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Mr. Belibam, in the memoir of hi* excellent predecessor, published /or J. Johnson and Co. Si. Paul'« Churchyard, 1812. If 1 shall have succeeded Id proving thai, either through iuel
him under the utmost anxiety,—Dot whether he should encounter these difficultici in the caute of truth and a good conscience, hot whether he might not be mistake n in making a deciiion, 10 contrary to that or almost all to whom he had mentioned the subject) a nc.-nii!), which to an affectionate, hamble mind is perhapi the rooit painful part of the trial. When, however, the deciiion wai finally made, with what coinpoiure of »pint did not Mr. Lindiey determine, not only to part with bit plate and furniture, ai a meani of preient subsistence, but even with a well-chosen library, which he had for many years been carefully selecting; in which Mr.i. Lindsey, most highly to her honour, very cheerfully concurred. So far was it from being the fact, that when the resignation uf Catterick was signed, a congregation in Essex-street was prepared to receive theseceder, that, ou the contrary, at that trying moment, the world was all before them, and, like our first parents, " where to choose" they knew not.
It was indeed Mr. Lindsey's earnest wish, to form a congregation not bound down by contradictory Articles and Creeds of the 16th Century, a kind of «perimen of a reformed Church of England; but fo uncertain was he of success, that for some lime he had hesitated whether to make the attempt in London or at Bristol. On the »ih of December, 1773, the writer of this paper accompanied her honoured friends on their doubtful pUgriroage as far as Wakefield, where they were kindly received by the late excellent Mr. Turner, the Uioseuting Minister in that town. At that trying moment all their former connections, some of whom could have administered essential comfort, stood far aloof« and not one ray of light, save the faithful testimony of an approving conscience, enlivened the gloomy horizon.—Never can I forget what were niy sensations when the chaise that conveyed them towards London drove away from the hospitable door!
But it is not my intention, Sir, to take up the time of yourself or your readers with any further detail) respecting the opening of Essex Chapel, which has already been done much more ably by the present Minister,
trillion or prejudice, the learned Editor of the "Ducat u» Leodiensis" has not in this instance given an accurate statement, and that there are subjects on which be should be read with caution, my object will have been obtained. But be this as it may, by inserting the above in the Gentleman's Magazine, the respectable Editor, to whom it is probable even the name of the Writer it unknown, will evince his liberality and love of truth, and greatly oblige an Occasional Reader, Cathcribc С'м-п..
Mr. Urbar, Way I.
WHEN men arc impressed, and more particulnrly when they enter, they should not be sent immediately on a Foreign Station, until they visit the port to which tbey belong; which uiight be done, by permitting them to find a proper substitute, or to give security to a certain amount. There are very few who will not be able lo obtain one or the other. A certain time of liberty should then be allowed them.
The Imprtn service should be confided to very different persons from those to whom it is generally entrusted, and who are frequently the refuse of mankind. Л seaman never forgives the outrage of being seized upon by such miscreants. This abuse too often arises from the neglect of the Admiralty orders to officers commanding gangs; who leave ¡I tomen most improperly selected. Л gang is seldom headed by a proper officer. The persons employed upon this service should posse» a knowledge uf seamen, with a great share of prudence.
When people are impressed from any ship, it should be the duty of the officer who performs lhal service to afford the ship immediate hetpi and to lake her into her destined port; and their wage» ought to be secured to them while on hoard, and be under the eontroul of the officers of soch ship.
No impress should Uke place abroad, except under the must imperious necessity; and rules shooUhe laid down fur its proper regulation.
No ship bound to a foreign station should be permitted to send on board of outward-bound vessels, and take from them one or two men, as it often the case at present, contrary to-the orders of Government. It is also necessary that apprentices should be protected by some better rules; wkich upon any officer presuming to transgress be should be amenable to punishment.
When men have served a certain time in the Navy, according to rank, situation, and trade, they should be free from the impress, agreeably to certain regulations, different situations, and tonnage of ships; making a difference between those who have entered, those who are impressed, and those who have left their country during the time of war, to evade their services in the Navy. Perhaps the following propositions would give the outlines to obtain the object in view.
The East India Trade, as now conducted, is a waste of men, instead of raising them, having no apprentices as seamen (unless officers, servants, and u.idsbipmen are considered such, which I do not); and while they navigate their ships with foreigners aud Lascars, no change will take place! This trade ought to ra se at least as many seamen as it now gives you, instead of drawing upon the Navy, and other trades, to answer its purpose *. What advantage Government can possibly deem they obtain from the present mode is beyond my comprehension. That it tends to impede the raising of seamen is sufficient proof against it, without advancing any thing farther upon the subject. With respect to this trade, I should propose that, at the commencement of a war, the first and second officers be exempt from the impress either on board, or on shore. If the third officer had served one year in the Navy prior to that time, he should also be exempt. The fourth officer, two years. The fifth and sixth officers of all ships above six hundred
* It is an understood arrangement between Government and the East India Company, or the owners of ships, that each ship shall turn over in India a certain number of British seamen to the Men of War on the station.—This is a negative mode of raising men for the Navy.
tons, three years. Boatswains, carpenters, and gunners, four years. Cooks, stewards, &c. six years. Seamen, eight years. And if it should be necessary to retain them one year longer, in that case they should be allowed double wages. Allthose who fill such situations at the commencement of a war, not having served in the Navy during war, provided they enter into thatservice, shall bedischarged at the ends of the periods abovementioned; but if impressed, then two years more, to be allowed for exemption. Every ship should carry one apprentice during war for every fifty tons of tonnage; half of whom should be indentured from seventeen years and upwards, for three years. And no apprentice should be impressed under the age of twenty, unless he has been five years at sea. All men who leave their country during time of war, and go into foreign service, or who are in foreign service, and do not return within a limited time, should be liable to double servitude if impressed. ,
In the West India Trade, the first mate should be exempt as above, the second mate at the expiration of three years, in ships of five hundred tons, and upwards. Third mate, four , years. Boatswains and carpenters, five years. Gunners, stewards, and cooks, seven years. Seamen, eight years. And the same regulation should apply to all other vessels trading South ward of the Canaries.
The ' West India Dock' system at present, with respect to apprentices, causes the lass of at least otic thousand seamen annually!
In the American, Mediterranean, and Baltic trades, the first mate, if he has served one year in the Navy, should be exempt from the impress. Second mate, four years. Boatswains and carpenters, six years. Gunners, stewards, and cooks, seven years; and seamen, eight years, &c.
In the Coal and Coasting trades; first mate, three years. Second mate, five years. Other officers, seven years, aud seamen, eight years, &c.
No vessel under fifty tous should protect a master except he has served three years in th< Navy, unless such vessel have two apprentices, belonging to her, one of whom shall be seventeen years of age or upwards when indentqred.
Ships employed in the Greenland Trade and Fisheries, should have re gulations adapted for their purpose, suitable to the above. Apprentices the same.
All running Ships and Packetsshould carry four apprentices, to every ton of their complement. Half of each class.
All Ships under the British flag», sailing to, or from Europe, should be manned with British-born sub• jects; at least to the extent of two thirds of their complement, with their proportion of apprentices.
A certain regulation should take place with respect to men in all other Water-employments, for whom I. do not presume . to offer regulations, from want of information on the subject.
Transports should have three apprentices to every one hundred tons; half of whom should be above seventeen when indentured.
Apprentices should not be permitted to enter into the Navy, without the approbation of their Masters; and in that case the unexpired term of their apprenticeship should not be allowed as a part of the term of exemption, and the regular bounty should be granted to their masters.
All men who have performed their services in the Aary agreeably to these rules, should have a decided preference as long as their conduct deserves it, during and after a war, in all shipping employments belonging to Government, public docks, pilotage, &c, ; and the freedom of any town in the kingdom, where they might choose to settle: or reside afterthe war,should bethtir'sby right.
It would be desirable to institute public schools founded upon voluntary contributions, in or near sea, ports, devoted to the education of children of persons actually serving in theA'ary. And when their service expires, the education might be continued; but this must be regulated by the extent of the funds.
At the conclusion of a war, or at the expiration of time of servitude, the men should be conveyed free of expencc to their nearest place of residence.
That no Ship should be allowed to sail outwards at the commencement of a war, with more than one third foreigners for the first two
years. Out; fourth for the third year. One sixth for the fifth year. One seventh for the sixth year. One eighth for the seventh year, and the remaining period of war. This may be governed as circumstances require.
Four years actually employed in the Merchant service,should be equal to two years in the Navy.
All masters, and half the mates and midshipmen, employed iu the Navy, should be required to have served three years in the Mercantile service.
A certain portion of Lieutenants employed in the Navy, should be taken from those brought up in the Merchant service.
All trading Merchant-shipping, in a political point of view, should never have direct taxes laid upon them; with a view, if possible, to restore the carrying-trade we formerly possessed, but which is comparatively much diminished. This is absolutely neces^ sarv to keep tip the number of seamen required to man our Navy in time of war.
These suggestions ll re offered,under a strong impression of their great utility; and I feel persuaded that the outline drawn, when systematically arranged, would in the course of a few years war supply the Navy to its full extent with Merchant-seamen, would conquer the aversion our Seamen at present feel for the Naval service, and be fully adequate to render it far more efficient in officer, and men.
By allowing men the liberty" of rai tiring from the Nary at the expiration of a fixed period, it will prevent them from flying their country at the commencement of a war. It will also have the effect to induce them to enter freely, and greatly lessen the temptation to desert. In this case they will have an object in view after a certain servitude,which,corameoeec at the early part of life, will not appear long, particularly to respectable young men, who look forward to advancement in the Mercantile service, and who will have lies upon them to keep them in the Country. These will not now enter into the sea service, from having fear of being impressed, add all their hopes blasted through life!!!
The Shape Of Airstn!
Mr. Ijibin, N or. I.
As I do not recollect to have seen "any recent account of the beau tiful remains of Netley Abbey in your Magazine, I am induced to send a few remarks taken this Autumn, hoping they will prove'iiiteresting to some of your Readers.
Netley Abbey has two ways of approach, after crossing the ferry at Southampton, one is on the banks of the river, the other passes through
the estate of Chamberlaine, esq.
but the distances are nearly equal. The first object viewed on arrival by the former, is the Castle, a small building near the river, bearing marks of antiquity, but not very remote, perhaps not earlier than the reign of Henry VIII. The walls are thick, measuring aboutsfeet Cinches. They inclose 'a small area or court, the proportions of a double cube. Three small square openings admit light towards the river, and the door of the internal wall was strengthened by a portcullis. At each end is a large square bastion entered only from the interior by pointed doors. The whole is battlcmented and moated. — The sequestered ruins of Netley Abbeyare seated on the banks of the river Anton (vulgarly called the Southampton Water) about three miles from the antient town of that name; and it is rendered an enchanting spot by the addition of delightful woods, which partially obscure its mouldering walls at every point of view. The West front of the Church rises dignified above the uneven ground, and from among a beautiful wood of varied trees and shrubs, on leaving the Castle; the distance is not great, but they are hidden from each other. The elegant sharply pointed window and dismantled wails add buttresses form a fine contrast to the richly-tinted surrounding landscape. We gain admission within the walls by some of the dilapidated dwelling - buildings, which mostly join the Cloisters contiguous to the South side of the Abbey Church; immediately entering the quadrangle of the Cloisters, now a vacant space, shewing only the boundary walls, one of which is the Nave of the Church, with its early Pointed windows appearing. The exterior of the Transept is likewise seen, having windows of corresponding plainness. Southward of the Transept, and ex
tending nearly to the extreme of this side of the cloisters, is the Chapterhouse, between two ailes, that join the transept: one is vaulted with stone, and lighted from the East by two, narrow windows, and from the cloisters by one large window, with simple, but mutilated tracery. The corresponding aile is quite plain. Ex ternally, the Chapter-house was distinguished by three plain but elegant arches, the centre forming the entrance, and that on each side a wiudow; but the original has been walled up, and the present door broken through one of the windows, to the additional disfigurement of this most elegant room. Its proportions are square, having the same number of arches on every side, and, no doubt, had originally four insulated columns in the centre sustaining the groins of the roof, the springers of which remain connected with the walls. -Light was chiefly admitted from the East side by two narrow windows and quatrefoilopeuings. The capitals to all the arches in the Chapter-house, and some others, are sculptured in fine Purbeck marble, while the columns, bases, &c. are of fine free-stone. Among the heaps of rubbish in this ar«a has grown a most beautifully picturesque Ash - tree, whose elegant and tender branches and leaves form the only canopy to the encircling walls: a similar tree flourishes in the cloisters. Southward of the Chapter-house, extending in the line of the cloisters, is a small apartment vaulted with stone ribs, resting on sculptured brackets, which are common in this abbey, and were no doubt adopted in the room of columns, to admit as much space as possible in a church and dwellings of small dimensions. Still more towards the South was the Refectory, a handsomely proportioned apartment, groined in a similar manner to the Chapter-house, and lighted from the East side by three different kinds of windows. At the South end still remains the hatch through which the provisions passed from another hatch in the wall of She kitchcu, which is situate East and West in regard to the Refectory. The intermediate building was perhaps the pantry or buttery, or some culiuaryoffice. The exterior of these buildings, the walls.of the cloisters, the kitchen, kitchen, &c. form a handsome group, approaching the Abbey. From the refectory we pais to the Kitchen, which is now not the least interesting object among so many as are hers exhibited, and afford gratification to those who differ in opinion from a party leaving the rains on our entrance, who declared that" they should not have fatigued themselves in walking so far, had they expeeled to tee no more than a heap of old ruins." The kitchen is of considerable length, separated into four divisions by brackets which support stone springers, the groins having been destroyed. The large chimney on the North side is curious and remarkable, and has received no material injury. This building is very autient, its Bast window having two narrow lights under a large arch. Against the line of wall formed by the Chapter-bouse, the adjoining ailes, and part of the dwelling-buildings,—or in the space betweeu the Choir of the Church and Kitchen, extendiug Eastward, and entered by the Southern of the ailes connected with the Chapter-house,—is a large quadrangular area, encompassed with an elevated terrace, great part of wbose walls remain; and on the Nortb side, they are entire, On the exterior of this (towards the East) are some antient buildings, of which two stone-vaulted rooms deserve re-? mark, but their original use cannot, perhaps, with precision be named. The principal ■>( these, ext- ailing North and South, is of considerable magnitude; but the ground .as been raised by surrounding destruction; both outside and within. The smaller room, entered by the former, is groined in a similar manner, and lighted by a window at the East end. These buildings have had rooms over them.
Having now generally surveyed the mutilated habitations of the religious Cistercians who once inhabited these walls, I pass round to the West front of the equally decayed and more elegant Abbey Ciiur< h, of which we have hitherto said but little. This portion of the building it plain, having no other ornamental feature thau a large window; the smaller window of each aile is lofty and narrow* in two openings, and the centre door perfectly widecorated, which, with other dilapidated parts adjoining, is walled
up. The interior of the Nave, ia particular, is so much crowded with large masses of masonry that have fallen from the roof and walls, that a path could not be formed, so as to make the original grand entrance the present approach to the ruins: the advantage of such an alteration, were it practicable, is obvious, and the effect of the wbole buildings would be more striking; whereas you now enter by the transept, thus losing the length, elevations, and beauty of the building in certain points of view. For the sake of description and regularity I pass up the nave and choir, and regret to notice that the arches and columns separating the ailes are throughout destroyed, and the extreme wails now bound the space. These partake of the same simplicity and character which mark the West front, and the best parts of the habitable buildings. The Nave has eight divisions funned by piers, with triple windows under a large arch in each. The cloisters connecting with the South wall, caused the windows of that side to be considerably shorter.. The North transept is demolished to the remnant of a wall, and some part of the, foundations, but the South transept is in a very perfect state. Its side aile, with the stone vaulting, is nearly entire; and the arches of the sides, the springers of the main roof, their mouldings and ornaments, are exquisitely perfect. The four divisions of the choir differ little from' those of the nave; in the South wall is a holy-water niche with a trefoil arch; and by its side, a square recess to contain some decorations of the altar. In the opposite wall is a similar recess. The East window is very elegant, and partially perfect; but the whole so much covered with ivy, that the tracery is scarcely visible through its thii k mi.sses. '['he arch is of great thickness, and subdivided into numt'ious mouldings, having under it, betweeu arches springing from a central cluster of columns yet remaining entire, a large circle enclosing eight qualitf.il turns, to which are still connected the iron bar for sustaining the glass, 'the hand of destruction seems to hate been held outmost unrelentingly against this elegant little monastery, and it has left but scattered memorials to convey to the admirers of such interesting