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34. Every one desires virtue, because every one desires happiness.

35. His imbecility of character might have been inferred from his proneness to favourites; for all weak princes have this failing.-De Morgan.

36. He is brave who conquers his passions; he who resists temptation conquers his passions; so that he who resists temptation is brave.

37. Suicide is not always to be condemned; for it is but voluntary death, and this has been gladly embraced by many of the greatest heroes of antiquity.

38. Since all metals are elements, the most rare of all the metals must be the most rare of all the elements.

39. The express train alone does not stop at this station; and as the last train did not stop it must have been the express train.

40. Peel's remission of taxes was beneficial; the taxes remitted by Peel were indirect; therefore the remission of indirect taxes is beneficial.

41. Books are a source both of instruction and amusement; a table of logarithms is a book; therefore it is a source both of instruction and amusement.

42. All desires are not blameable; all desires are liable to excess; therefore some things liable to excess are not blameable.

43. Whosoever intentionally kills another should suffer death; a soldier, therefore, who kills his enemy should suffer death.

44. Projectors are unfit to be trusted; this man has formed a project; therefore he is unfit to be trusted.

45. Few towns in the United Kingdom have more than

300,000 inhabitants; and as all such towns ought to be represented by three members in Parliament, it is evident that few towns ought to have three representatives.

46. All the works of Shakspeare cannot be read in a day; therefore the play of Hamlet, being one of the works of Shakspeare, cannot be read in a day.

47. In moral matters we cannot stand still; therefore he who does not go forward is sure to fall behind. 48. The people of the country are suffering from famine; and as you are one of the people of the country you must be suffering from famine.

49. Those substances which are lighter than water can float upon it; those metals which can float upon it are potassium, sodium, lithium, &c.; therefore potassium, sodium, lithium, &c., are lighter than water.

50. The laws of nature must be ascertained by Deduction, Traduction or Induction; but the former two are insufficient for the purpose; therefore the laws of nature must be ascertained by Induction.

51. A successful author must be either very industrious or very talented; Gibbon was very industrious, therefore he was not very talented.

52. You are not what I am; I am a man; therefore you are not a man.

53. The holder of some shares in a lottery is sure to gain a prize; and as I am the holder of some shares in a lottery I am sure to gain a prize.

54. Gold and silver are wealth; and therefore the diminution of the gold and silver in the country by exportation is the diminution of the wealth of the country.

55. Over credulous persons ought never to be believed; and as the Ancient Historians were in many instances over credulous they ought never to be believed.

56. Some mineral compounds are not decomposed by heat; all organic substances are decomposed by heat; therefore no organic substances are mineral compounds.

57. Whatever schools exclude religion are irreligious; Non-sectarian schools do not allow the teaching

of religious creeds; therefore they are irreligious. 58. Night must be the cause of day; for it invariably + precedes it.

59. The ancient Greeks produced the greatest masterpieces of eloquence and philosophy; the Lacedæmonians were ancient Greeks; therefore they produced the greatest masterpieces of eloquence and philosophy.

60. All presuming men are contemptible; this man, therefore, is contemptible; for he presumes to believe his opinions are correct.

61. If a substance is solid it possesses elasticity, and so also it does if it be liquid or gaseous; but all substances are either solid, liquid or gaseous; therefore all substances possess elasticity.

62. If Parr's life pills are of any value those who take them will improve in health; now my friend who has been taking them has improved in health; therefore they are of value.

63. He who calls you a man speaks truly; he who calls you a fool calls you a man; therefore he who calls you a fool speaks truly.

64. Who is most hungry eats most; who eats least is most hungry; therefore who eats least eats most. 65. What produces intoxication should be prohibited ;

the use of spirituous liquors causes intoxication; therefore the use of spirituous liquors should be prohibited.

66. What we eat grew in the fields; loaves of bread are what we eat; therefore loaves of bread grew in the fields.

67. If light consisted of material particles it would possess momentum ; it cannot therefore consist of material particles, for it does not possess


68. Everything is allowed by law which is morally right; indulgence in pleasures is allowed by law; therefore indulgence in pleasures is morally right. 69. All the trees in the park make a thick shade; this is one of them, therefore this tree makes a thick shade.

70. All visible bodies shine by their own or by reflected light. The moon does not shine by its own, therefore it shines by reflected light; but the sun shines by its own light, therefore it cannot shine by reflected light.

71. Honesty deserves reward; and a negro is a fellowcreature; therefore, an honest negro is a fellowcreature deserving of reward.

72. Nearly all the satellites revolve round their planets from west to east; the moon is a satellite; therefore it revolves round its planet from west to east. 73. Italy is a Catholic country and abounds in beggars; France is also a Catholic country, and therefore abounds in beggars.

74. Every law is either useless or it occasions hurt to some person; now a law that is useless ought to be abolished; and so ought every law that occasions hurt; therefore every law ought to be abolished.

75. The end of a thing is its perfection; death is the end of life; therefore death is the perfection of life.

76. When we hear that all the righteous people are → happy, it is hard to avoid exclaiming, What! are all the unhappy persons we see to be thought unrighteous?

77. I am offered a sum of money to assist this person in gaining the office he desires; to assist a person is to do him good, and no rule of morality forbids the doing of good; therefore no rule of morality forbids me to receive the sum of money for assisting the person.

78. Ruminant animals are those which have cloven feet, and they usually have horns; the extinct animal which left this foot-print had a cloven foot; therefore it was a ruminant animal and had horns. Again, as no beasts of prey are rumi

nant animals it cannot have been a beast of prey. 79. We must either gratify our vicious propensities,

or resist them; the former course will involve
us in sin and misery; the latter requires self-
denial; therefore we must either fall into sin
and misery or practise self-denial.

80. The stonemasons are benefitted by the masons'
union; the bricklayers by the bricklayers' union;
the hatmakers by the hatmakers' union; in
short, every trade by its own union; therefore
it is evident that if all workmen had unions all
workmen would be benefitted thereby.
81. Every moral aim requires the rational means of
attaining it; these means are the establishment
of laws; and as happiness is the moral aim of
man it follows that the attainment of happiness
requires the establishment of laws.

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