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they been made, that they must please the most fastidious taste. The principal benefactors towards these repairs and improvements are the Earls of Bristol and Hardwicke, Lord Dudley and Ward, the Honourable Mrs. Yorke, Mrs. Waldo, Mr. Foley, Mr. Temple West, and Mr. Vansittart; names well entitled to respect, either for public virtue or private beneficence. But the exertions of the Rev. Henry Card, the present Vicar, under whose personal direction the whole has been conducted, are above all praise. This Gentleman, well known to the literary world from his various productions, seems to have determined that no impediment should have retarded or defeated his pious efforts for the restoration of this monument of the zeal and munificence of our forefathers; and accordingly raised above jg.500 in a very short time, without causing a single levy to be made on the parish; which, as the Worcester Journal justly observes, "is an instance, in these times, of rare and successful exertion that reflects the highest credit on the character of Mr. Card as a Clergyman, and ought to ensure the lasting gratitude of his Parishioners."
An Old Visnoa Of Malvern.
Mr. Urban, Liverpool, July 12.
ANY illustration of our ancient Manners or Customs to me is exceedingly interesting; aud, thinking myself in this sense of feeling not alone, for such gratification I beg to add my mite. In Strutt's 'Sports and Pastimes of the People of England,' page 297, plate 38, he says, the representations there given, are all unknown to him. Now, Mr. Urban, in Lancashire we have a game, for which I can procure no other name than Steal Coat (evidently a modern one), but of which the first four figures in the aforesaid plate is a most correct representation. The manner in which it is performed is this; first, the contending parties that are to be, are divided equally as to number, say (four, six, or eight of aside; then as to the bodily strength of the parties, making their powers as even as they can, although at times, when a stronger boy than common joins the game, they allow two smaller ones to the opposite party, as an equivalent in strength; after proceeding thus, a
line is marked on the ground, each takes a different side, then commence by catching hold of each other's hands or legs, and drawing them over the line, until one of the contending parties are all captured, when the game ends. Though, during the play, any one may run over his adversary's boundary, and if he can touch his captured partner before any one ticks him, as it is said, he redeems him; if not, he becomes a prisoner himself. When any one is thus caught by the hand or otherwise, and only half drawn over the line, another of his side may run, if not himself engaged, and assist him; equally so may the other add strength to insure their capture; and it often happens that the one in dispute has the pleasure of having his joints considerably extended before the contest is over. I never look upon this game playing, without a melancholy pleasure, arising from the recollection of Homer's beautiful description of the contention for the bodies of the fallen heroes : the animated group in active struggle, seizing on every tangible part for a strong hold; whilst the one in dispute, from extreme tension cannot exert himself, and gives an apparent reality of the dead body, that almost realizes the scene to the imagination. In Strutt's plate, two are in the struggle, two approaching with extreme caution, much depending on the first bold. Indagator.
Mr. Urban, Highgate, July IS.
AS I am not a regular Reader of your Magazine, I shall make no apology for replying, at this time, to an article in your Number for April last. In your extracts from Lysons's Britannia, page 332, you give an account of the Church at Toddington, in Bedfordshire, and the transepts, which Mr. Lysons found in a very dilapidated state. You commence with this observation, "-With regret we read." I cannot suffer this remark to pass, without observing that it is now ten years since that Volume was published; and by your iusertion of extracts from it at this time, in connexion with the " regret" you feel, you are leading the publick to suppose that they stillI continue in that state. That this is not a mere supposition, you will be con_ vinced, when I inform you that the
remark remark was made to an intimate acquaintance of the writer's in a public company, and that the reflection of Lysons upon the Lord of the Manor was thrown upon the present proprietor; in short, it was through this medium I heard of your publication. That the two transepts were in " a most shameful state of dilapidation," when Mr. Lysons surveyed them, is undoubtedly true; and any reflection upon the Lord of the Manor at that time cannot apply to the present Lord, who had not been in possession many mouths when that work was published. I have, however, the satisfaction of informing you, that both transepts are now repaired; the North by the representatives of the Strafford family, whose burial-place it has heen; and the South at a very considerable expence by the present Lord of the Manor, who had no claim upon him of relatives or ancestors lying there, but merely from a feeling of regret that the place should continue in so ruinous and deplorable a state.
• Your insertion of this in your Ma gaz'ne, will, I am sure, give satisfaction to those of your Readers who have-any knowledge of the place and its owner, and who, like yourself, feel a regietwhen ihey hear of ancient buildings going to decay; and will be but an act of justice to the Lord of the Manor.
Yours, &c, Wm. D. C. Heap.
Mr. Urban, July 12.
AN able Correspondent of yours has brought to public notice the highly respectable labours of a veteran Artist, v.ii . is most able to do justice to the venerable remains of our National Antiquities; I mean Mr. John Carter. Will you permit an admirer of the Arts to recommend to the notice of your Readers (many of whom no doubt would be glad of an opportunity to patronize rising merit) a work calculated to interest the Antiquary in a very high degree? I need not observe that our Cathedrals, &c. are a source of wonder and admiration to every person possessed of a taste to discern their superlative merits: and that, although these beantiful structures are delineating and illustrating in a very able manner by Mr. Button and other respectable authors, yet something of a more, moderate publication, in a pecuniary
point of view, is desirable to suit the circumstances of many individuals, who are desirous of possessing representations of these most magnificent edifices. Such a desideratum, I am happy to state, is now to be procured, executed in a very accurate style, in the etchings of our Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, by Mr. Buckler, jun. who appears to be a genuine son of Science, and bids fair to tread in the steps of the venerable Champion who has so long enriched your pages with his valuable remarks on Architectural subjects. I am fully persuaded that a close inspection of these etchings will set their merits in a highly-respectable point of view, and are calculated to reflect credit on an Artist who promises to be an ornament to his profession.
I am induced to trouble you with these few observations, from a desire to make your Readers more generally acquainted with a publication highly useful and meritorious in itself, and well calculated to gratify the taste of a numerous class of persons who may not find it convenient to purchase more expensive works.
It may be proper to state that the Writer has no interest whatever in the above work, beyond that of seeing merit liberally rewarded.
Yours, &c, Philo-junius.
Mr. Urban, July 20.
MUCH has been said lately in Parliament, and out of Parliament, on the subject of the Clergy; and many legislative provisions have been made, to accomplish their residence on their benefices. It does not, however, appear that the object has been accomplished to any considerable extent, beyond what it was antecedent to those provisions. New powers have, indeed, been given to the Bishops, but theexercise of those powers has been left to their discretion. The consequence has been, such as is now manifest in theChurch: private convenience has been listened to, to the injury of public good; and all the weakness of man has been seen, as it ever will be seen, under the operation of power to be exercised at the discretion of fallible mortals.
This is a subject that certainly calls for the most patient consideration of the most able men, since nothing could tend more to the public advantage vantage than that there should be a resident Clergyman in every parish in the kingdom. But, desirable as this object is, it never can be obtained under a discretionary power. Statutes may be made, and penalties of the severest nature enacted, while the evils of non-residence will still remain. What then shall be done to prevent the evils? No discretion should be left with the Bishop, nor with any earthly power whatever; but the condition of any person holding an Ecclesiastical Benefice should be, that a resident Clergyman be provided; and this condition should in no case be relinquished.
Let none be alarmed at this suggestion: it is made by one who is duly sensible of all the arguments which may be urged against it. It is not proposed that the condition of any person holding an Ecclesiastical Benefice should be, that he himself should reside, but that a resident clergyman should be provided. The difference is great; it is worthy of attention, and the position which it involves is capable of being supported.
Should it be asked, why not require that the Incumbent himself should reside? it might be answered, because it ought not to be required. Iu many cases his residence must be dispensed with—in cases of illness, in cases of unavoidable absence, and in cases often of desirable absence. A discretionary power, it may be thought, should judge of these cases. But this is that very power under which the present evils of parochial non-residence exist, and under the operation of which, prior to all experience, we know that they ever must exist.
Instead, then, of any discretionary power of the kind being entrusted to the Bishop, he should, in all cases, be absolutely required to see that there is a resident Clergyman in every parish i and it should be left to the incumbent whether to reside himself, or provide a resident. This would accomplish the very important and desired purpose of securing a resident Clergyman in every parish in the kingdom; and nothing short of this will accomplish it.
The impolicy that that power wh ich requires a resident Clergyman in every parish, should also require that that Clergyman be the incumbent, even if there were no cases of unavoidable
absence,as have been alluded lo,should prohibit its exercise. For the necessity must never be forgotten, of having such a liberal discipline over such a body as the Clergy, us may rather encourage than deter men of talent and of family, and of the influence attaching to both, from entering into the Church. But, if it should be known that every person would be compelled to reside on that spot where his preferment might chance to be, or to relinquish his preferment, not many honourable, not many independent, not many desirable characters would enter into the Church, it would be the duty of parents not to encourage their children to do so; and thus the slender inducement which now prevails towards directing young men of talent and of respectability to receive Holy Orders, would be diminished, and an irreparable injury be done to the Church.
If, in reply to this, it should be observed that much spiritual benefit is not to be expected from men who en* ter into the Church, because they may not be required to reside on their benefices, it should be considered that this is not likely to be a motive with persons entering into the Church. Very few can know beforehand where (if they are fortunate enough to obtain preferment) it may be, or whether it may not be in a situation of all others most agreeable to their habitat while the reverse of the proposition, that a man must absolutely reside wherever his preferment may chance to be, would operate with many not to engage in a profession regulated by so rigid a discipline.
It may, perhaps, be thought, that leaving it with Incumbents, whether to reside in person or not, will increase the instances of their non-residence; but it is so much to the interest of the Clergy to reside on their benefices, that, even on this consideration, apart from the wish which we may, in charity, suppose generally to prevail with them to discharge their own duties, the far greater number of Incumbents would be found to be resident.—They would especially be found to be so, if the measure proposed were uniformly enforced, and in no instance abandoned, that a resident clergyman should be provided in every parish. The utility of this measure depends on the vigour, and the absolute and permanent manent uniformity, of its execution. It will then operate more powerfully than any which has ever yet been adopted towards securing the residence of Incumbents, and will universally secure a resident Clergy, with the advantages of neither injuriously cramping the discipline of the Church, nor subjecting it to the evils of a discretionary power.
By adverting to these evils, it is far from the wish or intention of the writer to convey insinuations prejudicial to the character of the Bishops with whom the power hits been lodged. They have, it is indeed believed, exercised it to the best of human ability, and have been actuated generally with a view to the benefits of the Establishment; while they have, in particular cases, been influenced by a tender consideration of what has been due to individuals. In cases where they have been mistaken, either by enforcing the residence of the Incumbent where it might have been dispensed with, or by dispensing with it where it should have been enforced (and they have erred in both ways), the fault was neither in their hearts nor in their judgments, but in some deficiency, probably, of information; and necessarily arose from the nature of the unpleasant power which was imprudently consigned to them. Hence arises a forcible argument against this discretionary power being vested with the Bishops; its tendency being to expose them to error, and to all the appearance of partiality or oppression; since they, on whom it is exercised, will generally see, or think they see, peculiar reason why they should be exempted from it; and thus discord, than which nothing can be more fatal to the true interests of the established religion, is promoted between the Bishop and his Clergy.
The writer of these reflections is sensible that many will be disposed to view his plan as unjust and impracticable; but a little cool reflection may satisfy them that it is neither unjust nor impracticable. The injustice of it will be effectually repelled, in the consideration that it need not be enforced during any existing incumbency; but provision might be made, that it be acted on immediately on a vacancy. The impracticability of it may be urged probably from the slender income of many livings, and
the consequent insufficiency of their securing any resident Clergyman. This is an evil readily admitted; but where, it may be asked, could the Government of the country better extend pecuniary aid than to all livings so circumstanced? Measures might be easily devised for ascertaining their value. If their deficiencies were supplied out of the public purse, and the plan recommended rigidly enforced, more good would be done towards the support of true religion in the kingdom, than by all the idle declamations, in or out of Parliament, on the neglect of the Clergy; or than by all the encouragement which is given by Bishops and Senators, and would-be Bishops and Senators, to Bible Associations of Churchmen and no Churchmen; of Christians of all denominations, and of men of no denomination of Christians.
These reflections are humbly submitted to the consideration of those who are willing and able to give the important subject the patient attention which it deserves. Every particular comprised in this cursory essay might he amply illustrated; but this is unnecessary to persons of enlarged minds and liberal conceptions; and such only are competent or proper to approach the subject. If doubts on the expediency of any part of this plan, namely, that a Clergyman be required to be resident in every parish in the kingdom, leaving it with the Incumbent to determine whether to reside himself, or to provide a Resident, shall occur to any, and he dispassionately stated, the writer, who has considered every objection, will respectfully reply. He concludes, for the present, by observing, that he is not so romantic as to imagine that every possible evil would be thus remedied, or that no seeming hardship would he introduced; but he presumes to think, that the greatest quantum of good which human means can effect, would be effected on this most important occasion; and that as little real hardship would he sustained as is possible by individuals in any scheme which is extensively to operate to the benefit of Society. A Churchman.
Mr. Urban, Juty 20.
IT has been observed, on the authority of Mr. Jackson, who wrote the account of Morocco, 1 hat the Ironmongers' mongers' Company (some years since) finally reimbursed a commercial firm in Mogadon?, on the Western coast of Africa, the ransom of a shipwrecked British Seaman, who had been enslaved by the natives. That act of humanity, it seems, is due to the posthumous charity of a Mr. Thomas Be lion, a Turkey Merchant, who left jg.26,000 to the said Company, the proceeds of one half of which were to be applied to the deliverance of British captives in Barbary or Turkey. Quere, How is the said Fund appropriated? for, according to Mr. Jackson, it would be more than sufficient to answer every demand for the wrecked seamen ; and as to Algiers and Tunis, whatever may be the fact, as they do not acknowledge to the detention of native British subjects, it is to be presumed that the bequest of Mr. Betton is not affected from those quarters. Without being acquainted with the particular directions of the will, it would be impertinent to question the Worshipful Company of Ironmongers; but the affair, simply as stated by Mr. Jackson, would imply no great concern on the part of Mr. Bettou's legatees to find objects for his bounty. The notoriety of the existence of such a bequest to the Ironmongers' Company for such a purpose, can do it no harm; but, ou the other hand, by opening the way to applications, it may afford it the pleasure of more amply fulfilling the benevolent intentions of no mean benefactor. A -. Inquirer.
P. S. Mr. Jackson states, that from 1790 to 1806, there were, in all, thirty vessels wrecked on the Western coast of Africa, the crews of which were made to endure the tortures of the most dreadful slavery; and that of these thirty, the number of British amounted to seventeen.
Mr. Urban, Aberdeen, Feb. 13.
As the cultivation of our native language is a matter of public concern, I trust that I need not apologize for addressing to you some scattered thoughts on the subject. About a century ago, Dr. Swift addressed a memorial to one of the then Ministers of Stale (I think the Earl of Oxford) on the prevalent imperfections of our language. I shall not take up your pages by attempting to ascertain how far the powers of mi
nisters extend in these matters. I believe, however, people do not expect to be called on to write and speak according to Act of Parliament. Every improvement in language must be gradual and successive; by the joint and patient efforts of many labourers. Give me leave, through the medium of your periodical work, to enroll myself among the number.
In some of our Grammars we find definitions accepted without scruple, which will not, if fairly encountered, bear a minute's inquiry. Thus Dr. Ash, in his introduction to Dr. Louth's* Grammar, c lis the imperfect tense designated by the signs of did and was indeterminate: yet I did love or was loving, always relate to some fixed or precise point of time. On the other hand, I have loved, which he calls determinate, is never so understood. I have loved may apply to any past lime whatever.
So we are told by other Grammarians that have is the sign of the perfect tense, and denotes a thing fully complete and ended. Yet if I say I have long believed, it does not appear that I have ceased to believe, but rather the contrary. One may, on the other hand, wonder to be told, that did is the sign of the imperfect tense, and denotes a thing not fully complete and ended; for I did love, I did believe, &c. are always understood as indicating cessation and complete termination. Surely this is playing at cross purposes. The above are only a few of the strange grammatical axioms which our sons and daughters are expected to swallow. If you give insertion to these remarks, they will he pursued, with an attempt at amendment. W. B. C.
Mr. Urban, July 15.
NO. 159 of the Spectator contains a most beautiful allegorical sketch of human life, under the title of the First Vision of Mirzah. The expression first vision naturally leads us to expect a second, but I have diligently searched the Spectator throughout for the Second Vision of Mirzah in vaiu. Perhaps some of your Correspondents can explain the reason of my disappointment, or point out where it is to be met with. — The Spectator, No. 159; appears to have been written by Addison, being signed by the first of the letters Clio. mu.