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others; it should be a microcosm; a training ground for the business and the struggle of life, and for the duties of a world in which men have to work with men and to contend with men. But a big conventual boardingschool for girls is unlike any world which they are ever likely to enter. It has no lesson to teach and no discipline to furnish, which bears at all on the future claims of society and of home. Hence while the ideal boarding-school for boys may be large and stately; with its strong sense of corporate unity, its traditions, its contests, its publicity, its representation on a small scale of municipal and political life; the ideal boarding-school for girls is an institution large enough indeed as to all its teaching arrangements to admit of perfect classification, right division of duty among teachers and abundant intellectual activity; but organised as to all its domestic arrangements, on the principle of small sheltered boardinghouses in separate communities of not more than 20, each under the care of a mistress who shall stand in loco parentis And in each of such boarding houses it is well that care should be taken to gather together under the same roof scholars of very different ages, in order that relations of helpfulness and protection may be established between the elder and the younger, and that in this way something analogous to the natural discipline of a family may be attained.

We may not forget too that all large boarding Class establishments when limited to pupils of one particular


schools. class, clergy-orphan schools, schools for officers' daughters, orphan-schools, and the like have a very narrowing influence on the formation of character and are essentially wrong in principle. Any disadvantages which belong to the children of any one such class become intensified by the attempt to bring them up together. Experience has

shewn us that the worst thing to do with pauper children is to bring them up in pauper schools; and that the wise course is as soon as possible to let their lives be passed in ordinary homes, and in schools frequented by children whose parents are not paupers. So the happiest thing for the orphan daughter of a clergyman is that she should be placed in a school where the children do not all come from parsonages, and where some at least of her associates are not orphans.


To what extent are the principles we have laid down consistent with a system of bifurcation, or division of the upper part of the school, into two branches, according to the special bent or probable destiny of the scholars ? On this point there has been much discussion. Even in the greatest and most ancient of our schools, it has come to be recognized that the traditional classical discipline is not equally suited for all the pupils; that what are called modern subjects-modern languages and sciences—have a right to recognition; and that for all boys who are not likely to go to the University, as well as for all, who, when they enter an academic life, mean to pay special attention to science, an alternative course should be offered; and they should be permitted to substitute modern languages for ancient, or chemistry and physical science for literature. And hence the establishment in so many of the great schools of what are called "modern departments,” or “modern sides.” It is impossible to declare that this experiment has been wholly successful. There is often a complete separation, say at the age of 15, of the boys in this department from those of the “classical.” The “moderns” are sometimes placed under the care of a class of teachers of inferior academic rank. It is understood that the work is rather easier,

Modern departwients.

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and that boys of inferior abilities gravitate to it. So it comes to be regarded as less creditable to belong to it; and those who keep in the ancient traditional groove, in which all the former triumphs of the school have been won, consider themselves, not only intellectually, but socially superior to those who avail themselves of the locus pænitentiæ provided by the modern department. What is worse, the masters themselves, often encourage this feeling, and let it be seen that they think the more honourable school career is to be found in exclusive devotion to classics. We shall never give a fair chance to other forms of intellectual discipline, while this state of academic opinion lasts. We shall, I hope, ere long, come to the conclusion that the true way to recognize the claims of what are called modern subjects, is not by the erection of separate modern departments, but rather by taking a wiser and more philosophical view of the whole range and purpose of school education.

It is not good that the boy who is to be a classical scholar, should grow up ignorant of physical laws. Still less is it good that the boy who shews a leaning for the natural sciences should be debarred from the intellectual culture, which literature and language give. And it may well be doubted whether it is desirable to recognize too early, the differences of natural bent, or probable professional career, at all. Up to a certain point, it is good for all of us to learn many things, for which we have no special aptitude. Unless we do this, we do not give our faculties a fair chance. We do not know until our minds have been directed to particular forms of study, whether they will prove to be serviceable to us or not. You and I know many persons whose intellectual training has been completely one-sided; scholars, e.g. who have never given a moment's study to the sciences of experiment and observation in any form.

With some of them, the result of this is seen in the lofty contempt with which they regard the kind of knowledge, which they themselves do not possess. With others, the result is seen in a highly exaggerated estimate of chemistry or civil engineering, and an absurd and ultra-modest depreciation of that form of mental culture to which they themselves owed so much. Both states of mind are mischievous. And they may be guarded against by taking care that our school-course gives at least the elements of several different kinds of knowledge to every learner. There comes a time no doubt, when it is quite clear that we should specialize; but this time does not arrive early; and until it arrives, it is important that we should secure for every scholar, a due and harmonious exercise, of the language faculty, of the logical faculty, of the inductive faculty; as well as of the powers of acquisition, and of memory. Let arrangements be made by all means for dropping certain studies, when experience shall have made it clear that they would be unfruitful. Let German be the substitute for Greek, or higher proficiency in physics be aimed at as an alternative to the closer perception of classic niceties. But you do not want distinct courses of instruction, existing side by side, to provide for these objects. And if modern departments are to exist at all in our great schools, they can only justify their existence by fulfilling these very simple conditions :

(1) That the student of language shall not neglect science, nor the student of science neglect language, even after the bifurcation has begun.

(2) That in each department, the same general curriculum including the humanities as well as science and mathematics shall be pursued; the only difference being in the proportion of time devoted to each, and

Conditions of their SUCCESS,

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possibly in the particular language or science selected, e.g. German for Greek; chemistry for applied mathematics.

(3) That as far as possible, so much of the instruction as is common to the scholars in both departments, and this should be by far the larger portion-should be given to them in common, and not in separate departments or by separate teachers.

(4) That there shall be no pretext for regarding the modern course as intellectually inferior to the other; but that both courses should rank as equivalent, exact the same amount of effort; and should even from the schoolboy's point of view be equally honourable.

Now how far ought this general scheme of division Girls into five departments, of which the first two-the real — schools. gradually yield the chief importance to the other three, the formative or disciplinal, to be modified for the sake of girls' schools? Probably to a very small extent indeed. We may indeed postulate one special condition, for which we men have all good reason to be thankful, that a larger portion of a woman's life than of ours is spent in giving pleasure to others; and that to charm and beautify the home is accepted by her, as the chief-one might almost say the professional-duty which she feels to be most appropriate. Hence the greater importance in her case of some form of artistic training. The elements of instrumental music and of drawing should be taught to every girl; and these studies should be carried far enough to give her faculties for them a fair chance of revealing themselves, and to discover whether she is likely to excel. And as soon as it becomes clear in respect to either, that she has no special aptitude, and no prospect of attaining excellence, the subject should be dropped.

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