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Kind, genus, class, species, order, rank, Augustus, president, speaker, Utopia, rock, Commons,

doctor. 2. Point out metaphors derived from the notions of

weight, straightness, rock, wind. 3. Distinguish as accurately as possible the meanings

of the following synonyms : Sickness, malady; mud, mire ; confutation, refu.

tation; boundary, limit; mind, intellect; recol. lection, reminiscence; procrastination, dilato

riness ; converse, reverse, obverse, inverse. 4. Form lists of all the words derived from any of the

following roots :(1) Tendere, to stretch, as in intention, attention. (2) Ponere, to place, as in position, supposition. (3) Genus, tribe or kind, as in genus, generation. (4) Munus, gift, as in remuneration, common (Latin,

(5) Modus, shape or fashion, as in mood, moderate.
(6) Scribere, to write, as in scribe, inscription, de-

(7) Capere to take, as in deception, incipient.

LESSON VII.-Leibnitz on Knowledge. 1. What are the characters of perfect knowledge ? 2. Describe the character of the knowledge which we

have of the following notions or objects :
A syllogism.
A triangle.
The weight of the earth (5852 trillions of tons).
The colour of the sky,

3. Explain exactly what you mean by intuitive know


LESSON VIII.-Propositions. 1. Define a proposition, and name the parts of which

it is composed. 2. How are propositions classified ? 3. Name the four kinds of categorical propositions,

and their symbols. 4. Under which classes are singular and indefinite

propositions placed ? 5. Enumerate the most usual signs of the quantity of

a proposition. 6. What are modal propositions according to early

logicians, and according to Thomson ? 7. How far do logicians consider propositions with

regard to their truth or falsity ?

LESSON IX.- Opposition of Propositions. 1. Sțate the quantity of the subject and predicate in

each of the propositions A, E, I, 0. 2. Select out of the following propositions, pairs of

contrary, contradictory, subaltern, and subcon

trary propositions :-
(1) Some elements are known.
(2) No elements are known.
(3) All elements are known.
(4) Not all elements are known.
(5) Some elements are not known.

(6) All elements are not known.
3. What propositions are true, false, or doubtful,

(1) when A is false, (3) when I is false,

(2) when E is false, (4) when 0 is false? 4. Prove by means of the contradictory propositions

that subcontrary propositions cannot both be

false. 5. Show by means of the subcontrary propositions

that contrary propositions may both be false. 6. What quantity would you assign to each of the

following propositions ?
(1) Knowledge is power.
(2) Nebulæ are material bo
(3) Light is the vibration of an ether.
(4) Men are more to be trusted than we think.

(5) The Chinese are industrious. 7. Why is it desirable in controversy to refute a state

ment by its contradictory and not by its contrary?

LESSON X.-Conversion and Immediate Inference.
1. Define inference and conversion.
2. What are converse and convertend propositions?
3. State the rules of valid conversion.
4. Name all the kinds of conversion.
5. By what process do we pass from each of the fol-

lowing propositions to the next?
(1) No knowledge is useless.
(2) No useless thing is knowledge.
(3) All knowledge is not useless.
(4) All knowledge is useful.
(5) What is not useful is not knowledge.
(6) What is useless is not knowledge.

(7) No knowledge is useless. 6. Give the logical opposites of the following propo

sition, and the converse of its contradictory :

“ He cannot become rich who will not labour." 7. Apply negative conception to the proposition “All

men are fallible ;" then convert and show that the result is the contrapositive of the original,

8. Classify the propositions subjoined into the four

following groups:
a. Those which can be inferred from (1).
b. Those from which (1) can be inferred.
6. Those which do not contradict (1), but cannot

be inferred from it.
d. Those which contradict (1).
(1) All just acts are expedient acts.
(2) No expedient acts are unjust.
(3) No just acts are inexpedient.
(4) All inexpedient acts are unjust.
(5) Some unjust acts are inexpedient.
(6) No expedient acts are just.
(7) Some inexpedient acts are unjust.
(8) All expedient acts are just.
(9) No inexpedient acts are just.
(10) All unjust acts are inexpedient.
(11) Some inexpedient acts are just acts.
(12) Some expedient acts are just.
(13) Some just acts are expedient.
(14) Some unjust acts are expedient,

LESSONS VIII. IX. and X.-Examples of Propositions.

The reader is desired to ascertain the logical character of each of the following propositions; he is to state of each whether it is affirmative or negative, universal, particular, singular or indefinite, pure or modal, exclusive or exceptive, &c.; when irregularly stated he is to reduce the proposition to the simple logical order; he is then to convert the proposition, and to draw immediate inferences from it by any process which may be applicable.

(1) All birds are feathered.
(2) No reptiles are feathered.
(3) Fixed stars are self-luminous.

(4) Perfect happiness is impossible. (5) Life every man holds dear. (6) Every mistake is not a proof of ignorance. (7) Some of the most valuable books are seldom read. (8) He jests at scars who never felt a wound. (9) Heated metals are softened. (10) Not one of the Greeks at Thermopylæ escaped. (11) Few are acquainted with themselves. (12) Whoso loveth instruction loveth knowledge. (13) Nothing is harmless that is mistaken for a virtue. (14) Some of our muscles act without volition. (15) Metals are all good conductors of heat. (16) Fame is no plant that grows on mortal soil. (17) Only the brave deserve the fair. (18) No one is free who doth not command himself. (19) Nothing is beautiful except truth. (20) The wicked shall fall by his own wickedness. (21) Unsafe are all things unbecoming. (22) There is no excellent beauty that hath not some

strangeness in the proportion. (23) It is a poor centre of a man's actions, himself. (24) Mercy but murders, pardoning those that kill. (25) I shall not all die. (Non omnis moriar.) (26) A regiment consists of two battalions. (27) 'Tis cruelty to load a falling man. (28) Every mistake is not culpable. (29) Quadrupeds are vertebrate animals. (30) Not many of the metals are brittle. (31) Many are the deserving men who are unfortunate. (32) Amalgams are alloys of mercury. (33) One kind of metal at least is liquid. (34) Talents are often misused. (35) Some parallelograms have their adjoining sides

equal. (36) Britain is an island. (37) Romulus and Remus were twins.

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