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This is something like the bed of Procrustes, and has a double disadvantage. It often leaves great vacant spaces, and it fails altogether to shew the real relations of words, phrases and sentences to one another.
Some sentences contain only one or two elements, and may be dismissed in two lines. Others require the statement of many more particulars than are provided for in such a diagram. The essential points in relation to the analysis are (1) That an account shall be given of every separate logical element in the sentence; (2) That the meaning and force of each of the connective words which are not strictly in the sentence but which indicate the character of subordinate sentences, shall be described ; and (3) That the relation of the several sentences to each other whether as coordinate or subordinate shall also be clearly shewn. These conditions will be found to be fulfilled in the example on the next page.
After some exercises of this kind in logical parsing, or Gramconcurrently with them, it is useful to give the ordinary matical
Analysis. drill in grammatical parsing. But here it is necessary to distinguish between the proper province of logic and that of pure grammar. For instance, the difference between Common and Proper nouns is the logical difference between universals and particulars, and has no place in grammar whatever. And the distinction of sex is in no sense logical, and in English is hardly gramınatical. It determines the form of our nouns and pronouns in only a very limited number of cases; and we have no conventional sex, as in Latin and French, which affects the concord of adjectives. Hence the enumeration of Gender among the attributes of English words has little to do with Etymology and less with Syntax, and in fact serves no grammatical purpose at all.
Specimen of But now farewell. I am going a long way
With these thou seest-if indeed I go
wind blows loudly; but it lies
Adverbial adjunct to 3.
Predicate. 4 I
Adverbial adjunct to 5.
8 (whom] C.
Subject. 10 seest
Particle introducing sentence D. 12 indeed
Adverbial adjunct to 14.
Particle introducing sentence E.
19 To the island Continu
valley Adverbial adjunct to 5. ation of B. 20 of Avilion
Adjectival adjunct to“ valley” in 19. 21 Where
=in which. Adverbial adjunct to 22. 22 falls
Negative adjunct to 22. r.
Alternative subject. i 26 or any snow Alternative subject.
- 33 it
meadowed Adjectival adjunct to 33.
lawns and bowery
summer sea Adjectival adjunct to "hollows” in 37.
Adverbial adjunct to 41.
wound Adverbial adjunct to 41.
A. Principal sentence.
co-ordinate with A.
Note. The last sentence I. might be interpreted in the same way as F., as an adjective sentence qualifying 33.
A lesson on Let me now give you an illustration of another kind Auxiliary of lesson, in which, as indeed in all other enquiries into
English, a knowledge of the elements of Old English Grammar will be of great help to you. Begin with a few examples of the use of Auxiliary verbs. You observe that there is no inflectional provision for Perfect, Pluperfect, or Future tense in English, nor for the Potential Mood, but these modifications of meaning are shewn by auxiliaries. The old grammars recognized a fundamental distinction between this method and that of accidence. In Ben Jonson's Grammar for instance, you will find the statement that the English Language has no Future tense but that its place is supplied by a Syntax. With this in view, it is worth while to give several special lessons on the peculiar function and use of auxiliaries in English. And in doing this, you will choose first examples of the use of these words not as auxiliaries, but as principal and independent verbs. Before Abraham was I am.' Here the verb be is independent and means existence. Afterwards and in ordinary modern use, it becomes a mere copula. “He was going, I am a soldier. Again 'I have a book, I have finished the book.' The first and independent meaning of the word have' is seen to be that of possession, the subsequent meaning that of completion. You shew that will' simply implies volition in such a sentence as If I will that he tarry till I come;" but that in the sentence 'He will go,' it implies futurity. You ask why in merely stating a fact about a future act, you say 'I shall come;' but “They will come;' yet that if you desire to express the same thing with more positiveness you change the form and say "I will,' and 'They shall.' And having traced this usus ethicus by means of the analogous forms should and would, you come to the conclusion that though these
two words have come in time to be auxiliaries, some faint reminiscence of their early signification still clings to them, and that even in their modern use, we can discern traces of the idea of volition in will and would, and of obligation in shall and shoulil. The same thing is seen on examination to be true of all the auxiliary verbs. They have in becoming mere substitutes for inflection parted with much of their original meaning, but in all cases, some flavour of that original meaning remains. The result of these enquiries may then be tabulated in some such form as this:
Contributes by itself no additional meaning to the verb, but serves (1) to carry emphasis, as I do wish; (2) to furnish a place for a negative or other adverb, as I did not go; or (3) to help the construction of an interrogative sentence, as Did I forget?
Word-building and analysis—the investigation of the Verbal parts of words and the separate significations of each Analysis. part-form a most useful exercise. You take the word Unselfishness and decompose it. Self is seen to be here used as a noun. This noun becomes an adjective by the termination ish. The adjective thus formed is nega