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Hence a particle which, unresisted, would have a simple harmonic motion, has, when subject to resistance proportional to its velocity, a motion represented by the resolved part of the spiral motion just described.
296. If a be the constant angle of the spiral, w the angular velocity of SP, we have evidently
PT. sin a = SP.w. But PT= nSP, so that n =
Pv=Pu= pt=nSp=nPT =n'.SP
w? Thus the central force at unit distance is n=- and the co
2w cos a efficient of resistance is k= 2n cos a =
21 The time of oscillation in the resolved motion is evidently
-; but, if there had been no resistance, the properties of simple harmonic
21 motion show that it would have been ; so that it is increased by
k? the resistance in the ratio cosec a to 1, or n to
4 The rate of diminution of SP is evidently
2 that is, SP diminishes in geometrical progression as time increases,
k the rate being per unit of time per unit of length. By an ordinary
2 result of arithmetic (compound interest payable every instant) the
k diminution of log. SP in unit of time is
2 This process of solution is only applicable to resisted harmonic k
k vibrations when n is greater than When n is not greater than 2'
2 the auxiliary curve can no longer be a logarithmic spiral, for the moving particle never describes more than a finite angle about the pole. A curve, derived from an equilateral hyperbola, by a process somewhat resembling that by which the logarithmic spiral is deduced from a circle, may be introduced; but then the geometrical method ceases to be simpler than the analytical one, so that it is useless to pursue the investigation farther, at least from this point of view.
297. The general solution of the problem, to find the motion of a system having any number, i, of degrees of freedom, when infinitely little disturbed from a position of equilibrium, and left to move subject to resistances proportional to velocities, shows that the whole motion may be resolved, in general determinately, into 2i different motions
each either simple harmonic with amplitude diminishing according to the law stated above ($ 294), or non-oscillatory, and consisting of equi-proportionate diminutions of the components of displacement in equal successive intervals of time.
298. When the forces of a system depending on configuration, and not on motion, or, as we may call them for brevity, the forces of position, violate the law of conservatism, we have seen (§ 244) that energy without limit may be drawn from it by guiding it perpetually through a returning cycle of configurations, and we have inferred that in every real system, not supplied with energy from without, the forces of position fulfil the conservative law. But it is easy to arrange a system artificially, in connexion with a source of energy, so that its forces of position shall be non-conservative; and the consideration of the kinetic effects of such an arrangement, especially of its oscillations about or motions round a configuration of equilibrium, is most instructive, by the contrasts which it presents to the phenomena of a natural system.
299. But although, when the equilibrium is stable, no possible infinitely small displacement and velocity given to the system can cause it, when left to itself, to go on moving either farther and farther away till a finite displacement is reached, or till a finite velocity is acquired; it is very remarkable that stability should be possible, considering that even in the case of stability an endless increase of velocity may, as is easily seen from § 244, be obtained merely by constraining the system to a particular closed course, or circuit of configurations, nowhere deviating by more than an infinitely small amount from the configuration of equilibrium, and leaving it at rest anywhere in a certain part of this circuit. This result, and the distinct peculiarities of the cases of stability and instability, is sufficiently illustrated by the simplest possible example, -that of a material particle moving in a plane.
300. There is scarcely any question in dynamics more important for Natural Philosophy than the stability or instability of motion. We therefore, before concluding this chapter, propose to give some general explanations and leading principles regarding it.
A conservative disturbance of motion' is a disturbance in the motion or configuration of a conservative system, not altering the sum of the potential and kinetic energies. A conservative disturbance of the motion through any particular configuration is a change in velocities, or component velocities, not altering the whole kinetic energy. Thus, for example, a conservative disturbance of the motion of a particle through any point, is a change in the direction of its motion, unaccompanied by change of speed.
301. The actual motion of a system, from any particular configuration, is said to be stable if every possible infinitely small conservative disturbance of its motion through that configuration may be compounded of conservative disturbances, any one of which would give rise to an alteration of motion which would bring the system
again to some configuration belonging to the undisturbed path, in a finite time, and without more than an infinitely small digression. If this condition is not fulfilled, the motion is said to be unstable.
302. For example, if a body, A, be supported on a fixed vertical axis; if a second, B, be supported on a parallel axis belonging to the first; a third, C, similarly supported on B, and so on; and if B, C, etc., be so placed as to have each its centre of inertia as far as possible from the fixed axis, and the whole set in motion with a common angular velocity about this axis, the motion will be stable, from every configuration, as is evident from the principles regarding the resultant centrifugal force on a rigid body, to be proved later. If, for instance, each of the bodies is a flat rectangular board hinged on one edge, it is obvious that the whole system will be kept stable by centrifugal force, when all are in one plane and as far out from the axis as possible. But if A consist partly of a shaft and crank, as a common spinning-wheel, or the fly-wheel and crank of a steamengine, and if B be supported on the crank-pin as axis, and turned inwards (towards the fixed axis, or across the fixed axis), then, even although the centres of inertia of C, D, etc., are placed as far from the fixed axis as possible, consistent with this position of B, the motion of the system will be unstable.
303. The rectilinear motion of an elongated body lengthwise, or of a flat disc edgewise, through a fluid is unstable. But the motion of either body, with its length or its broadside perpendicular to the direction of motion, is stable. Observation proves the assertion we have just made, for real fluids, air and water, and for a great variety of circumstances affecting the motion; and we shall return to the subject later, as being not only of great practical importance, but profoundly interesting, and by no means difficult in theory.
304. The motion of a single particle affords simpler and not less instructive illustrations of stability and instability. Thus if a weight, hung from a fixed point by a light inextensible cord, be set in motion so as to describe a circle about a vertical line through its position of equilibrium, its motion is stable. For, as we shall see later, if disturbed infinitely little in direction without gain or loss of energy, it will describe a sinuous path, cutting the undisturbed circle at points successively distant from one another by definite fractions of the circumference, depending upon the angle of inclination of the string to the vertical. When this angle is very small, the motion is sensibly the same as that of a particle confined to one plane and moving under the influence of an attractive force towards a fixed point, simply proportional to the distance; and the disturbed path cuts the undisturbed circle four times in a revolution. Or if a particle confined to one plane, move under the influence of a centre in this plane, attracting with a force inversely as the square of the distance, a path infinitely little disturbed from a circle will cut the circle twice in a revolution. Or if the law of central force be the nth power of the distance, and if n+3. be positive, the disturbed path will cut the undisturbed circular
orbit at successive angular intervals, each equal to
But the motion will be unstable if n be negative, and — n> 3.
305. The case of a particle moving on a smooth fixed surface under the influence of no other force than that of the constraint, and therefore always moving along a geodetic line of the surface, affords extremely simple illustrations of stability and instability. For instance, a particle placed on the inner circle of the surface of an anchor-ring, and projected in the plane of the ring, would move perpetually in that circle, but unstably, as the smallest disturbance would clearly send it away from this path, never to return until after a digression round the outer edge. (We suppose of course that the particle is held to the surface, as if it were placed in the infinitely narrow space between a solid ring and a hollow one enclosing it.) But if a particle is placed on the outermost, or greatest, circle of the ring, and projected in its plane, an infinitely small disturbance will cause it to describe a sinuous path cutting the circle at points round it successively distant by angles
b each equal to t and therefore at intervals of time, each equal to
V, , TV, where a denotes the radius of that circle, w the angular velocity
in it, and b the radius of the circular cross section of the ring. This is proved by remarking that an infinitely narrow band from the outermost part of the ring has, at each point, a and b from its principal radii of curvature, and therefore ($ 134) has for its geodetic lines the great circles of a sphere of radius Vab, upon which it may be bent.
306. In all these cases the undisturbed motion has been circular or rectilineal, and, when the motion has been stable, the effect of a disturbance has been periodic, or recurring with the same phases in equal successive intervals of time. An illustration of thoroughly stable motion in which the effect of a disturbance is not periodic,' is presented by a particle sliding down an inclined groove under the action of gravity. To take the simplest case, we may consider a particle sliding down along the lowest straight line of an inclined hollow cylinder. If slightly disturbed from this straight line, it will oscillate on each side of it perpetually in its descent, but not with a uniform periodic motion, though the durations of its excursions to each side of the straight line are all equal.
307. A very curious case of stable motion is presented by a particle constrained to remain on the surface of an anchor-ring fixed in a vertical plane, and projected along the great circle from any point of it, with any velocity. An infinitely small disturbance will give rise to a disturbed motion of which the path will cut the vertical circle over and over again for ever, at unequal intervals of time, and unequal angles of the circle; and obviously not recurring periodically in any cycle, except with definite particular values for the whole energy, some of which are less and an infinite number are greater than that which just suffices to bring the particle to the highest point of the ring. The full mathematical investigation of these circumstances would afford an excellent exercise in the theory of differential equations, but it is not necessary
our present illustrations. 308. In this case, as in all of stable motion with only two degrees of freedom, which we have just considered, there has been stability throughout the motion; and an infinitely small disturbance from any point of the motion has given a disturbed path which intersects the undisturbed path over and over again at finite intervals of time. But, for the sake of simplicity, at present confining our attention to two degrees of freedom, we have a limited stability in the motion of an unresisted projectile, which satisfies the criterion of stability only at points of its upward, not of its downward, path. Thus if MOPO be the path of a projectile, and if at O it be disturbed by an infinitely
M small force either way perpendicular to its instantaneous direction of motion, the disturbed path will cut the undisturbed infinitely near the point where the direction of motion is perpendicular to that at 0: as we easily see by considering that the line joining two particles projected from one point at the same instant with equal velocities in the directions of any two lines, will always remain perpendicular to the line bisecting the angle between these two.
309. The principle of varying action gives a mathematical criterion for stability or instability in every case of motion. Thus in the first place it is obvious (S$ 308, 311), that if the action is a true minimum in the motion of a system from any one configuration to the configuration reached at any other time, however much later, the motion is thoroughly unstable. For instance, in the motion of a particle constrained to remain on a smooth fixed surface, and uninfluenced by gravity, the action is simply the length of the path, multiplied by the constant velocity. Hence in the particular case of a particle uninfluenced by gravity, moving round the inner circle in the plane of an