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1 Sam. 21. 14-lamah, why?.... 19. 24-al-ken, therefore..

'why do ye bring him unto me?' 'therefore they say.'

'who hath said.

Gen. 21. 7-mi, who?........ This is only a small specimen of what might be adduced. It is not too much say that the above ten particles might be doubled, if not tripled, in number. "III. It requires us to admit that the form yiktol is essentially a future tense, while, from the analogy of the Modern and Ancient Arabic, as well as from its use in the following passages (which might easily be multiplied), it is evidently an indefinite present, expressive of habitual action, which may very naturally be viewed as being or continuing in operation at some period afterwards as well as at present. Gen. 2. 10-yippared, it is parted.

19-yikra, he calleth.

6. 4-yavou, they come in.
10. 9-yeamar, it is said.
31. 39-ahattenah, I repay it.

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-tevakshenah, thou dost seek it.

1 Sam. 13. 17-yiphneh, turneth.

14. 47-yiphneh, he turneth; yarshia, he vexeth.
21. 14 taviu, do ye bring; tiru, you see.

Isa. 1. 11-yomar, he saith.

Job 3. 11-amuth, do I die.

3-ivvaled, I am born.

None of these passages can with any propriety be regarded as expressive of future action; and there seems no rational way of solving the problem but by regarding the tense as is done above.

"IV. It is not found in any other language; and, in particular, it is unknown in all the cognate Shemitic languages, viz., the Samaritan, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic. Attempts have been made to find something like it in the use of the Arabic particle pha, but, as Professor Samuel Lee has well remarked (in his Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon), the same thing might be alleged of most other Arabic particles, such as la, no, lam, not, lamma, why, summa, then, &c., which no one has ever as yet thought of doing.

"The Arabs, in order to lessen the occasional ambiguity arising from the same form of the verb being used indifferently for the present and the future, sometimes prefix to it the particle sa (a contraction of soufa, at last, hereaf ter), which makes it strictly future, and sometimes the word ammal (an agent), which makes it strictly present."

This clear enunciation of principles is worthy of meditation. It offers a clue to the labyrinth wherein many grammarians have lost themselves. It is probable that we shall receive a full exposition of Mr Robert Young's views of this controversy in the course of time; but the present is sufficient for the purpose of opening up the prospect to all who have felt interest and curiosity in the enquiry.

One practical result of the solution which is now being gained is continually presenting itself in the "New Translation of the Holy Bible," which we referred to last month in this Ecclesiastical Journal. If our readers will turn back to page 375-61, (vol. xxxii.) they will find the 1st chapter of Genesis given as an extract. Even that portion shows the differences of tenses which it is sought by Mr Young to bring out more fully than was attempted by the persons employed to make the Authorised Translation, now in use. But the cases in which 'waw,' conversive or not conversive, enters, are but a few compared with the

multitude of differences as on other grounds, between the Authorised and Mr Robert Young's Translation. Many of these will be more amply illustrated in the Commentary which, it is expected, will immediately follow the completion of the present publication. The accompanying index gives a key by which to estimate the number of the principal emendations :


i. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16,
17, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 30.
ii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 18, 20, 22, 23.
iii. 1, 4, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15, 20, 22.

iv. 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20,
23, 26.

v. 1, 2, 22, 24.

vi. 3, 4, 7, 9, 14, 15, 16.

vii. 4, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 21, 22. viii. 2, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21.

ix. 5, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27. x. 1, 8, 9, 11, 13, 18.

xi. 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 28.

xii. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 19, 20. xiii. 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18.

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xvii. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.

27, 28.

xxvi. 4, 10, 12, 14, 25, 35.
xxvii. 3, 5, 20, 29, 30, 36, 46.
xxviii. 4, 11, 20, 21, 22.

xxix. 1, 7, 9, 14, 15, 17, 26, 27, 32, 35.
XXX. 1, 3, 6, 8, 13, 14, 16, 23.
xxxi. 19, 20, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 36,
38, 39, 48.

xxxii. 1, 2, 10, 15, 22, 24, 26.
xxxiii. 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 19, 20.
xxxiv. 2, 3, 7, 14, 25.
XXXV. 2, 4, 7, 16, 29.

xxxvi. 1, 7, 9, 15, 20, 24.

xxxvii. 1, 2, 3, 14, 19, 23, 27, 35, 36. xxxviii. 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29.

xxxix. 6, 7, 14, 17, 20, 21.

xl. 2, 14, 16.

xli. 2, 8, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 24, 32, 40, 56.

xlii. 4, 15, 23, 27, 28, 38.

xviii. 1, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 14, 17, 19, xliii. 9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 30, 34.

xix. 1, 4, 7, 9, 13, 17, 26.

XX. 7, 9, 11, 16.

xxi. 6, 14, 15, 17, 23, 25, 33.
xxii. 1, 2, 5, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18.
xxiii. 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 16, 18.
Xxiv. 1, 2, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 22,
28, 29, 32, 44, 50, 52, 55, 60.
XXV. 8, 16, 17, 18, 22, 23, 30, 32.


xliv. 1, 4, 5, 15, 17, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34.

xlv. 8, 9, 21, 26.

xlvi. 3, 15, 18, 22, 25, 26, 28, 32, 34.
xlvii. 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 17, 26, 28.
xlviii. 4, 7, 16, 19, 20.

xlix. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 14, 19, 21,
22, 23, 24, 26, 33.
1. 3, 4, 5, 9, 16, 21.

As the comment on the word Framing" is important, and was omitted in our former notice, we add it here. On the narrative of Creation, as a whole, we have not opportunity to linger at this time. Mr Young, it will be remembered, instead of the word "creating," in the 1st chapter of Genesis, employs the word "framing,” (v. 1), and "formeth," (v. 21, 27). He says in the prospectus sheets of the "Pocket Commentary :”

"This word, Framing,' is preferable to creating,' which is now so closely connected with the idea of production from nothing, that it is much too strong for the real significance of the Hebrew word, which is applied in Gen. i. 21, to the formation of sea monsters; in v. 27, to the formation of man; in Exod. xxxiv. 10, to performing marvels; in Ps. li. 10, to the formation or creation of a new heart; in Ixxxix. 12, to the appointment of the north and the south; in cii. 18, to the formation of a people; in Isa. iv. 5, to the production of a cloud and smoke; in xlv. 7, to the producing or bringing to pass of darkness and evil; in lvii. 19, to the producing of the fruit

of the lips; in lxv. 18, to making or appointing Jerusalem a rejoicing; in xlviii. 7, to the production or bringing forth of hidden things; in Jer. xxxi. 22, to producing or bringing to pass a new thing; in Eze. xxi. 30, to the formation of a nation; in xxviii. 13, to a person being born or being_appointed king; in Amos iv. 13, to producing the wind. Compare also Eze. xxiii. 47, Jos. 17, xvii. To limit it to creation from nothing, meayin would require to be added to the verb."

The work has now proceeded as far as the Book of Deuteronomy. Noteworthy are the peculiarities of changing rhythm, in the prophecies of Balaam, for instance-marking that the distinction from the ordinary course of narrative. We shall continue to watch with interest the progress of this "New Translation."

The Principal Songs of Robert Burns. Translated into Medieval Latin Verse, with the Scottish Version collated, by ALEXANDER LEIGHTON, author of "Curious Storied Traditions of Scottish Life," "The Court of Cacus," &c.

MR LEIGHTON possesses faculties which are seldom combined in one author. He is a master of stirring narrative, pathetic description, and personal portraiture; while he is no ordinary proficient in metaphysical analysis and moral speculation. His "Curious Storied Traditions of Scottish Life," and his "Court of Cacus," or story of "Burke and Hare," have already taken rank among our fireside classics, and will probably outlive many of our contemporary epics and romances, whether in verse or prose.

His latest adventure is a daring one, but laudable alike in the literary courage which it shows, and in the result which that courage has achieved. Father Prout (Mahony) had rendered many of Moore's melodies into Latin measures as exquisite as their originals. It has been reserved for Mr Leighton to exhibit the bard of Coila as a Latin ministrel of the middle ages, by translating thirty of Burns' best songs into the rhyming Latin of monks both in their merry and mournful moods. The homely humour and rough music of the song "I am a son of Mars," in the "Jolly Beggars," are admirably echoed in Mr Leighton's counterpart. We shall therefore present the "Son of Mars" to our readers, alike in his modern and in his mediæval uniform :


"I am a son of Mars, who have been in many wars,
And show my cuts and scars wherever I come;

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This here was for a wench, and that other in a trench,
When welcoming the French at the sound of the drum.

My prentiship I past where my leader breath'd his last,
When the bloody die was cast on the heights of Abram ;
I serv'd out my trade when the gallant game was play'd,
And the Moro low was laid at the sound of the drum.

"I lastly was with Curtis, among the floating batt'ries,
And there I left for witnesses an arm and a limb;
Yet let my country need me, with Elliott to head me,
I'd clatter on my stumps at the sound of the drum.

"And now, tho' I must beg, with a wooden arm and leg,
And many a tatter'd rag hanging over my bum,
I'm as happy with my wallet, my bottle, and my callet,
As when I us'd in scarlet to follow the drum.

"What tho' with hoary locks, I must stand the windy shocks,
Beneath the woods and rocks, oftentimes for a home;
When the tother bag I sell, and the tother bottle tell,
I could meet a troop of hell at the sound of the drum."

"Enyalii filius in multis fui præliis,

Ŏstendo mea vulnera quocunque veniam

Hoc fero pro ancilla, et illud ex fossula,

Cum Gallos gratularer-ad tonans tympanum.
"Duxi tirocinium cum ductor meus obiit

Et jacta essent aleæ per colles de Abram,
Ejus agmina sequebar cum ludus luderetur
Et Moro sterneretur-ad tonans tympanum.
"Ultimo cum Curti, inter nantia pugnacula,

Reliqui qua pro testibus et crus et brachium;
Si oporteat armare, et sub Elliot pugnare,
Super truncos strepitabo-ad tonans tympanum.
"Licet me mendicare cum tibia lignari',

Pendentibus panniculis super dorsum;
Beatus crumenella et utre et puella,

Ut solet in coccineo sectari tympanum.

"Etiamsi sit mi ferre procellas super terra

Per scopulos et sylvulas tanquam domum;
Cum vendum meum sacculum et alterum utriculum,
Diabolis obstarem-ad tonans tympanum."

From comedy we turn to sentiment and passion, and subjoin the immortal lines on "Highland Mary," along with the Latin version of them by Mr Leighton:


"Ye banks and braes, and streams around

The Castle o' Montgomery,

Green be your woods, and fair your flow'rs,
Your waters never drumlie.

There simmer first unfaulds her robes,
And there they langest tarry:

For there I took the last fareweel
Of my dear Highland Mary.

'How sweetly bloom'd the gay green birk,
How rich the hawthorn's blossom,

As underneath their fragrant shade
I clasp'd her to my bosom;

The golden hours, on angel wings,
Flew o'er me and my dearie;
For dear to me as light and life
Was my sweet Highland Mary.
"Wi' mony a vow, and lock'd embrace,
Our parting was fu' tender,
And pledging aft to meet again,
We tore ourselves asunder.
But oh! fell death's untimely frost,
That nipt my flow'r so early;


Now green's the sod, and cauld's the clay,
That wraps my Highland Mary.

O pale, pale now, those rosy lips
I aft hae kissed so fondly!

And clos'd for aye the sparkling glance
That dwelt on me sae kindly!

And mouldering now, in silent dust,
That heart that lo'ed me dearly;
But still within my bosom's core
Shall live my Highland Mary."

"Rivi fluvii circiter

Castellum Montis Gomeri,
Sylvæ montes floresque,
Aquæ nunquam turbida.
Evolvat vestes ibi ver,

Cunctetur et longissime,
Nam ibi dixi valeas!
Cara neæ Mariæ.

"Quam odorata betula !

Quam comptæ flores spinæ!
Dum sub eorum umbra
Compressi illam pectori.
Horæ fugerunt aureæ

Sciente me nec cara mi,
Nam cara mi ut lumen est
Dulcis erat Maria.

"Cum votis et amplexibus
Nos separamur tenerè,
Et convenire iterum
Voventes nos abiimus;
Heu mortis gelu subito
Avulsit meum florem,
Et cespites et lutum nunc
Involvunt meam Mariam

"Nunc pallida hæc labia

Quæ osculare sueveram,
Occlusi sunt hi oculi
Qui placidè mi riserant.
Resolvitur in pulverem
Cor quod amavit intimè;
Sed semper meo pectore
Manebit mea Maria."

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