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LESSON XXXI.—Explanation, &c. 1. What do you mean by the explanation of a fact? 2. State the three ways in which a law of nature may
be explained, and suggest some additional in
stances of each case. 3. Define tendency. Do all causes consist only of
tendencies, or can you find examples to the con
trary? 4. Give a definition of hypothesis. How may a valid
be distinguished from an invalid hypothesis ? 5. What place does hypothesis hold in the Deductive
Method ? 6. Explain the ambiguities of the words theory and fact.
LESSON XXXII.-Classification. 1. Define classification, and give the derivation of the
word. 2. What do you mean by important characters in
classification ? 3. State Dr Whewell's criterion of a good natural
arrangement. 4. Distinguish between a natural and artificial system
of classification. 5. What do you mean by a characteristic quality ? Is
it always an important quality ? 6. Define abstraction, generalization, and colligation
of facts. 7. What are the characters of a notion properly abs
LESSON XXXIII.-Requisites of a Philosophical
Language. 1. What are the three purposes for which we
2. What are the two chief requisites of a philosophical
language? 3. By what considerations should we be guided in
choosing between a new and old scientific term? 4. Distinguish a Descriptive Terminology and a No
menclature ; separate the following terms according as they belong to one or the other :Rose, Rosaceæ, Rose-like, Potassium, Alkaloid,
Ruminant Animal, Ruminating, Ruby, Ruby-red. 5. What does Mr Mill mean by the expression Na
tural Kind ?
Abacus, the logical, 199
off of the infinite or negative part),
it does not belong.
terms, 25; sometimes used as name
of non-connotative terms, 41
nition which assigns the properties
called a Description.
fallacy of, 176
of many old terms, 291 ; of terms in
some other thing.
Analogy, the cause of ambiguity,
35, 50; reasoning by, 2268
given in the second century to por,
in which the conclusion is placed
the distinction is unimportant.
position, 160; of an event, 240
law), the opposition of one law or rule
apyòs, clear, manifest,) the process of
called specially the argument.
argument in which we prove that
ceded to be sufficiently so.
an appeal to the cominon sense of
Argumentum ad ignoranti Canons of syllogism, 121–2; Hamil-
am, an argument founded on the ton's supreme Canon, 189
Canons of Mill's Inductive Methods,
Fourth, 252; Fifth, 249
diam, an appeal to our respect for Categorical propositions, 63
Categories, the summa genera, or
a proof derived from a proposition things can be distributed; they are
ten in number, as follows:
Ovoia, Substance ; Ilogov, Quan-
lation; Iloceiv, Action; IIáoxelv,
a statement or proposition, affirma IIóte, Time ; Keiolai, Position;
'Exelv, Habit or condition.
accompany; socius, a companion,) must come under one or other of these
guity, and the Law of Similarity. -1. The Material Cause, the sub-
granted,) any proposition taken as The Formal Cause, the pattern, type
force employed in shaping it; .4.
Character, derivation of the word,
Circulus in definiendo, 110, 114
Circulus in probando, 179
Clearness of knowledge, 54,
knowledge, or the action of mind in
mitting of any degree of strength, facts by some suitable conception,
fullest certainty; see Probability. Collective terms, 19.
191; his Laws of Thought, 197 ; equal or like,) the action of mind by
which we judge whether two objects
of thought are the same or different Consequence, the connection bein certain points. See Judgment. tween antecedent and consequent; Compatible terms are those which, but often used ambiguously for the though distinct, are not contradic latter. tory, and can therefore be affirmed Consequent of a hypothetical proof the same subject; as " large." and position, 161 “heavy ;" “ bright-coloured” and Consequent or effect of a cause, 6 nauseous.”
240 Complex conception, inference Consequent, fallacy of the, 181 by, 87.
Conservation of energy, 263, 269 Complex sentence, 91; syllogism, Consilience of Inductions, the 158
agreement of inductions derived Composition of Causes, the from different and independent series
principle which is exemplified in all of facts, as when we learn the mocases in which the joint effect of tion of the earth by entirely different several causes is identical with the modes of observation and reasoning. sum of their separate effects. F. S. Whewell. Mill. See pp. 252, 265
Consistency of propositions, 78 Composition, fallacy of, 173
Consistent terms, see compatible Compound sentence, 90
terms. Comprehension of terms, see In Contingent, (contingo, to touch,) tension.
that which may or may not happen; Computation, 127,
opposed to the necessary and im. Concept, that which is conceived, possible.
the result of the act of conception; Contingent matter, 80 nearly synonymous with general no Continuity, Law of, the principle tion, idea, thought.
that nothing can pass from one exConception (con, together ; capio, treme to another without passing
to take). An ambiguous term, mean through all the intermediate degrees; ing properly the action of mind in
motion, for instance, cannot be instanwhich it takes several things toge taneously produced or destroyed. ther, so as to form a general notion ; Contradiction, Law of, 117, 193 or again, in which it forms “a men Contradictory terms, 24, 119; tal image of the several attributes propositions, 76 given in any word or combination of Contraposition, conversion by,
words.” Mansel, Conceptualists, 13
Converse fallacy of accident, 176 Conclusion of syllogism, 15, 127;
Conversion of propositions, 82—85; weakened, 140
with quantified predicate, 184 Concrete terms, 20
Corollary, a proposition which fol. Conjugate words, those which come lows immediately from another which
from the same root or stock, as has been proved. known, knowing, knowingly, know Correction of observations, 253 ledge,
Correlative terms, 25 Connotation of terms, 39, 41;
Criterion (κριτήριον, from κρίνω, to ought to be exactly fixed, 290
judge), any fact, rule, knowledge, Consciousness, the immediate or means requisite to the formation
knowledge which the mind has of of a judgment which shall decide a its sensations and thoughts, and, in doubtful
question. general, of all its present operations. Cross division, 105
Data, (plural of datum, that which