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eclipse of the Sub that can happen at any time and place, the total darkness continues no longer than whilst the Moon is going one minute thirty-eight seconds from the Sun in her orbit ; which is about three minutes and thirteen seconds of an hour.
With respect to the darkness with which the land of Judaea was overspread, it may be mentioned rather as a matter of curiosity, than as a subject of importance, that Judrea does not appear to have been the only country to which it was confined, but that other places felt the influence of the supernatural darkness of three hours. Suidas, in verho Aiovacrio?, informs us, that Dionysius, when he was at Heliopolis in Egypt, noticed the wonderful phenomenon, and at the time exclaimed, " Either God himself is now suffering, or sympathizing with him that does suffer!" Yours, &c. James Rudge.
Preface to the " General Outline of the Swiss Landscapes."
IT is time to explain what was the original intention of this thing; aud what should have been the execution of it. In most books of Travels the Landscape is introduced as a circumstance only, and merely to fill up the picture. It might be worthy of inquiry, how far it could be made the principal subject, as in, a landscapepaii.ting.' That Picturesque Gardening, in the original, may very powerfully affect the human mind, those, who have not themselves actually experienced it, may see exemplified in Sir William Chambers's " Dissertation upon Oriental Gardening." The same work is also a proof that in mere description it may be, not a little, interesting. Its original, however, is an artificial one; and is out of the reach almost of human means, at least among European Nations. In the following pages an attempt is made to estimate how far such a description might succeed where the original is a work of Nature: and secondly, what is its compass.
Sir William Chambers has shewn that Picturesque Gardening, both in the original and in the description, may produce the effect of the highest Epic and Dramatic Poetry. And since the Drama, as well as its elder sister Epic Poetry, should always
convey some useful moral ; so might also this species of composition. Picturesque Gardening may not only convey a temporary lesson; but it may likewise give a lasting stamp to the taste and character of a Nation. It is connected, therefore, with manners and government. And the high perfection to which two great Nations, England and China, So dissimilar to each other, have carried this Art, together with the celebrity of their respective and very dissimilar Governments, might suggest some very important reflections to a philosophical critic. Certain in the mean while it is, that these are the only two Nations, whether in ancient or modern times, that have carried the Art of Ornamental Gardening to that degree of perfection, which supposes the knowledge of it as a Science.
In the following work Switzerland is viewed as a single Pleasure-ground. It is divided into nine distinct compartments, under the following titles: Environs of the Lake of Geneva to the Westward; Environs to the Eastward; Environs of the Jura; The Oberland, or Highlands of the Alps; The Forest-canton; The Lake of the Forest; The Vallais, or great Recess of the Alps; The Glaciers; and lastly, The Swiss Rivers. These titles are printed (I should rather say were, for the work itself is no more) at the top of the pages in Roman Capitals; under these was a running title in Italics, denoting the particular scene of each page: as for example, Character and Manners, Dairies of the Alps, Biography, Antiquities, Natural, and Civil History, &c. &c. But let us for a short moment suppose the work still in existence, as it once was, when this Preface was first written. A picture is here attempted, not in colours, but in words. Many parts still remain, and will probably now ever continue so, in the state of a sketch or memorandum only. The outline might easily be filled up; and then the whole task of invention is the previous disposition of the spectator's mind, together with the medium through which he views the landscape, and the order in which he views it. Or it may be said that a mere chart is here laid down of this kind of writing. The Author's profession is not that of Poetry — and
ii is even particularly uncongenial to works of imagination. Some professed Poet and Critic may, perhaps, execute a more regular and finished work. Modern Europe had long in its Architecture a style of its own creation ; as it had also in its Musk K, its Tacticks, and Government. But its Poetry still remained Grecian or Roman. At length, the Muse of Southey, of Scott, and Byron, civilized the feudal model i and produced a characteristic and natirnal composition, on this side of the Alps, that may vie with the flutes and curious of the Antienls. This chasm in P, retry, so long deplored, has been heller tilled up than that between Ancient and Modern History has hecn by the splendid labours of Gibbon.
I cannot but console myself with the anticipation that some one or other of the Southeys, the Scotts, and Byrons, the Craigs, or Campbells, of a future day, may navigate in these roads of Poetry and Criticism yet unexplored. That there are undiscovered worlds of writing, I have no doubt. This may, perhaps, he one of which I now only point out the way. More than this cannot be hoped for by one who has no Patron; whose faculties (strained more than they should have been) are broken by disappointment; and whose powers of life are fast decaying. Let that enterprising adventurer, who has perseverance and good fortune to execute, as well as thought to plan, a new subject, occupy it. Let him who has the sunshine of patronage, or is not chilly enough to want it, and who has the elements themselves combined with, and not against, him, make a new settlement here: and thus being, in fact, not by indication merely (and at a distance) the real discoverer — let him, like another Americus, perpetuate his name —
"1 deeus, i nostrum — melioiibus utere fatis!
Some improvement) still, will be found in this edition, as to views of men and things. One must not always think and talk like a boy. The judicious critick will observe, sarcastically, that there still remains room for many other improvements. The Author is free to acknowledge it. Far is he indeed from being satisfied with a mere abortive attempt —he
only apologizes in excuse or extenuation of its tailing from what it might have heen. And he would willingly throw it yet into the fire, as he did not long since with his Fragments on Italy (which some thought worthy of being preserved), from "the high conception he has of the subject, if unfortunately this thing had not appeared in print already. Once it came out as a mere skeleton of a book; and a second time in its rough form of a hasty journal, without the least arrangement or correction *. The public!;, who always play fairly, will allow him to revoke his cards, which he threw down inconsiderately. Perhaps too, in its candour, it may say, in turning over these leaves: "By what fatality has it happened that such a hand as this was not played better.5" L. S.
Architectural Innovation. No. CCIX. Progress of Architecture in England in the reign of Queen Anne. (Continued from p. 135.) ~BLENHEIM-HOUSE. Internal -*-' survey: Basement story, or ground plan. It has been observed, that the contrivance, decorations, uniformity, and grand effect of the whole official part of the arrangement, is by far the most admired portion of the building; nay, ft is as strongly maintained that it is superior to any other work of the time or since. Conviction must in some degree subscribe to this position i for, while the principal story over it admits no more than the common-place form of the rooms, &c, here fancy gives a loose to numerous masonic ideas unfettered by precise modes, which are so compatible with the higher departments of life j for what with the intermedial concurrence of lines, the accidental and sudden lights, the glaring, or the gloomy, and ittiring half shades, the scene is at once uncommon and enchanting. Nay more, the entire story has received a noble and complete finish,1 the face of each wall shewing the highest - wrought masonry; a cir
* The title of it was " Journal of a short Excursion among the Swiss Landscapes, made in the Summer of the year 1794,"
cu instance of strict attention, which is not, perhaps, so demonstrable in the story above. Cellais or vaults under portico, great hall and saloon, sustained by pilasters having bases and caps; that under saloon, double, and centrical in quaternion groins and ribs; the diagonal of ribs to vault under hall, say 60 feet, a fine work of emulation, after ourSaxon architectural flights in this way. The other divisions of wine-cellars, little stone halls, corridors, arcades, stone gallery, &c, peculiarly pilastered and groined. There are a few rooms with waiuscottiug and flat ceilings, as belonging to the steward, housekeeper, &c.; but a doubt arises whether they were originally so. The stairs are many and ample : in short, the communications from and to every point are ready, free, and unembarrassed, each emanating from the thoroughpierced corridores dividing the mass of the building. In centre of divisions, right and left, capacious areas and courts for lighting the corridores, &c. Decorations confined chiefly to the chimney-pieces of steward's and house-keeper's rooms. The first, plain kneed architrave with superstructure of pannelled pedestal supporting a buslo, sided with scroll vases. The second, architrave and side vases similar, with large guideron shield on centre of the design. Kitchen: extremely lofty, an oblong of two cubes, each marked by pannelled pilasters and tablet caps, from which groins take their rise in pannelled ribs centering with perforated square tablets. The chimney-pieces large, and well befitting the purpose of the office, which indeed is strongly in character with those sumptuous culinary erections of old times, at Glastonbury, Durham, Raby Castle, &c.
Principal floor: after the passing of near a century, it is not to be expected but some alterations in a vast edifice like this would take place, either from an idea of greater convenience, fashion, or some other cause; or it may have so happened the first-meditated enrichments were never gone through with. There is certain'? not a correspondent, or, as it should be, an increase of splendour from that witnessed externally ; it is possible the mind, in contemplating that complete burst of enrichments, is rendered too sanguine in expecting
what should, or what might have been placed on show; as it is, there may be a certain portion of disappointment. Still, taking things as they are, there is much to charm and elevate the senses; the Hero of his Country had his reward, and we must be satisfied.
Noticing the house centrically, the hall breaking up the height of three stories, an oblong, five divisions of open arches, in three tiers, left and right: first tier of arches give windows; second ditto lead to vaulted corridors; third ditto,chimney-piece, now stopped up for buzaglio stove* f fourth and fifth ditto, to grand stairs, through which in view they have an unusual and magic effect. Second tier, right and left, five open arches for similar purposes to those just specified. Third tier, left and right, five arches for windows on each side, which, with others at each end of ball, if sufficient light is given thereto. The end of hall opposite the entrance side is in most respects similar to it: they both rise by Corinthian fluted columns in height the two first tiers of hall; between them Corinthian fluted columns of a lesser dimension supporting a large archway opening to corridore arrangement in pass to saloon: the effect is grand and striking, not alone presenting the entrance to saloon, but a cause- levered gallery over it, being the communication from each side of the building to chambers above. By way of key-stone to ditto large arch-way, royal arms; supporters, angels sounding trumpets; crest, a crown inclosed in palm branches. Upper, or window tier wholly painted with draperies, trophies, and diamond compartments; it is believed a very recent re-paint; as the penciling in no sort accords with the master-touch of the cieling by Sir James Thornhill. Iu consequence of the oblong form of ball the bounding frame for picture in the cieling is an oval, richly ornamented and gilt, containing a magnificent painting in scene, half pagan half costume, where we have our Warrior Duke in a Roman habit, introduced to a full assemblage of Gods and Goddesses. Allow they are allegorical allusions to great and glorious events, picturesque efforts of the Artist's skill. What then ? are they the images of truth, in point of costumic representation.1 sentation > Amidst this Babel of objects is thrust forth-a modern plan of the battle of Blenheim! Thus we find the painter, as well as the sculptor, equally striving to do away the historic warrant of their subjects. What have the manners of nearly Iwo centuries past to answer for in this respect? which class of scientific men first larded facts of their own times with Romanized fables—the Poet or the Artist ? we suspect the former: hence has arisen an evil in National record, which it is much doubted will never more be separated from the pen, chisel, or pentil. Door-way into saloon is entirely of marble, in architrave, frieze, and cornice; a superstructure with a busto of the great Hero, still in Romanized guise. It must be confessed, an air, either from the magnitude or characteristic turn of this interior, of grandeur and princely state is everywhere diffused.
Saloon: an oblong like the hall, though of far less magnitude, takes the same height, that is, in the altitude of the edifice. The uprights have on each side large marble doorcases of pilasters hearing arched heads with shell key-stones; a recediugand lesser door-way. within them; in the heads thereof, the Imperial arms; two plain kneed chimney-pieces on West side of room; on East side ditto two tiers of circular-headed windows; dado of marble. The decorative turn of the uprights, exclusive of the window side, bears a superb design entirely acenigraphic, and, with the ceiling, painted by La Guerre, it is uncommonly impressive and commanding, though composed with the most confused and discordant subjects ever encountered in one view. Notwithstanding the brilliancy of the general picture at first sight may banish reflection, and charm awhile discrimination, impartial illustration must be attended to, and then we feast upon our half-completed banquet, fairly and undisguised. The scene rises in a superb Composite gallery ol do u hie fluted columns, decorated with large draperies, on a noble run of pedestal, having compartments of fruit and palm branches: entablature consonant to the Order. A superstructure ensues in a second gallery of oval perforations: a second cornice terminates the uprights. In the first gallery, assemblages of various characters, English,
Scotch, Irish, Welsh, and other Europeans, with Asiatics, Africans, &c, all in their proper costume. (The Painter, it may be presumed, had occasionally encountered them in his visits about Town.) Among some very striking portraits, the Artist himself is remarkably conspicuous. Over each door-case, ovals with bassorelievos of angels, &c. Second gallery: the oval perforations are supported by Roman terms, male and female, between them naked prisoners, and costumic armour, banners, and other trophies of Marlborough's day. In the gallery, a variety of Roman soldiers, arranging more costumic armour, and banners of our Hero's conquests. Oval cieling with excessively rich foliages in frame, inclosing another magnificent group of Pagan gods and goddesses, among whom our Hero is again brought forward, and again marked by a complimentary Roman habit.
Eutering the state-apartments commencing at the West end; the North range, then through the East range to the library. Item. No. 1. modernised; 2. ditto. S. Chimney-piece, kneed architrave, with frieze of sweeping flutes, flat plain cieling. 4. Ditto, chimney-piece, superstructure of am. gularlerms, compartments, and sided by scrolls, Corinthian columns at sweep of bow-window, modern cove cieling. 6. Plain architrave chimneypiece with plain superstructure; cove cieliug having a large plain oval compartment. 7. Chimney-piece modern; general entablature of frieze and cornice ornamented. 8. Chimneypiece of terras, scroll-blocks in the frieze, and head in its centre ; cieling rather busy in the compartments, their borders goloched. 9. Chimneypiece modern, cove cieling with large diamond compartments, goloehi border. 10. Chimney-piece, scroll-pilasters, cornice, cornucopia, in frieze, tablet with it head; general entablature enriched ; rich coved ceiling with large inter-connectings of circular compartments golociied, and other ornaments. 11. Kneed architrave chimney-piece, modern ornaments introduced thereon; general cornice enriched, oblong compartments in cieling, their borders leafed.. 12. Modern chimney-piece, general cornice enriched, cove cieling with oblong compartments and goloehi border. 13. Kneed architrave chimney-piece, general cornice enriched, cove cieling, oblong compartment, its border leafed. The original door-cases and window architraves remaining, have the protruding mouldings; some of the rooms retain their original oakpauneling, the rest, of course, modern papering. It is to he observed that many tapestry hangings are yet exhibited, representing the victories of the great Duke ; these are not only most admirably expressed, but rendered invaluable from their strict adherence to the events and costume of the hour thus brought forward; a consideration certainly of more worth to the Historic service of the Country, than all the unnatural and dreaming compositions of artists in general, by their admixtures of mortals and deities, old times with new, faction and matter of fact, all done, forsooth, under the specious stamp of following the models of the Roman and Grecian schools.
Great gallery occupying the entire line of South front, now the library; its centre, a semi-circle; at each extremity a square in projection, forming in the length five divisions of windows, three in each. Three doorways and two chimney-pieces opposite windows. At two thirds of the uprights in certain divisions, particularly conspicuous at the two extremities, rise Doric tinted marble pilasters, their entablatures ranging round the whole work, with a general superstructure of inferior pilasters, bearing half coved vaultings. The cieling takes place demonstrating the above five divisions, in circular (centrically) oblong, right and left, and octangular at the two extremities; these latter mounting into dome-lie.'.ds, the enrichments of which are profuse, being in diamond compartments and other ornaments. The embellishments of the other cicliugs are confined to the borders of the compartmeu s. The grand centrical door-case is of marble, as a Doric frontispiece, inclosing an inferior ditto archill- The windows sided with Doric pilasters, and richly diamonded, as are the attending imposts and archivolt*. Two elaborately worked chimney-pieces of terms, tablets, a superstructure of compartments, terms, breaks, pediment scrolls, beads and foliage. The objects of furniture decoratious, which
take place of the first intended use of a picture-gallery, are a continued line of book-cases fronting windows and at the extremities, on which a continued gallery; its parapet is elaborately worked with foliages. A second line of corresponding bookcases succeed. The magnificence marking this room is carried to a very high degree of taste and skill. At the West extremity an antique busto of Alexander ; at the East ditto a whole length statue of Queen Anne, each in their proper costume; this is as it should be; the pleasing ideas they impart are not falsified, and we are presented with the actual resemblances of those who once were so great and illustrious.
Chapel. Altered from original plan by giving the altar end a square finish instead of a semicircular one, noting at same time that the altar cud does not stand according to the ecclesiastical observance, full East,but South; an innovation, we may safely assert, holds up Sir John as the first professionalist that turned this obligatory and sacred practice from its due position. An unclerical propensity surely, at least unpicturesque and non-effective, as the Divine table, to say no more of it, is thus thrown into a sombre and half revealed light, while on the point (East) the rays of the sun from the South and West, would havegiven'that luminous display so necessary to inipart those sensations allied to prayer and meditation, Plan, an oblong; four Corinthian pilastered compartments on the several sides inclosing East, the windows, and West, Urge recess. At North end, the state gallery supported by Doric columns ; scroll-frontispiece at back of gallery. Altar end, two windows, foliagtd compartment between them, and below a very uninteresting-conceived Ionic screen. The pulpit of the like common cast. Cieling, large compartment, with rich border, and centrical flower. From the visible faiiiug-oft'of according decorations in this place with preceding parts of the great whole, it is plain, a small portion of Vanbrugh's ability was here put in action, in fact, it has been understood, he left his lilenheimjob not so complete as might be wished, but the efficient cause has not been clearly or satisfactorily made out. !>nl every object in this chapel now either gives place, or is rendered