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cubits. Now thirty times four cubits is twice sixty, and thirty times two cubits is sixty; so that thrice sixty cubits completes a circle, whose diameter is sixty cubits. Thus a stone and an interval, in the outward circle, make three squares, two allotted to the stone; one to the interval. This general design may be seen in the seven stones now remaining at the grand entrance. The stones of the outward circle are four cubits broad, two thick, and nine high; on the top of every two of them, are placed head-stones, as imposts or cornices: These imposts are six cubits long, two broad, and one and a half high; the uprights diminish a little every way, so as at the top to be but three cubits and a half broad, whereby the imposts project over the uprights, both within and without. In its persection, the outward circle consisted of sixty stones, viz. thirty uprights, and thirty imposts; of these seventeen uprights are left standing, eleven contiguous to the grand entrance, and sive imposts upon them; another upright leans on a stone of the inner circle. There are six more lying on the ground, whole, or in pieces; there is but one impost more in its proper place, and but two more lying on the ground; so that twenty-two are carried away by rude and facrilegious hands. Five cubits inwards, there is another circle of lesser stones. The stones of this are truly parallelograms; their proportion is two cubits broad, one thick, and four and a half high, and were forty in number. But nineteen are left, eleven standing in situ; the walk between these two circles is three hundred paces in circumserence.
Having passed the second circle, you behold the cell, or adytum, which is an ellipsis. It is composed of trilithons, two uprights, and one impost; they are sive in number, and still remain. Each trilithon stands independent of its neighbour; they also diminilh to the top, which take off from their weight. The tenons, or mortoiscs, are particularly formed, being about ten inches and a half in diameter, and resembling half an egg, rather than
an an hemisphere, and so effectually keep both uprights and' imposts from luxations. Lord Winchelsea and. the Doctor took a walk upon one of these trilithons, but it was thought a frightful situation.
The whole number of stones is thus computed: the great oval consisted of ten uprights, the inner, with the altar, of twenty, the great circle, of thirty, the inner, of forty. These, with sive imposts of the great oval, thirty of the great circle, and some more broken and scattered, completed the temple, making in all one hundred and forty stones. In the reign of Henry VIII. a tin tablet was found here, inscribed with strange characters: this was lost, which, if understood, might have discovered something very curious.
Dr. Stukely observed, half a mile north of Stonehenge, and across the valley, a hippodrome, or horsecourse; it is included between two ditches, running parallel east and west; they are three hundred and sifty seet asunder: it is one hundred thoufand seet long. The barrows round this monument are numerous, and remarkable, being generally bell fashion; yet is there great variety in their diameters, and their manner of composition. These were single sepulchres, as appeared from many that were opened. On the west; side of one was an entire segment, made from center to circumserence; it was good earth quite through, except a coat of chalk of about two seet thick, covering it quite over, under the turf. Hence appears the manner of making those barrows, which was to dig up the turf for a great ways round, till the barrow was brought to its intended bulk; then with the chalk dug out of the surrounding ditch they powdered it all over. At the center was found a skeleton perfect, of a reasonable size, and with the head lying northward. On opening a double barrow, the composition was thus; after the turf was taken off, there appeared a layer of chalk, and then sine garden mould. About three seet below the surface, was a layer of flints, humouring the convexity
of the barrow: this being a foot thick, rested on a layer of soft mould, in which was inclosed an urn, full of bones. The urn was of unbaked clay, of a dark reddish colour, and crumbled into pieces. It had been rudely wrought, with small mouldings round the verge, and other circular channels on the outside. The bones had been burnt; the collar-bone, and one side of the under jaw, were entire; there was a large quantity of semale ornaments mixt with the bones, as beads of divers colours, many of them amber, with holes to string them; and many of the button fort were covered with metal."
It may be proper just to remark, that Stonehenge has since undergone an alteration in its appearance, part of it having, about three vears ago, sell to the eanh. We faw and conversed with some shepherd boys, who were loitering around the immense pile, and from whom we learnt that the fall occasioned a violent concussion of the ground. This must have been expected, and excited, to persons in its vicinity, no small astonishment.
Dr. Wartonhas, in the following sonnet, ingenioufly interwoven the sentiments of the learned on this subject.
WRITTEN AT STONEHENGE.
Thou noblest monument of Albion's ifle!
Vol. VIII. Kk . These . = ' "?
These ruins are, in their appearance, peculiarly solemn, and their isolated situation in the midst of the plains, heightens the melancholy senfations with which they are contemplated. This idea is taken up with success in the following lines, which will please you.
BY THE LATE ROBERT LOVELL.
Was it a spirit on yon shapeless pile?
I have dwelt the longer on this curious phænornenon, because it is on all hands consest to be the most interesting relic of antiquity, by which Britain stands distinguished. Its form, situation, and history, are calculated to generate the profoundest impressions.
Driving along, about six miles over these dreary plains, we soon reached the neat and pleafant city of Salisbury. It lies in a vale, and is of considerable extent. The streets are, in general, spacious, and built at right angles. The Avon runs through them in canals, lined with brick, and this distribution of water forms a singular appearance. It has also been remarked, that no stream runs through that part of the city inhabited by the butchers, and, consequently, where it was most wanted. There are no vaults in the churches,
notl nor cellars any where to be found in the town, the foil being so moist, that the water rises up in graves dug in the cathedral. Here is a spacious market-place, in which stands a sine town-house. The manufactures of the place are cloths of various kinds, and cutlery of almost every description. Besides the cathedral, there are, in this city, three other churches and three charity schools, in which 170 children are taught and clothed. It has, likewise, an hospital or college, founded 1683, by Bishop Ward, for ten widows of poor clergymen. This does honour to his memory.
The cathedral of Salisbury demands special attention. It was founded 1119 by Bilhop Poor, who removed hither from Old Sarum, upon which the greatest part of the citizens of that place followed him. The structure is reckoned the most elegant and regular gothic building in the kingdom. It is in the form of a lanthorn, with a beautisied spire of free-stone, in the middle of it, 410 seet high, being the tallest in England. According to this computation, it is twice the height of the monument. The windows of the church are faid to be as many as the days in the year; nor can an account of all its ornaments be here expected. The monuments were numerous; but my attention was chiefly sixed on a neat marble flab, erected to the memory of the late James Harris Esq. author of The Hermes (declared by Bishop Lowth to be the most beautiful and persect example of analysis, that has been exhibited since the days of Aristotle) it was decorated by a medallion head, and a neat classical inscription. He was a most studious man—has thrown much light on the philological parts of learning, and was usually denominated the Philosopher of Salisbury. He was the father of the present Lord Malmibury, whose diplomatic merits are generally known and admired. We faw also a stone monument, representing a little boy habited in episcopal robes, a mitre on his head, and a crosier in his hand. This, which was buried under K k 1 the