Explain the distinction between the Form of

Thought, and the Matter of Thought. 3. In what sense may Logic be called the Science of

Sciences ? 4. What is the derivation of the name Logic? 5. How does a Science differ from an Art, and why is

Logic more in the form of a Science than an

Art ? 6. Can we say that Logic is a necessary aid in correct

reasoning, when persons who have never studied logic reason correctly ?

LESSON 11.-Three Parts of Logic. 1. Name the parts of which a syllogism is composed. 2. How far is it correct to say that Logic is concerned

with language? 3. What are the three acts of mind considered in

Logic? Which of them is more especially the

subject of the Science? 4. Can you state exactly what is meant by a general

notion, idea, or conception ? 5. How do the Nominalists, Realists, and Concep

tualists differ in their opinions as to the nature

of a general notion ? 6. What is the supposed fourth part of Logic?

LESSON III.-Terms. 1. Define a name or term. 2. What is a categorematic term ? 3. Explain the distinction between a collective and a

general term. 4. Distinguish the collective and distributive use of the word all in the following :

(1) Non omnis moriar (i.e. I shall not all die).
(2) “ All men find their own in all men's good,
And all men join in noble brotherhood.”

Tennyson.
(3) Non omnia possumus omnes (i.e. we cannot all

do all things).
5. Which of the following are abstract terms?

Act, ingratitude, home, hourly, homeliness, intro

duction, individuality, truth, true, trueness, yellow, yellowness, childhood, book, blue, in

tention, reason, rationality, reasonableness. 6. Define a negative term, and mention the mark by

which you may recognise it. 7. Distinguish a privative from a negative term, and

find some instances of privative terms. 8. Describe the logical characters of the following

terms, with the precautions given at p. 26.
Metropolis

Consciousness Sect
Book

Lord Chancellor Nation
Library

Vegetable Kingdom Institution
Great Britain Brilliance

Light
Cæsar
Weight

Observation
Void
Sensation

Tongue
Gold
Cæsar

Air
Prime Minister Cæsarism

Mentor
Indigestibility Application Anarchy
Manchester
Individual

Retribution
Recollection
Volume

Solemnity

Insignificant Language

Understanding Brilliant Adornment

Geology
Independence Agreement

Demeanour
Heaviness
Obliquity

Resemblance
Illustration
Motionless

Departure
Section
Henry VIII.

Nestor
Whiteness
Formal Logic

Alexander LESSON IV.-Ambiguity of Terms. 1. Define univocal terms, and suggest some terms

which are perfectly univocal. 2. What are the other names by which equivocal

terms are often called ? 3. Distinguish the three kinds of ambiguous terms,

and find instances of each. 4. Distinguish the three causes by which the third and

most important class of ambiguous terms have

been produced. 5. Explain the ambiguity of any of the following

terms, referring each to its proper cause, and tracing out as far as possible the derivation of

each separate meaning from the original meaning. Bill Minister Subject

Letter
Table
Clerk
Object

Star
Term
Order
Earth

Pole
School Wood

Law

Reason
Air
Bull

Sensation Bed
Glass
Volume
Art

Bowl
Peer
Scale
Interest

End
Sense Feeling Paper

Division Ball Kind Bolt

Class LESSON V.-Twofold meaning of Terms. 1. Distinguish very carefully the meanings in ex

tension and intension of the termsQuadruped, railway, human being, engine, moun

tain, Member of Parliament.

2. Enumerate the synonyms or other names used

instead of extension and intension. 3. According to what law is the quantity of extension

connected with the quantity of intension ? Show that the law holds true of the following series of

terms(1) Iron, metal, element, matter, substance. (2) Matter, organized matter, animal, man. (3) Ship, steamship, screw-steamship, iron screw

steamship, British iron screw steamship. (4) Book, printed book, dictionary, Latin dic

tionary. 4. Distinguish between the connotation and deno

tation of a term. 5. Select from the list of terms under Lesson II.,

Question 8 (p. 297), such terms as are non-con

notative according to Mr Mill's views. 6. Arrange the following terms in series as in ques

tion 3, placing each term of greater extension before a term of less extension.

Point out which are the terms of greatest and least inten

sion in each series. Emperor Animal

Planet
Teacher
Dissenter

Mammalian
Baptist
Individual

Matter
Timber
Jupiter

Solicitor
Person
Ruler

Quadruped
Horse

Organized substance Being
Heavenly body
Lawyer

Napoleon III.
Christian
Alexander

Episcopalian

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LESSON VI.Growth of Language. 1. Trace out the generalization or specialization which

has taken place in any of the following words :

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