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tived by the prefix un, and this adjective Unselfish is converted into an abstract noun by the addition of the syllable ness. At each of these steps it is well to ask for a number of other examples of similar construction, to write them down, and to ask the pupils to make the generalization for themselves. Such a word as Indestructibility in like manner may be analysed, and the value and force of each separate syllable shown. And after this has been done, the result of the collocation of a number of examples, which will have been mainly supplied by the pupils, will appear in some such form as this. It certainly should not be presented at first in the form of a list to be learned from a text book, but should grow as the facts are elicited in successive lessons.

NOUNS.

ENGLISH. LATIN. GREEK. (a) From verbs Doer Sponsor Acoustics

Learning Subtraction Catechism
Knowledge Experience Hypothesis

(6) From adjec- Goodness Purity

tives

Truth Longitude Cycloid (c) From other

Diameter

Iliad Duckling Reticule Asterisk (a) From nouns Embody Fabricate Metamorphose

} Kingdom

nouns

VERBS.

(3) From adjec.

Sweeten Falsify Christianize tives

Enlarge Celebrate (c) From other

Untie Destroy verbs

Wander Inhale

Behave
ADJECTIVES. (a) From nouns Childish Arbitrary Euphonious

Fruitful Gracious Cosmic
Rainy Royal Amphibious
Weekly Civil

Composition.

273

GREEK.
Symbolic

ENGLISH LATIN.
(6) From verbs Readable Audible

Willing Illustrative
Beloved Decent

Ornate
(c) From other adjectives

Untidy Improper
Ruder Superior
Blackish

Atheistic

Such a series of inductive lessons having been given, lists of illustrative examples prepared, and sentences framed to contain each of the less familiar words, the pupil will know something of the genesis both of words and of thoughts, and will be able on looking at many words to tell at once to what class they belong, from what sort of words they are immediately formed, and from what language they are derived. I know no lesson which when well given awakens more interest and mental activity even among young children than this.

It is well known that the part of English grammar Composiwhich is usually considered most practical as an aid in

tion. correct speaking consists of the Rules of Syntax. But although it is useful to have at hand a compendium of such rules and to refer to them occasionally, experience shews that they have no value as guides. The true discipline in correct speech is to be found in the practice of composition, which should begin from the first. Short sentences should be prepared by the pupil to exemplify each new fact or distinction which you explain, and by degrees the sentences may become more complex.

In the choice of subjects for composition exercises, let them be those on which the scholars have something to say. Do not ask your scholars to write on mere abstract themes. Virtus est bona res,' 'Time is money,' and other

18

F. L.

arid generalities of that kind have little interest for scholars, and they do not know what to say about them. Let the composition exercises always refer to something of which a boy has the material at hand, an expedition he has recently taken, a story you have just read to him, a letter detailing some recent experience or well-known fact. It is probable that the number of solecisms in speech or in the formation of sentences which you will find among your pupils is very small, especially if they are in the habit of living and speaking with educated people at home. The chief difficulties which occur in actual composition are apt to shew themselves in connexion with the use of the relatives, and connective words, particularly in those sentences which are elliptical in form, and in which some part has to be supplied. You will deal with this form of fault partly by requiring as a rule that sentences should be shorter than young people are apt to make them; partly by requiring the lacunæ in elliptical sentences to be filled up, and partly by taking an involved or muddled sentence now and then, and setting scholars to parse or analyse it. This indicates where the difficulty of the construction lies, and helps to shew how the thought might by a rearrangement of words, or by the use of two sentences instead of one, be more con

cisely or more elegantly expressed. Meanings One essential object contemplated in the study of our of words.

own language is a knowledge of the meanings of its words. This, it is true, is not grammar, but it is closely connected with it. Definitions of words, however, must not be learned by heart, from dictionaries or lists, because the same word has not always the same meaning, and because the meaning is often determined by the context. Sentences, we have said, are to a child easier than single words, and it is often better to require a paraphrase of a

[blocks in formation]

short sentence, than to demand exact synonyms, which though right in the particular case will be wrong for others. Not until after much practice in giving the substance of short sentences in other language, is it useful to require exact definitions of particular words.

In fashioning lessons for Paraphrase, it will be well to Paraadopt for yourselves and your pupils a few very simple phrase. rules :

(1) Do not think that you have to find an equivalent for every word. But read the whole passage, turn it over in the mind; keep in view its drift and general purpose, and then rewrite it, so as to convey the collective meaning of the passage, not a translation of its words.

(2) Do not be afraid of using the same word, if it is clearly the best, and an equivalent cannot be found.

(3) Be sure that the sentences are short and simple, and guard with special care against the vicious use of relatives, participles, and connective words, and particularly of any constructions which you could not easily parse.

(4) Never use two words where one would suffice to express your thought; nor a hard word where an easy one would convey your meaning; nor any word at all unless you are quite sure it has a meaning to convey. At the same time, in dealing with very concise writers it is not necessary to try to make the paraphrase as short as the original.

(5) Do not translate all the metaphors, or all the poetry into prose. Slight change of figurative language is quite legitimate so long as the meaning is preserved.

(6) Keep in mind the general style of the extract, and, if it be grave or playful, maintain its character as far as you can, and be careful that the result shall be a perfectly readable piece of English, which would be

intelligible to those who had no knowledge of the

original. E ramples. I will suppose that with these general rules in view

you attempt to recast the following well-known passage from Bacon :

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. The chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament is in discourse; and for ability is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars one by one, but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humour of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience. For natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study. And studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them. For they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them and above them, won by observation.

Bacon's Essays.

You first read it aloud, and point out that here the word “studies' is used for learning generally. You call attention to the special sense in which for his present purpose Bacon uses the words 'ability,'' discourse,' and crafty.' You shew how closely he has packed his meaning into a few words. And perhaps you arrive after this at something of this sort :

I. Learning is valuable in three ways—as a source of pleasure, as a means of adding grace and beauty to life, and as an instrument for the discharge of duty. The first of these advantages is chiefly enjoyed in solitude; the second is found in social intercourse, while its third use is that it helps us to order and arrange the business of life. For although men of natural acuteness can perform good work and form right judgments about its details, yet the power to view things comprehensively, to group them together, and to

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