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LESSON XXXI.—Explanation, &c. 1. What do you mean by the explanation of a fact? 2. State the three ways in which a law of nature may

be explained, and suggest some additional in

stances of each case. 3. Define tendency. Do all causes consist only of

tendencies, or can you find examples to the con

trary? 4. Give a definition of hypothesis. How may a valid

be distinguished from an invalid hypothesis ? 5. What place does hypothesis hold in the Deductive

Method ? 6. Explain the ambiguities of the words theory and fact.

LESSON XXXII.-Classification. 1. Define classification, and give the derivation of the

word. 2. What do you mean by important characters in

classification ? 3. State Dr Whewell's criterion of a good natural

arrangement. 4. Distinguish between a natural and artificial system

of classification. 5. What do you mean by a characteristic quality ? Is

it always an important quality ? 6. Define abstraction, generalization, and colligation

of facts. 7. What are the characters of a notion properly abs

tracted ?

LESSON XXXIII.-Requisites of a Philosophical

Language. 1. What are the three purposes for which we



2. What are the two chief requisites of a philosophical

language? 3. By what considerations should we be guided in

choosing between a new and old scientific term? 4. Distinguish a Descriptive Terminology and a No

menclature ; separate the following terms according as they belong to one or the other :Rose, Rosaceæ, Rose-like, Potassium, Alkaloid,

Ruminant Animal, Ruminating, Ruby, Ruby-red. 5. What does Mr Mill mean by the expression Na

tural Kind ?

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Abacus, the logical, 199
Abscissio Inåniti (the cutting

off of the infinite or negative part),
the process by which we determine
the position of an object in a system
of classes, by successive comparison
and rejection of those classes which

it does not belong.
Absolute terms, i.e. non-relative

terms, 25; sometimes used as name

of non-connotative terms, 41
Abstract terms, 20, 43
Abstraction, 285
Accent, fallacy of, 174
Accident, fallacy of, 176; the pre-

dicable, 103
Accidental definition is a defi.

nition which assigns the properties
of a species, or the accidents of an
individual; it is more commonly

called a Description.
Acquired perceptions, 236
Added determinants, inference

by, 86
Adéquate knowledge, 56
A dicto secundum quid, &c.,

fallacy of, 176
Adjectives, 21
Adverbials, 93
Affirmative propositions, 63
Algebraic reasoning, 58, 219
Ambiguity of all, 20; of some, 79

of many old terms, 291 ; of terms in

Political Economy,,292
Ambiguous middle term, 130, 171
Amphibology, fallacy of, 172
Ampliative propositions, 69
Analogue, a thing analogous to

some other thing.
Analysis, method of, 205

Analogy, the cause of ambiguity,

35, 50; reasoning by, 2268
Analytics, (ta Avalutika,) the title

given in the second century to por,
tions of the Organon, or Logical
Treatises of Aristotle; they were
distinguished as the Prior and Pos.

terior Analytics.
Analytic syllogism, a syllogism

in which the conclusion is placed
first, the premises following as the
reasons. See Synthetic Syllogism;

the distinction is unimportant.
Antecedent, of a hypothetical pro-

position, 160; of an event, 240
Anticipation of nature, 229
Antinomy (avri, against; vóuos,

law), the opposition of one law or rule
to another.

A posteriori knowledge, 208
A priori knowledge, 208
Arbor Porphyriana, see Tree of

Argument, (Latin, argus, from

apyòs, clear, manifest,) the process of
reasoning, the shewing or proving
that which is doubtful by that which
is known. See Inference. The mid-
dle term of a syllogism is sometimes

called specially the argument.
Argumentum a fortiori, an

argument in which we prove that
the case in question is more strong
or probable than one already con-

ceded to be sufficiently so.
Argumentum ad hominem,

Argumentum ad judicium,

an appeal to the cominon sense of

Argumentum ad ignoranti Canons of syllogism, 121–2; Hamil-

am, an argument founded on the ton's supreme Canon, 189
ignorance of adversaries.

Canons of Mill's Inductive Methods,
Argumentum ad populum, First, 240; Second, 242; Third, 245;

Fourth, 252; Fifth, 249
Argumentum ad verecun Categorematic words, 18

diam, an appeal to our respect for Categorical propositions, 63
some great authority.

Categories, the summa genera, or
Argumentum ex concesso, most extensive classes into which

a proof derived from a proposition things can be distributed; they are
already conceded.

ten in number, as follows:
Aristotle's Dicta, 123

Ovoia, Substance ; Ilogov, Quan-
Art and Science, distinction of, 7 tity ; IIolov, Quality ; IIpós ri, Re-
Artificial Classification, 284

lation; Iloceiv, Action; IIáoxelv,
Assertion, (ad, to; sero, to join,) Passion, or suffering; Iov, Place;

a statement or proposition, affirma IIóte, Time ; Keiolai, Position;
tive or negative.

'Exelv, Habit or condition.
Association of ideas, (associo, to Everything which can be affirmed

accompany; socius, a companion,) must come under one or other of these
the natural connection existing in highest predicates, which were de-
the mind between impressions which scribed in the first treatise of Aris-
have previously coexisted, or which totle's Organon, called the Catego-
are similar. Any idea tends to bring ries.
into the mind its associated ideas, in Cause, meaning of, 239
accordance with the two great laws Aristotle distinguished four kinds
of association, the Law of Conti of causes for the existence of a thing

guity, and the Law of Similarity. -1. The Material Cause, the sub-
Assumption, (assumo, to take for stance or matter composing it; 2.

granted,) any proposition taken as The Formal Cause, the pattern, type
the basis of argument; in a special or design, according to which it is
sense, the minor premise of a cate shaped ; 3. The Efficient Cause, the
gorical syllogism.

force employed in shaping it; .4.
Attribute, (attribuo, to give or The Final Cause, the end, motive
ascribe to,) a quality or circumstance or purpose of the work.
which may be affirmed (or denied) Chance, ignorance of the causes
of a thing; opposed to Substance, which are in action; see Probability,
which see.

Character, derivation of the word,
Attribute in grammar, 92

Attributive term, i.e. Connotative characteristics, 285
term, 41

Circulus in definiendo, 110, 114
Axiom, defininition of, 125

Circulus in probando, 179

Clearness of knowledge, 54,
Baconian method, 255; Philoso Cognition, (cognosco, to know,)
phy, 229

knowledge, or the action of mind in
Barbara, Celarent, &c., 145

acquiring knowledge.
Begging the Question, 179 Colligation of Facts, Dr Whewell's
Belief, assent to a proposition, ad expression for the mental union of

mitting of any degree of strength, facts by some suitable conception,
from the slightest probability to the

fullest certainty; see Probability. Collective terms, 19.
Bentham, George, new system of Combined or complete method of
Logic, 187

investigation, 258
Boole, George, his system of Logic, Comparison, (com, together; par,

191; his Laws of Thought, 197 ; equal or like,) the action of mind by
his logical works, 203

which we judge whether two objects

see 286

of thought are the same or different Consequence, the connection bein certain points. See Judgment. tween antecedent and consequent; Compatible terms are those which, but often used ambiguously for the though distinct, are not contradic latter. tory, and can therefore be affirmed Consequent of a hypothetical proof the same subject; as " large." and position, 161 “heavy ;" “ bright-coloured” and Consequent or effect of a cause, 6 nauseous.”

240 Complex conception, inference Consequent, fallacy of the, 181 by, 87.

Conservation of energy, 263, 269 Complex sentence, 91; syllogism, Consilience of Inductions, the 158

agreement of inductions derived Composition of Causes, the from different and independent series

principle which is exemplified in all of facts, as when we learn the mocases in which the joint effect of tion of the earth by entirely different several causes is identical with the modes of observation and reasoning. sum of their separate effects. F. S. Whewell. Mill. See pp. 252, 265

Consistency of propositions, 78 Composition, fallacy of, 173

Consistent terms, see compatible Compound sentence, 90

terms. Comprehension of terms, see In Contingent, (contingo, to touch,) tension.

that which may or may not happen; Computation, 127,

opposed to the necessary and im. Concept, that which is conceived, possible.

the result of the act of conception; Contingent matter, 80 nearly synonymous with general no Continuity, Law of, the principle tion, idea, thought.

that nothing can pass from one exConception (con, together ; capio, treme to another without passing

to take). An ambiguous term, mean through all the intermediate degrees; ing properly the action of mind in

motion, for instance, cannot be instanwhich it takes several things toge taneously produced or destroyed. ther, so as to form a general notion ; Contradiction, Law of, 117, 193 or again, in which it forms “a men Contradictory terms, 24, 119; tal image of the several attributes propositions, 76 given in any word or combination of Contraposition, conversion by,

words.” Mansel, Conceptualists, 13

Converse fallacy of accident, 176 Conclusion of syllogism, 15, 127;

Conversion of propositions, 82—85; weakened, 140

with quantified predicate, 184 Concrete terms, 20

Convertend, 82
Conditional propositions, 62, 160 Coordinate propositions, 90
Confusion of words, ambiguity Copula, 16
from, 31

Corollary, a proposition which fol. Conjugate words, those which come lows immediately from another which

from the same root or stock, as has been proved. known, knowing, knowingly, know Correction of observations, 253 ledge,

Correlative terms, 25 Connotation of terms, 39, 41;

Criterion (κριτήριον, from κρίνω, to ought to be exactly fixed, 290

judge), any fact, rule, knowledge, Consciousness, the immediate or means requisite to the formation

knowledge which the mind has of of a judgment which shall decide a its sensations and thoughts, and, in doubtful

question. general, of all its present operations. Cross division, 105

Reid. Consectary=Corollary.

Data, (plural of datum, that which

83, 186

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