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must be elsewhere sought for; let it be added, however, and, as has already been intimated, they will be abundantly found coming out "like stars," one by one in the preceding portions of the book.
Whitefield was, unquestionably, an extraordinary man, otherwise how could he for many years, from an early hour in the morning to a late period in the day, have continued preaching, praying, and catechising. Think of a man holding forth in long sermons four and five times a day, and beginning often by sunrise. Then remember who the preacher was. Not a quiet, subdued speaker, nor a drone; but one whose voice could extend with distinctness a mile, and who, times innumerable, was heard by twenty and thirty thousand at once,-one who could at will melt into tears these vast multitudes, or cause them to shake. David Garrick said that Whitefield could make men weep or tremble by his varied utterance of the word "Mesopotamia."
We are not going to enter into the weapons by means of which the preacher could achieve these wonderful things. They are fully developed in the volume before us. We only say that unsurpassed earnestness on his part was the prime engine, and the multitudes of those whom he conquered, and who became moral and religious examples to the world, were the proper monuments of his triumphs.
We close our notice of the volume, which is well worth the perusal of every one, especially every minister of the gospel, but which will be chiefly relished by the Evangelical party, by extracting Mr. Philip's introductory remarks respecting "Whitefield's Preaching," which, we think, are well conceived and forcibly illustrated. To these remarks we append a specimen of one of his
"This volume would be incomplete, for my purpose, without some specimens of Whitefield's preaching. That requires to be illustrated as well as analyzed, now that the man, and his message, and his success, are fully before us. It is also necessary to preserve some specimens of his sermons in this record of his life, because his sermons, as such, will hardly perpetuate themselves. His name may continue to sell them; but even already they are but seldom read. No minister quotes from them, except when an anecdote of Whitefield brings in some stroke of power or pathos; and no student hears or thinks of them as models. Indeed, they are not models for the pulpit but when it stands in the fields; and even there, it must be surrounded by thousands before any man could wield the glittering sword of Whitefield with effect.
"Besides; there is not much to be learnt from his sermons now. Their best maxims are but common-place to us. They were, however, both new and strange things to the generality of his hearers. He was as much an original to them, as Chalmers is to us. And, let it never be forgotten, that Whitefield and Wesley common-placed, in the public mind, the great truths of the Reformation, in simple forms and familiar words. If they added nothing to the theology of their country that was either
original or valuable, they threw old truths into new proportions and wide circulation. This is forgotten by those who say with a sneer, that there is nothing in their sermons. I have often heard this said by men who never gave currency to a single maxim, nor birth to a thought worth preserving. Such critics should be silent. Their newer modes of thinking and writing will never common-place themselves in the world or the church!
"There is one peculiarity about Whitefield's sermons which his critics have not pointed out, and which I should like to commend, if I could do so wisely. I mean,-his modest egotism in preaching. He is for ever speaking of himself when he touches any experimental point, or grapples with a difficulty. Then he opens his own heart in all its inmost recesses, and details the process by which his own mind was made up; and both without even the appearance of vanity, or of a voluntary humility.' It is all done with the artless simplicity of childhood. He thinks aloud about himself, only to enable others to know what to think about their own perplexities, dilemmas, and temptations. He shows them his own soul, merely to prove that no strange thing has befallen' their souls.
"Nothing is so unlike Whitefield's egotism, however, as the whining confessions of a certain clique of preachers, who talk much about the plagues and lusts of their own hearts. They are theological Rousseaus or Montaignes, foaming out their own shame, if not glorying in it. Nothing is so disgusting as such obtrusive egotism. It is, indeed, unblushing effrontery, to hawk moral disease thus. Whitefield spoke of himself in the strong language of the Scriptures; but he did not go into details when applying it to himself, except in the first sketch of his life; and that he carefully pruned in a subsequent edition."
"PETER ON THE HOLY MOUNT. Peter said unto Jesus, Master is it good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias: not knowing what he said.' Peter, when he had drank a little of Christ's new wine, speaks like a person intoxicated; he was overpowered with the brightness of the manifestations. 'Let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.' It is well added, not knowing what he said.' That he should cry out, Master, is it good for us to be here,' in such good company, and in so glorious a condition, is no wonder; which of us all would not have been apt to do the same? But to talk of building tabernacles, and one for Christ, and one for Moses, and one for Elias, was saying something for which Peter himself must stand reproved. Surely, Peter, thou wast not quite awake! Thou talkest like one in a dream. If thy Lord had taken thee at thy word, what a poor tabernacle wouldst thou have had, in comparison of that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens, in which thou hast long since dwelt, now the earthly house of the tabernacle of thy body is dissolved! What! build tabernacles below, and have the crown before thou hast borne the cross? O Peter, Peter! Master, spare thyself,' sticks too, too closely to thee. And why so selfish, Peter? Carest thou not for thy fellow-disciples that are below, who came not up with thee to the mount? carest thou not for the precious souls, that are as sheep having no shepherd, and must perish for ever, unless thy Master descends from the mount to teach, and to die for them?
wouldest thou thus eat thy spiritual morsels alone? Besides, if thou art for building tabernacles, why must there be three of them, one for Christ, and one for Moses, and one for Elias? are Christ and the prophets divided? do they not sweetly harmonise and agree in one? did they not prophesy concerning the sufferings of thy Lord, as well as of the glory that should follow? Alas, how unlike is their conversation to thine! Moses and Elias came down to talk of suffering, and thou art dreaming of building I know not what tabernacles. Surely, Peter, thou art so high upon the mount, that thy head runs giddy.
"However, in the midst of these infirmities, there was something that bespoke the honesty and integrity of his heart. Though he knew not very well what he said, yet he was not so stupid as his pretended successor at Rome. He does not fall down and worship these two departed saints, neither do I hear him say to either, Ora pro nobis; he had not so learned Christ; no, he applies himself directly to the Head, he said unto Jesus, Master, is it good for us to be here.' And though he was for building, yet he would not build without his Master's leave. Master, let us build;' or, as St. Mark words it, Wilt thou that we build three tabernacles, one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias?' I do not hear him add, and one for James, and one for John, and one for Peter. No, he would willingly stay out with them upon the mount, though it was in the cold and dark night, so that Christ and his heavenly attendants were taken care of. The sweetness of such a heavenly vision would more than compensate for any bodily suffering that might be the consequences of their longer abode there. Nay, further, he does not desire that either Christ, or Moses, or Elias should have any trouble in building; neither does he say, Let my curates, James and John, build, whilst I sit idle and lord it over my brethren; but he says, 'Let us build;' he will work as hard, if not harder than either of them, and desire to be distinguished only by his activity, enduring hardness, and his zeal to promote the welfare of their common Lord and Master."
ART. XV.-Original Geographical Illustrations; or the Book of Lines, Squares, Circles, Triangles, Polygons, &c. By JOHN BENNET, Engineer. London: Bennet. 1837.
It is impossible to convey any thing like a correct or adequate idea of this volume by any short notice that we can find room for; but let us, in general terms, assure our readers that it contains an immense number of proofs of the extent as well as minuteness of Mr. Bennet's scientific and practical knowledge. We cannot in so narrow a compass say so much or any thing so well, in explanation of the work, as to copy the enumeration of the points it illustrates, and the classes of persons to whom it is calcu lated to render the greatest services described in the title-page, where it is stated that it shows "An easy Scientific Analysis for Increasing,
Decreasing, and Altering any given Circle, Square, Triangle, Ellipsis, Parallelogram, Polygon, &c. to any other Figure containing the same Area; by plain and simple methods laid down agreeably to Mathematical Demonstration, indispensable to Architects, Artists, Artificers, Builders, Cabinet Makers, Carpenters, Engineers (Military and Civil), Engravers, Glass Cutters, Jewellers, Machinists, Painters, Sculptors, Statuaries." &c. Concomitant with all this there must, of course, be elucidated many points which go to the groundwork of all distinct knowledge in Mensuration.
Besides a vast number of Mathematical Demonstrations gradually evolving the most useful as well as beautiful Geometrical qualities,' relations, and propertions, Mr. Bennet has inserted no less than fifty-four Geometrical figures, drawn to the full size or scale of the common twofoot rule, and in a manner so simple and perspicuous, that every tradesman or unprofessional person may easily understand, by taking the author's preliminary instructions along with him. In short, we look upon this work, as one not only original in its plan but perfectly satisfactory in its details; nor do we think Mr. Bennet has arrogated to himself any undue honour, when he says that the methods shown in the divisions of the different figures have enabled him "to trace out the solutions to the intricate questions of the ancients."
ART. XVI.—The Historical Antiquities of the Greeks. From the German of W. Wacksmuth, Professor of History in the University of Leipzig. Translated by W. E. WOOLRYCH, Esq. Oxford: Talboys.
A HAPPY and forcible translation of one of the best works that has ever been written on the Antiquities of the Greeks; for while it is worthy of taking rank alongside of Heeren's theories and elucidations, it is calculated to aid materially in reducing Niebuhr's overrated speculations to their proper value, and bringing back the minds of the students of classical antiquities to appreciate and abide by old-fashioned truth in preference to being seduced by ingenious fancies. The scholars of Oxford owe a debt of gratitude to the translator as well as to the author of this volume, for the clear and able manner in which it vindicates doctrines and facts that were wont to obtain credit in that celebrated school of learning.
ART. XVII.-Egypt as it is in 1837. By THOMAS WAGHORN. London : Smith, Elder and Co. 1837. MR. WAGHORN is the apologist, the panegyrist, and the advocate of Mahomed Ali. He is a strenuous pleader for England interfering, decidedly and vigorously in behalf of Egypt, so that she may obtain her entire freedom from Turkey: or, if this cannot be conveniently brought about, he insists that Egypt should be made an English colony, instead of a French one, to which latter condition, he declares, the country of the Pharoahs is fast hastening, through the negligence and oversight of the British Government. It is quite natural for Mr. Waghorn to feel enthusiastic on the subject of which he treats,-his avowed object being to induce in the Members of the
VOL. III. (1837). No. III.
British Parliament "some sort of sympathy for Egypt, instead of that indifference to her interests which permits her to be sacrificed to the bolstering up of Turkey," an empire which he looks upon as doomed to speedy ruin, he being "General Agent in Egypt for Steam intercourse, via the Red Sea, between England, India, Ceylon, China" &c. &c. But while he glances at many important facts which an enlightened and commercial nation should never lose sight of, and shows himself well acquainted with the internal condition of Egypt, the policy of its ruler, and the capabilities of the country, we think that he has only regarded one side of the subject, and somewhat overshot his mark.
ART. XVIII.-Cambridge Crepuscular Diversions, and Broodings before the Time. Cambridge: Hall. 1837.
THIS jeu d'esprit, we presume, contains more point to the apprehension of Cantabs than we have been able to detect in it. The " Diversions" consist chiefly of a Conversation upon Blunders, wherein the derivation of the orthodox dainty for Shrove Tuesday, viz. Pancakes, is amusingly enough discussed. Number Two is upon the origin, evidence, and etymology of Seediness, by which term is meant, according to one of the speakers, "a sort of obtenebratio animi and mentis, an obfuscation, coming next in order to a night's irregularity," that is, a suffering from ennui and weariness.-Then comes An Historical Excursion, where the speculation is about the title Wooden Spoon, it being declared, that "No man's recollection can carry him back to a time, when that candidate for honours, who has been least led astray in the ways of mathematics, was not distinguished by the title." The whole presents a specimen of trifling pastime which if in vogue at the great seat of mathematical science as a relaxation from severe study, must be pronounced to be perfectly innocent.
ART. XIX.-The Churches of London. Part X. By GEORGE Godwin, JUN, Architect. London: Tilt. 1837.
THIS Part contains views and descriptions, along with historical notices, of St. Bartholomew's, Threadneedle Street, and All Hallows, Bread Street. Neither of these churches present so much that is curious, architecturally or ecclesiastically, as several others in the Metropolis which have already been treated of in this work. But when taken as a portion of this beautiful and ably conducted publication, the Part before us is valuable. Both churches are of very ancient foundation, and therefore fill up an interesting chapter in the ecclesiastical history of the City.
ART.XX.-Fisher's Juvenile Scrap-Book, for 1838. Edited by AGNES STRICKLAND, and BERNARD BARTON. London: Fisher.
HERE is one of several of those lovely annual visitants which its spirited publishers are in the habit of duly submitting to us. Its editors are a sufficient guarantee for its contents, each of them enjoying a meridian of bright ness and vigour of mind, at the same time that the habits, attainments, and