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2. There is a material difference between gir'ing and for giving

3. Thuught and language act' and re'act upon each ether.

4. He who is good before invisible witnesses, is emi. Bently so before the visible.

5 What fellowship hath right'eousness with unrighteousness? ard what communion hath light with darkness?

6. The riches of the prince must in crease or de'. crease, in proportion to the number and riches of his subjects.

Note 1.-This transposition of the accent extends itself to all words which have a sameness of termination, though they may not be directly opposite in sense.


1. In this species of composition, plau'sibility is much more essential than probability.

2. Lacius Catiline was expert in all the arts of sim' alation and dissimulation; covetous of what belonged to others, lavish of his own.

Note 2.-When the accent is on the last syllable of a word which has no einphasis, it must be propounced louder and a degree lower than the rest.


Sconer or later virtue must meet with a reward'.

louder than the rest ; but if the accent be prouounced with the rising indection, the accented syllable is higher than the preceding, and lower thun the succeeding syllable; and if the accent have the falling Inflection, the accented syllable is prorsunced higher than any other Hable, either preceding or sncceeding

EMPHASIS A thar stress we lay on words which are in contradistinction de other words expressed or understood. And hence will follow this general rule: Wherever there is contradistinction in the sense of the words, there ought to be emphasis in the pronunciation of them.

All words are pronounced either with emphatic force, accentod force, or unaccented force; this last kind of force may be called by the name of feebleness. When the words are in coutradistinctiou to other words, or to some sense implied, they may be called emphatic, where they do not denote contradistinction, and yet are more importo ant than the particles, they may be called accented, and the particles Rod V:sser words may be called unaccented or feeble.

EXAMPLES, 1. Exercise and temperance strengthen the constitution

2. Erercise and temperance strengthen even an INDIF. FERENT constitution.

The word printed in Roman capitals is pronounced with emphatic force; those in small Italics are pronounced with accented force; the rest with unaccented force.

SINGLE EMPHASIS.* RULE.- When a sentence is composed of positive and

negative part, the positive must have the falling, and the negative the rising inflection.

EXAMPLES. 1. We can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.

2. None more impatiently suffer' injuries, than they who are most forward in doing them.

* When two emphatic words in antithesis with each other are either expressed or implied, the emphasis is said to be single

+ To this rule, however, there are some exceptions, not only in Pexetry, but also in prose,

8. You were paid to fiyht' against Alexander, and not to rail' at him.

DOUBLE EMPHASIS.* RULE.--The falling inflection takes place on the first ena

phitic word, the rising on the second and third, and the falling on the fourth.†

EXAMPLES. 1. To err' is human'; to forgive' divine'.

2. Custom is the plague' of wise' men, and the idol' of fools'.

TREBLE EMPHASIS. RULE.The rising inflection takes place on the first and

third, and the falling on the second of the first three emphatical words ; the first and third of the other three have the falling, and the second has the rising inflection.


1. A friend cannot be known' in prosperity'; and an enemy' cannot be hidden' in adversity'.

2. Flowers of rhetoric in sermons or serious discourses are like the blue and red flowers in corn, pleasing' to those who come only for amusement', but preju dicial to him who would reap the profit'.

* When two words are opposed to each other, and contrasted with two other words, the emphasis on these four words may be called double.

+ The pause after the second emphatic word must be considerably onger than that after the first or third.

# When three emphatic words are opposed to three other emphatie words in the same sentence, the emphasis is called treble.

THE ANTECEDENT. RULE. - Personal or adjective pronouns, when anteos

denis, must be pronounced with an accentual force, to intimate that the relative is in view, and in some men sure to anticipate the pronunciation of it.


1. He, that pursues fame with just claims, trusts his happiness to the winds; but he, that endeavors after it by false merit, has to fear, not only the violence of the storm, but the leaks of his vessel.

2. The weakest reasoners are always the most posi. tive in debate; and the cause is obvious; for they are unavoidably driven to maintain their pretensions by violence, who want arguments and reasons to prove that they are in the right. RULE II.- When the relative only is expressed, the an

tecedent being understood, the accentual force then falls upon the relative.


1. What nothing earthly gives or can destroy,

The soul's calm sunshine, and the heartfelt joy,

Is virtue's prize.
2. Who noble ends by noble means obtains,

Or failing, smiles in exile or in chains,
Like good Aurelius let him reign, or bleed
Like Socrates, that man is great indeed.

GENERAL EMPHASIS Is that emphatic force, which, when the composition is very ana mated ang approaches to a close we often lay apnp several words in maccersion. This emphasis is not so much regulated by the sense of the author, es by the taste and feelings of the reader, and therefore does not admit of any certain rule.



What men could do
Is done already: heaven and earth will witness,

If' Rome' must fall', that we are innocent. 2. There was a time, then, my fellow-citizens, when the Lacedæmonians were sovereign masters both by sea and land; when their troops and forts surrounded the entire circuit of Attica; when they possessed Euboea, Tanagra, the whole Boeotian district, Megara, Ægina, Cleone, and the other islands, while this state had not one ship, not one' wall.

THE INTERMEDIATE OR ELLIPTICAL MEMBER Is that part of a sentence which is equally related to both parts of an antithesis, but which is properly only once expressed.


1. Must we, in your person, crown' the author of the public calamities, or must we destroy' him?

2. A good man will love himself too well to lose as estate by gaming, and his neighbor too well to win' one.

RHETORICAL PAUSES. KULE I.-Pause after the nominative when it consists of

more than one worse


1. The fashion of this world passeth away.

• The place of the pause is immediately before each of the words printed in italics.

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