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281. EMPHASIS. Words are emphatic, | Proverbs. 1. We must submit 10 authority, when opposition is expressed, or understood; ull we can discorer, or sce-reasons. 2. Be noi sat that is, when our words are contrasted, and isfied with the results and applications of knowwhen we wish to enforce our ideas, so as to ledge; but search for its fountains. 3. Youth-ia produce their desired efects. As, Oratory- not a time to cast away slones, but to gather them. involves feelings, thoughts and words; so,

4. Instead of naturalizing nature, we should nal. does it also involve ends, or purposes, cuuses, uralize art. 5. The understanding—is a refining and effects; beyond which, human minds vessel, in which knowledge is purified. 6. Ei. cannot travel. We may illustrate emphasis,

deavor to acquire such knowledge, as will enable by what is called lever-power; the resistance you 10. judge correcily yourself. 7. Time-de

stroys the speculations of man, but confirms the to be overcome, or the effect to be produced; judgments of Nature. 8. No evil propensity is so the lever as a medium, and the weight :thus, pouerful, but that it may be subdued, by proper I will, or desire, to accomplish a certain ob

9. No one is so great, or so small, but ject : here, is the region of ends, or pur that he is capable of giving, or receiving-benefits. poses ; then, I devise ways and means, and 10. Be ciril-10 the great,—but intimate-with tho determine how it is to be done; here, is the good. 11. No religion—is better than an unnaturegion of causes : and, finally, I put the pur-ral one. 12. Immoderate sorrow-is a species of pose in operation, through the means, and suicide. 13. Pay what you owe. 14. Great thieves thus accomplish my object; which, of course, punish little ones. 15. The absent party is alis the region of effects. Here is the philoso- ways faulty. phy of oratory.

Anecdote. If a private gentleman, in 282. EXAMPLES OF EMPILASIS BY STRESS. Cheshire England, about the year 1730, had 1. It is not so easy to hide our faults, as to con- not been overturned in his carriage ; it is Jess--and armii them. 2. Never attempt to possible, that the United States, instead of raise yourself, by depreciating the merits of being a free Republic, might have remained others. 3. As fools-make a mock at sin, so

a dependent colony: that gentleman--was do the ignorant--often make a mock at Augustus Washington, who was thus thrown linowledge. 4. They are generally most ri- out of his carriage, into the company of a diculous themselves, who see most to ridicule lady, who afterwards became his wife, emiin others. 5. Wherever education is ney. grated with him to Virginia, and, in 1732, belected,-ile pravity, and every kind of action, came the moʻher-of General Washington that degrades mankind, are most frequent. Laconics. When we see birds, at the 6. The first three volumes; not, the three first approach of rain, anointing their plumaye volumes; there is only one-first. 7. The with oil—to shield off the drops, should it first three, and the lust tuo verses; not, the not remind is, when the storns of contenthree first, and two last. 8. To be truly- tin threaten us, to apply the oil of for happ!, man must be good, and renounce such bearance, and thus - prevent the chilling enjoyments as are grounded in the love of drops from entering our hearts ? eril. 9. There is a natural body, and there Varieties. 1. Did mankind fail suddenis a spirituul body. 10. Flesh--and bloodly, or by degrees? 2. While freeilon—is true cannot inherit the kingdom of God.

to itself, every one becomes subject to it; and 283. RULE. Emphasize the important even its a:lversaries are instruments in its word, or words, with such a degree and kind hands. 3. The preservation of health--deof stress, or expulsive prolongation of sound, pends, principally, on proper diet, early reas to convey the entire sense and feeling, in tiring, and early rising, teniperunce in culthe best manner, and give each idea its rela- ing, and drinking, proper exercise, and pertive importance. Example and definition. fect cleanliness. 4. By a ricious action, we * Emphasis--is the index of my meaning, injure our mind, as we should our body, by and shows more exactly, what I wish the drinking poison, or inflicting a wounil upon hearers to attend to-particularly.” Indeed, it. 5. What is liberty? Willing, thinking, it is to the mind what the finger is to the eye : speuking, and doing--what we understand ; when we wish a person to see any thing, we provided, we violate no law, or principle. naturally point to it: thus, are the manifesta- 6. Mental pleasures--never cloy; unlike tions of the mind made by the emphasis, or those of the body, they are increased by repejurinting of the voice.

tition, approved by reason, and strengthened They are sleeping! Who are sleeping ? by enjoyment. 7. Evil action, contrirance

Mortals, compassed round with woe, and speech, is but the manifestation of tho Eyelids, wearied out with uceping,

nature of evil; and that it should be maile Close for very weakness now:

manifest, is consistent with divine intenAnd that short relief from sorrow,

tions. Harassed nature-shall sustain,

Freedom--js Till they wake again--to-morrow,

The brilliant gift of heaven; 'uis reason's self. Strengthened--10 coniend with pain! The kin-10 Deity.

one.

284. EMPHASIS. There are only tun ways Proverbs. 1. It is a fraud-in conceal fraud. of making emphasis, but as many ways of | 2. Never allempt to do 100 things-at once. 3. exhibiting it, as there are pitches, qualities, He, labors in vain, who endeavors to please every and modifications of voice--in Speech and body. 4. To the resolute and persorering--notka Song: all of which are very simple, and a ing is difficult. 5. Thieres--are game for the knowledge of them easily acquired, by the peniientiary, and often, for the gallows. 6. X'indpersevering student. In every sentence, there ness-begets kindness, and love-begets love. i. is a word, or words, on which the sense de The drop-hollow's the stone, not by ils force, brie pends, as the botyon the heart; the voice and by falling often on the same spot. 8. A inan who

aspires to be an orator, must study by night, &r gestures, only, can exhibit it. Emphasis, not well as by day. 9. There is no sauce equal to 1 only illustrates, but often amplifies the sense good appetite. 10. To ricked persons--the vir. of the author; and that is the best emphasis, tue of others--is always a subject of enry. 11 A which does this the most effectively; indeed, man would not be alone, even in paradise. 12. there are times when, through the emphasis, Weigh right, if you sell dear. one may make words mean-more than they Anecdote. Dr. Johnson observed to were designed to mean by the author. Macklin, in a sneering manner, that literary

285. EMPHASIS hy expulsive stress. 1. He men-should converse in the learned lanwho cannot bear a joke-should never give guages; and immediately addressed the dra

2. Avoid a slanderer, as you would a matist in Latin; after which, Macklin--ulscorpion. 3. A wager--is a fool's argument. tered a long sentence in Irish. The Doctor 4. He that is past shame, is past hope. 5. again returned to the English tongue, saying, What is worth doing at all, is worth doing “ You may speak very good Greek; but I am well. 6. Men of principle, ought to be prin- not sufliciently versed in that dialect-to conripal men. 7. Aim at nothing higher, till verse with you fluently." you can read and speak, deliberately, clearly, Of Dress, &c. A creature, who spends and distinctly, and with proper emphasis: all its time in dressing, gaming, prating, and other graces will follow. 8. The heal, with gudding, is a being originally, indeed, of the out the heart, is like a steam engine, without rational make; but who has sunk itself bea boiler. 9. As love--thinks no eri!, so enry neath its runk, and is to be considered, at

-speaks no good. 10. Variety, delights; present, as nearly on a level with the more and perfection, delights in variety.

key-species. 286. Music. The cultivation, and frequent Varieties. 1. What was the design of practice of music, in schools of every grade, will God, in making man? 2. How absurd, to have a strong, and decidedly beneficial influ- have half a dozen children, with different disence on the habits of the pupils. By using positions, and capabilities, and yet, give them the same words, and singing the same pieces all—the same education! 3. Are not bigotin concert, their thoughts will be directed in ry, and intolerance--as destructive to 10 the same channel, and their affections eleva- rality, as they are to common sek ? ted together; and they will naturally be led Observations, made in the cloister, or in the into closer association and sympathy with descrt, will generally be as obscure--as the each other. Well chosen music may be made one, and burren--as the other; to become an efficient auxiliary, guiding and controlling orators, or printers, we must study originale. the feelings and actions in the school-room, 5. Which side of a pitcher has the handle ? and contribute essentially, to the proper man. The outside, of course. 6. If a book really agement of its concerns. It was in accord needs the patronage of a great man; it is a ance with this principle, that a certain poet bad book; and if it be a good book, it does wisely said, “Let me make the songs of the not need it. 7. To sow the seeds of order-nation, and I care not who makes its laus." we must be just; and so, also, to water them;

287. GEOGRAPHY-comprises a general de- but beware that self--enter not into the an scription of the earth; and, especially of the tion. natims, by which it is inhabited, in reference

Before the gate there sat, to their position and extent ; their produc- On either side, a formidable shape. lims and resources; their institutions and The one seemed roman--to the waist, and ;'air,

But ended foul, in many a scaly fold, improvements ; their manners and customs ; including the subject of statistics, voyages,

Voluminous and rast ;-a serpent arin'd

With mortal stinge. and travels. It is a term, that admits of al

The other shape. most in definite extension; for in describing if shape it might be call'd, that shape had none, a nation, allusion must be made to its lan-Or substance might be call'd, that skador seemed guage, laws, religion, arts, and literature ; For each seein'd cach, black it stood as night, and in treating of the earth, and its produc- Fierce as ten furies.-- terrible as hell, runs, we may include the whole range of the and shook a dreadful dart. physical sciences.

You think this cruel ; take it for a rule,
True love is never idle.

No creature--fmarts se lillleas a fool.
12

288. Remember that Emphasis-is to Proverbs. 1. Fisdom -- excelleth folly. 29 ucurils, in a sentence, what accent is to letters much as light excels darkness. 2. Opinion -ia or sylubles, in a woril; and, as proper ac- frre; and conduct alone-anvenable to the law. cent-on a right vowel, will impart an impe- 3. Some-aferi in despise--what they do noi untus to the voice, in going through the word; derstand. 4. In trying to avoid one danger, we so, true emphasis on the same, will give an sometimes fall into another. 5. Decency--is the impetus in delivering the sentence, so as to natural characteristic of virtue, and the decoop iltimate the end you have in view. Again, live coloring of vice. 6. Never despoir ; speak the length of long vowel sounds, in emphatic 7. Never chase a lie ; for if you krep quiet, 11!*

the commanding word, “I WILL," and it is done. words, is, to the same vowels, in accenter

--will eventually overtake it. 8. A punetul words, what accented long ones are, to unacrented long ones: similar observations might doubtful credit. 9. Persons of fashion, starve.

man, is rarely a poor man; and nerer--a man of be made in reference to force--on emphatic their happiness, to feed their canity; and their short vowels, and accented and unaccented lore, to feed their pride. 10. There is a great short ones.

difference--between repeating a maxim, or pro289. The various effects, produced by verb, and a practical observance of it. II. Dischanging the seat of Emphasis, from one eases--are the interest of sensual pleasures. 12. word to another, may be seen in the follow- The half is often better than the whole. 13. Jusing sentence, of emphatic memory; provided tice-should rule over ull. it be read according to the notation. Will

Bigots. Bigots, who are riolent, positive, you ride to town to-day?” That is: will and intolerant, in their religious tenets, ought you ride, or will you not?“Will you ride to feel very much humbleil, when they reflect, to town to-day?” That is: will you ride, or that they would have been equally so for any will you send some one. “Will you ride to other religion, had it been the religion of their town to-day?” That is: will you ride, or parents, or of the country in which they had walk? “Will you ride to town to-day?” been born and educated. That is: will you ride to town, or will you

Varieties. 1. Why is a tale-bearer-like a ride somewhere else? “Will you ride to brick-layer? Because he raises stories. 2. town today?That is: will you ride to When you have nothing to say, say nothing; town to-lay, or to-morrow; or, next week ? for a weak defence-strengthens your oppoBy using other modifications of voice, as many nent: and silence-is better than a bad reshades of meaning may be given, even to this ply. 3. We might enjoy much peace, and short sentence, as there are letters in it.

happiness, if we would not busy ourselves, 290. APPLICATION. It is incredible, how with what others say and do. 4. Never think much may be accomplished by diligence, and of yourself, when reuding, speaking, or industry. The present state of the world, en- singing; but of your subject; and avoid an lightened by the arts and sciences, is a living artificial, and grandiloquent style of delivery. proof, that difficulties, seemingly insuperable, 5. it is not enough to be left to the tuition inay finally be overcome. This considera of Nature, unless we know what lessons she tion onght to stimulate us to industry and

teaches. 6. Morals-too oiten come from empicction. We do not know our

the pulpit, in the cold abstruct ; but me strength, till we try it; nor to what extent smurt under them when gooit lowers are our abilities will curry us, till we put them to the preachers. 7. When we become perfectthe test. Those who want resolution, often

ly rational, and act wholly from ourselres--dosist from useful enterprises, when they in consequence of it, we are accountable for Have more than half effected their purposes: all our actions, and they are then imputed to they are discouraged by difficulties and dis

us, if eril,---but not before. appointments, which ought rather to excite

Where the gentle streamles flow, their prador, and cause them to redouble their

Where the morning dew-drops glou', forts to succeed.

Where the zephyrs--wing their flight. Anecdote. While Athens-was governed

In the cool and welcome night, by the thirty tyrants, Socrates, the philoso

Whispering through the fragrant grote pher, was ordered to assist in seizing one

To the heart, that " God is love," Lan, a man of rank and fortune, whom

Where the light clond skins the sky, they determined to put out of the way, that Worship! God is passing by!" they might enjoy his estate ; but Socrates

Hoary forest, rigged rock, positively refused: saying, “I will not wil

Roaring torrents, earthquake's shock. lingly assist--in an unjust act.

“Dost

Mighty tempests, lightning's glare, thou think,” (said one of them,) "to talk in

Ocean, raging in despair, this high tome, and not to suffer?” “ Far And the desert--lone and drear,

om it,” replied he; “I expect to suffer a Wake the soul of man to fear, thousand ills; but none so great--as to do And when thunder sends the sky, wojustly."

Tremble! God is passing!"

own

291. EMPHASIS. If your articulatim, Proverbs. 1. Temperance-and intemperance end pronunciation, be cleur and correct, and -reward, and punish themsdres. 2. Riches-are you are free from all unnatural tones, and sertants to the wise,--but tyrants to fools. 3. None other bad habits, nothing can prevent your can be great who have ceased to be rirtuous. 4. succeeding in this important art, if you per- Money-oes no good. till it is distributed. 5. If fect yourself in Emphasis : hence, the reason you have one true triond, think yourselt hapny. 6.

Silks, and satins, often put out the kitchen fire. 7. of welling on the subject so long, and of giving such a variety of examples. But re- Hungerlooks into the working-ran's house ; but member, that books, rules, teachers, or all dure not enter, 8. When the well is dry, people

kuow the worth of water. 9. Business-makes a am'rinell, cannot make orators of you, with

man), as well as tires him. 10. For the evidence of out you throw your whole heart and soul truth, look at the truth itself. 11. Better go away into the exercises, and let your zeal be ac- longing, than loathing. 12. Of saving-comeih cording to knowledge. Become independent haring. 13. God-never made a hypocrite. of your book, and speak from memory, as

Reading, Writing, and Speaking. soon as possible; then, you will be left to the Habits of literary conversation, and still more, promptings and guidance of your own mind, habits of extempore discussion in a popular and become free.

assembly, are peculiarly useful in giving us 292. 1. Men live, and prosper, but in mu

a ready and practical command of our know tual trust, and confidence of one another's ledge. There is much good sense in the foltruth. 2. Those, who are teaching our youth lowing aphorism of Bacm : Reading makes --to read with science and effect, are doing a full man, writing a correct man, and speaks much to increase the power, and extend the ing a ready man.” influence of standard authors.

Varieties. 1. Through an affected conPeace-is the happy, natural siate of man; temptfor what some call lillle things, muny War-his corruption, and disgrace.

remain ignorant-of what they inight easily To narre genius--would you prove a friend!

know. 2. A harmless hilarity, and buoyant Point out his faults—and teach him how to mend. cheerfulness--are not unfrequent concomi

Let us

tants of genius, and we are never more deArt with prudence, and with manly temper,

ceived, than when we mistake gravity--for As well as manly firmness;

greatness, solemnity--for science, and pon'Tis God-like magnanimity--to keep, When mose provoked, our reason-calm, and clear. posity for eru lition. 3. It is better to have

recourse to a quack, who can cure our disNotes. The ancients very properly called man a micro

, or litle world. But what were this worll— without a sun, case, tho' he cannot expluin it, than to ono 9 impart to it light and heat? Or what use the body-without who can explain, but cannot cure it. 4. Ear. the sou!? Of what use the house, without the inhabitant ? and ly rising--not only gives us inore life, in the of wha! uer unrds, without choukht and feeling! And of what same number of years, but adds to the numuse are all these, if they cannot be made manifest? The bodyin the mind's estrant, and depends on its carc, as the mind itself ber; and not only enables us to enjoy more de on the Father of mind. Body, and soul-are bes! taken care of existence, in the same measure of time, but me, when both are min led together.

increases also their measure. 5. For his 293. ARCHITECTURE-teaches the art of honesty, there was no winter in't; an are building; and is one of the most useful, as tumn 'twas, that grew the more, by reaping. well as ancient, of all the arts: it demands 6. Let us admire the results of truth, while much more attention, than it has ever re we ascend to the source of truth. 7. Look crived; especially, in this country: and many first inwardly, for the coming of the Lorila

- would save time, labor and money, and and of his kingdom; and when certainly have better houses, as to comfort and appear- found there, then look in outward nature, fns unce, if they would make themselves ac- a harmony agreeing with it; but not before. quointed with this important art. Most

Tell me not, in mournful numbers, persons will find it much to their benefil, to

Life--is but an empty dream! call upon an architect, when about to erect a

For the soul is dead, that slumbers, building of importance.

And things are not--what they seem. Anecdote. King James I., of England.

Life is real! Life is earnest! went out of his way one day, to hear a noted

And the grare-is not its goal; grrracher. The clergyman, seeing the king Dust thou art, to dust returnesi, enter, left histext-to declaim against swear Was not spoken-of the soul. ing; for which vile practice the king was

Not enjoyment, and not sorrow, motorímis. After serrice, the king thanked

Is our destined end or way; him for his sermon; and asked him, what But to act, that each to-morrone connection swearing had with his text. The Finds us farther--than 10-day. minister replied, “ Since your majesty came Let us, then. be up and doing, out of your way, thro' curiosity, I could not, With a heart for any fate; in compliance, do less than go out of mine Sullachiaing, sjill pursuing, to meet yo'l,"

Learu lo labor, and to wait.

294. EMPHASIS -is sometiines exhibited Proverbs. 1. llany, who possess much. . by changing the soul of accent. 1. What is jou but little. ? Vever sound the Irumpet of your clone, cannot be undone. 2. If he did not do own fame. 3. Farlion--s the bane of society. it directly, he did it indirectly. 3. There are

4. Religious contention-e Satan's harrest. 5. probably as many invisible as visible things. Sell not risine 10 purchase wraith. 6. The dis4. Did he act honesuy, or dishonestly? 5.

course of fialterers, is like a rope of horu. i. There is a difference between giving, and for

Truth may languish, but it never dies. 8. Undergiving. 6. Does he speak distinctly, or in- take--10 more than you can perform. 3. Value a distinctly? 7. Better be untaught than illo bound to be honest, but not to be rich. 11. He is

good conscience more than praise. ll. We are 'aught; and better be alone, than in bat idle that might be better employed. 12. The more company. 8. He that ascended, is the same laws—the more offenders. as he that descended. 9. Pure religion rais

Anecdote. Surilor and lighwayman. A es men above themselves; irreligion-sinks them to the brute. 10. Similitude-joins ; who, being informed by the driver, that there

stage—was once stopped by a highwayman, dissimilitude-separates.

were no inside passengers, and only one on 295. EMPHASIS-by changing the seat of

the outside, and he a suilor,--the rubber proaccent, in words of the same structure, and ceeded to exercise his functions on the of different structure, to convey the full bold and honest tar; when, waking him up, meaning. 1. To do, and to un-do--is the Jack demanded to know what he wanted : to common business of the world. 2. Reason, which the son of plunder replied, "Your Truth, and virtue-are the proper measures

money;"

;" “ You shan't huve it," says Jack. of praise, and dis-praise. 3. Mind, and rvice

No.?" rejoined the robber, " then lli blow ---Ict, and re-act upon one another. 4. We

your brains out." “ Blow away, then; I may inay have sen-sibility, without manifesting ir

as well be without brains, as without money. ritability. 5. Some things are con-venient; Drive on, coachee .!while others are in-convenient. 6. It is necessary to observe the divisim, and the suh

Independence. Always form your own division. 7. In the suitableness or un-suit- opinion of a person, and never allow anothableness, in the proporlion or dis-proportion,

er, even your most intimate friend, to judge which the desire bears to the cause, and the for you; as he may not have half the power object, consists the propriety, or im-propriety,

of discriminating character, that you yourself the de-cency, or in-decency-of the conse possess. Never allow yourself to be talked

out of any thing—against your better judge quent action. 296. DYSPEPSIA. Many persons of the

ment; nor talked into any thing; unless you joresent day do not chew their food like a man,

see clearly, that the reasons advanced-are but bolt it whole, like a boa-constrictor : they

more powerful than your own. neither take the trouble to dissect, nor the

Varieties. 1. If your principles are false, time to masticate it. It is no wonder they no apology can make them right; it founded lose their teeth, for they rarely use them; and in truth, no censure can make them wrong. their power of digestion, for they exhaust it 2. Do your best to do your best, and what by overeating. They load their stomachs, you lack in pwer, supply with will. 3. Evas a drayman does his cart, as full as it will ery plant that is produced, every child that is hold, and as fast as they can pitch it in; and born, is a new idea ; a tresh expression of the then complain that their load is too heary.

wisdom and goodness of our Creator. 4. 267. 20-OL-v-liY. Almost every child—is When I see a tight laced girl, or woman, i a naturalist: hence, among the earliest plays think,--well, there goes another fool. 5. Can of childhood, the observation of the habits of one passion, though it predominate, acı withidifferent animals, holds a prominent place. out assistance of the other passions? 6. The How delighted are they with dogs, cats, calves, state of the three kingdoms in nature, speak lambs, sheep, oxen, and horses! What a

the same at all times; as also the state of evpily, that so inuch pains should be taken in ery nation, and what is passing in it; ali an imperfect education, to sever their young these things are a language, as are also minds from these interesting objects ; so well many smaller particulars, tho' attended by calculated to induce close observation, and none.

There will come, open new fountains in the youthful mind!

Alike, the day of trial-unto all, But how greatly are these studies increased

And the rude world-will buffet us alike: in value, by adding the treasures of Botany,

Temptation---liath a music-for all cars ; and Mineralogy, beautiful flowers, and pre

And mad ambition-trumpeleth to all, cious stones! What a glorious world, and

And ungovernable thoughi, within, how admirably designed to aid in the de

Will be in every bosom-eloquent: wlopment of boily and mind.

But, when the silence and the calm comr on, Eye nature's walks, shoot folley, as it flies, And the higli seal--of character-is sel, And catch the manners-living, as they rise. We shall not ali-be smar.

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