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Again, Mr Mill does not include in the nomenclature such general names as denote conceptions artificially formed in the course of induction and investigation. Accordingly, besides a terminology suited for describing with precision the individual facts observed, there is a branch of language containing “ a name for every common property of any importance or interest, which we detect by comparing those facts : including (as the concretes corresponding to those abstract terms) names for the classes which we artificially construct in virtue of those properties, or as many of them, at least, as we have frequent occasion' to predicate any thing of.” As examples of this class of names he mentions Circle, Limit, Momentum, Civilization, Delegation, Representation. While the nomenclature contains the names of natural classes, this third branch of language would apparently contain the names of artificial ideas or classes.
But I feel great difficulty in giving a clear account of Mr Mill's views on this subject, and, as my object in these Lessons does not allow of the discussion of unsettled questions, I must conclude by referring the reader who desires to continue the subject, to the 4th and 6th chapters of the 4th Book of Mr Mill's System of Logic, which treat of the Requisites of a Philosophical Language.
See Dr Whewell's “ Aphorisms concerning the Lan
guage of Science," at the end of his Philosophy of
the Inductive Sciences. Thomson's Outline of the Laws of Thought, con
tains most interesting remarks on the general nature and use of Language, SS 17–31.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
LESSON 1.-Introduction. 1. What are the meanings of a Law of Nature, and a
Law of Thought? 2. Explain the distinction between the Form of
Thought, and the Matter of Thought. 3. In what sense may Logic be called the Science of
Sciences ? 4. What is the derivation of the name Logic? 5. How does a Science differ from an Art, and why is
Logic more in the form of a Science than an
Art ? 6. Can we say that Logic is a necessary aid in correct
reasoning, when persons who have never studied logic reason correctly ?
LESSON 11.-Three Parts of Logic. 1. Name the parts of which a syllogism is composed. 2. How far is it correct to say that Logic is concerned
with language? 3. What are the three acts of mind considered in
Logic? Which of them is more especially the
subject of the Science? 4. Can you state exactly what is meant by a general
notion, idea, or conception ? 5. How do the Nominalists, Realists, and Concep
tualists differ in their opinions as to the nature
of a general notion ? 6. What is the supposed fourth part of Logic?
LESSON III.-Terms. 1. Define a name or term. 2. What is a categorematic term ? 3. Explain the distinction between a collective and a
general term. 4. Distinguish the collective and distributive use of the word all in the following :
(1) Non omnis moriar (i.e. I shall not all die).
do all things).
Act, ingratitude, home, hourly, homeliness, intro
duction, individuality, truth, true, trueness, yellow, yellowness, childhood, book, blue, in
tention, reason, rationality, reasonableness. 6. Define a negative term, and mention the mark by
which you may recognise it. 7. Distinguish a privative from a negative term, and
find some instances of privative terms. 8. Describe the logical characters of the following
terms, with the precautions given at p. 26.
Lord Chancellor Nation
Vegetable Kingdom Institution
Understanding Brilliant Adornment
Alexander LESSON IV.-Ambiguity of Terms. 1. Define univocal terms, and suggest some terms
which are perfectly univocal. 2. What are the other names by which equivocal
terms are often called ? 3. Distinguish the three kinds of ambiguous terms,
and find instances of each. 4. Distinguish the three causes by which the third and
most important class of ambiguous terms have
been produced. 5. Explain the ambiguity of any of the following
terms, referring each to its proper cause, and tracing out as far as possible the derivation of
each separate meaning from the original meaning. Bill Minister Subject
Division Ball Kind Bolt
Class LESSON V.-Twofold meaning of Terms. 1. Distinguish very carefully the meanings in ex
tension and intension of the termsQuadruped, railway, human being, engine, moun
tain, Member of Parliament.
2. Enumerate the synonyms or other names used
instead of extension and intension. 3. According to what law is the quantity of extension
connected with the quantity of intension ? Show that the law holds true of the following series of
terms(1) Iron, metal, element, matter, substance. (2) Matter, organized matter, animal, man. (3) Ship, steamship, screw-steamship, iron screw
steamship, British iron screw steamship. (4) Book, printed book, dictionary, Latin dic
tionary. 4. Distinguish between the connotation and deno
tation of a term. 5. Select from the list of terms under Lesson II.,
Question 8 (p. 297), such terms as are non-con
notative according to Mr Mill's views. 6. Arrange the following terms in series as in ques
tion 3, placing each term of greater extension before a term of less extension.
Point out which are the terms of greatest and least inten
sion in each series. Emperor Animal
Organized substance Being
LESSON VI.—Growth of Language. 1. Trace out the generalization or specialization which
has taken place in any of the following words :