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direction, and a small head, in conformity with the preference of Aristotle, been made the standard of perfection, it would doubtless have enlisted as many zealous and confident advocates as are now found in its ranks. It is not the mere volume of the brain which determines the power of the human intellect. Neither facts nor analogy sustain the proposition. Men of the greatest physical power have not often the largest muscle. This is remarkably true of great runners, wrestlers, and boxers; and the same observations apply with equal force to brute animals. There appears to be far more in the organization and action of parts, than in the mere volume, in giving power."
Upon the alleged fact that there is a coincidence between the protuberances on the skull and the intellectual and moral character of man, the author states
"It is no part of my purpose to disprove this coincidence. Whether there is a correspondence between the external form of the head and the character of the mind, 1 leave for future observations to settle. If I have established the fact, that a protuberance on the skull is no proof of a cor. responding development of the brain, my end is accomplished; and this, I think, has been clearly shown.
"The idea that the brain is composed of a plurality of organs, and that each has its own appropriate functions, has elicited every argument which could be brought to its support. To sustain the proposition, volumes have been written, experiments have been made, and the records of medicine and surgery have been ransacked in pursuit of facts.
"If the brain be composed of a plurality of organs, as represented by the figured head, and that each is the seat of a separate faculty, it necessarily follows, that when any one of these organs is injured or destroyed, that its faculty must be injured or destroyed also.
"Yet in all the mutilations of the brain to which man has been subjected for two thousand years, it appears that the records of surgery do not furnish a single well authenticated case in which the loss of a particular faculty has happened according to the organ on which the injury was inflicted, while the other faculties remained unimpaired."
But it has been often urged in support of phrenology, that its principles must be sound, since these have in many cases been tested and proved by being put in practice-witness Dr. Gall's success as mentioned already. To this our author replies—
"An argument frequently urged in the support of phrenology, is the success with which its principles have been applied to practice in distinguishing character. Dr. Gall himself, we are told, subjected his theory to the most rigid scrutiny, with triumphant success; that on several occasions he was enabled to ascertain, by the developments of the head, the precise crime for which multitudes had been convicted and sent to prison.
To expose the absurdity of this argument, it is only necessary to bring to view the fact, that men of the same natural propensities, perpetrate different crimes, when placed under different circumstances; and that individuals of different, and even opposite tendencies, commit the
same crimes when placed under circumstances which are similar; nay, that men often perpetrate crimes to which they have no natural propensity, but a deep abhorrence, when strongly operated on by external influences.
"One man commits murder wantonly, and apparently from the natural cruelty of his disposition; another, that he may inherit a post of honour, or possess himself of fortune; and a third, to conceal another crime which he has already perpetrated.
"One individual steals from the mere motive of acquisition; another, that he may possess the means to gratify his sensual desires, or foster his pride or ambition; while a third is impelled to the crime from extreme poverty.
"The history of man in every country and age, will show, that ninetenths of all the outrages committed are the consequence of defective education, bad example, vicious company, or other circumstances which attend the offender, rather than any inherent propensity to the crime perpetrated."
We have now, besides giving a sketch of the early history of phrenology, which to few of our readers can be more than the means of refreshing their memories, presented some passages from Dr. Sewall's examination of its claims, in which examination some new views have been suggested and pursued in a manner which we think will give a severe blow to the theory.
We conclude with that part where he accounts for the fact that a number of literary and scientific men have become its disciples.
Phrenology, if it did not originate with, was early espoused by zealous and distinguished advocates. Gall and Spurzheim were both men of genius and of letters, and the latter especially has shown himself to be a man of extraordinary zeal and preseverance; an eloquent writer, an untiring investigator, and possessed of extensive literary acquirements; and whatever may be thought of his phrenology, it is not denied, that his investigations of the nervous system have contributed something to physiological science; and more especially that they have excited a spirit of inquiry in others which has led to important results. We still have living advocates of phrenology who justly rank among the most eloquent writers of the age. Mr. Combe, of Edinburgh, is scarcely surpassed for the beauty of his style, his command of facts, the richness and facility of his illustrations, as well as for philosophical observation. Nor is our own country destitute of men of ability and high literary attainments, who give all their influence to the support of phrenology.
"These writers have intermingled with their doctrines so much of philosophy and truth, have introduced so many novel facts and illustrations, and have exhibited the whole subject in such an aspect, as to render the study exceedingly captivating."
ART. VIII.-The Spas of Germany. By the Author of St. Petersburgh. 2 Vols. London: Colburn. 1837.
Is the course of our peregrinations through this weary world, it was once our fortune to come in contact with an aspiring genius who had started in life as a penny-a-liner. Pleased with the peculiarity of this specimen of a novel species, we invited him to dine with us, and discoursed at large with him upon literature and men of letters. The mock heroic dignity with which he delivered his opinions upon the former, and the ludicrous self-complacency with which he enrolled himself amongst the latter, tickled our fancy very agreeably. On the following morning he presented to us, with a face of solemn importance, his contribution to the republic of letters —the first born of his intellect, a tour to Windsor along the Thames. Excellent, we exclaimed as we glanced our eye over sunny waters -rich foliage-church spires-old mansions-excellent, you have thrown your mind into the subject, you have given spirit to the thing, while we longed for his back to be turned to give way to the strong desire to laugh.
On taking up Dr. Granville's book we were forcibly reminded of the aforesaid tour to Windsor and its amusing author. Though in the latter case we were not restrained by our polite notions from indulging in a loud and prolonged cachinnation. Such pompous inanity, such laborious dulness, and such self-complacent imbecility, it has seldom been our lot to notice. "It does not often fall to the lot of a writer, (begins the Doctor) who undertakes to add a fresh work to English literature, to light upon a subject absolutely new-a fresh work to literature," as if a tour to the German Spas could deserve such an appellation any more than the learned liner's tour to Windsor. Why, they are as well known to the English public as Hampstead or Highgate-as vulgar as Oxford Street.
The notices which induced the Doctor to compose his work, were most praiseworthy and disinterested. "It was, "" he total want of such a book in the English language; of course the says, "the ideas of puffing himself off and of fingering some of Colburn's guineas never crossed his imagination, or entered into the account. Oh no! the doctor saw with sorrow, there was no book on German Spas, so he generously stepped forward to supply the deficiency, what disinterested benevolence! He next proceeds to blow his penny trumpet, this fact shows that the subject in this country must be new-"I mean new, when treated as I trust it has been in these volumes, in the character of a general, full, extended and practical account of the principal and most celebrated of those waters. 99 This is much, but mark what follows. "The public have shown by the VOL. IIL (1837.) No. 1.
very flattering manner in which they were pleased to receive a former publication of mine-the title of which I have placed as my only distinction in front of my present work-that they did not consider a narrative of travels in which useful and even medical information were mixed up with entertaining and lighter matter, incompatible with the severer studies and pursuits of my profession. Encouraged by such a precedent, I have, on the present occasion, adopted the same, nay, a more discursive manner of imparting knowledge." Bravo, doctor, then you would make us believe, that your cumbrous rambling tour to Russia actually did sell, notwithstanding the severe chastisement it received at the hands of the Edinburgh Review; we had fancied that it must long since have served to line the trunks of succeeding tourists: but no, it did actually illuminate the public, without at all benefiting the tallowchandler. There are a number of quacks who realize splendid fortunes, by advertising in the daily papers the divine powers of their several nostrums, to a man of Dr. Granville's stamp, this course would be out of character-but the necessity of puffing is strong upon him-nobody thought or cared about Dr. Granville-and so, coute qui coute, the public must be reminded that there is such a person in existence. The expense of compiling some hundred pages of twaddle, does not exceed that of a daily half guinea advertisement, though we question whether it will make as many dupes, skilful as the author may be in the grand art of mystification. Dr. Granville goes on to lament that previous publications on this subject are uncut on the shelf, in consequence of their scientific heaviness, but thanks the gods it is not so with his precious bantling, for that it has the precise quantity of the dulce with the utile to make it a palatable dose; the exact quantity of sail necessary to counterbalance its weight of ballast, and float it triumphant down the stream of popularity. Among other gentry the bons vivans must be captivated. The doctor is not such a fool as not to know how important a part of his book the gourmandise must prove. He says, "the reader will find frequent descriptions of dinners, &c. in the course of the narrative, which some persons may think out of place in a book of this character." Not at all, good Esculapius, it is but fair that while you reveal the mysteries of purgatives, you should allude to the materials they are to act upon-the bane and antidote always go together." It is useful," says the doctor to an invalid, who is to travel abroad under the guidance of the present work (save the mark) in search of health, "to know beforehand, what, and how many different species of cuisine he is likely to encounter in each division of that empire." So that the work is a manuel des gourmandes, as well as a manuel des invalides. This is a very scientific trap. "Whether," pursues the preface, "I am mistaken in the estimate I have formed of what is likely to please,
time will show, (for time, read Colburn's ledger), but I feel confident of having, at all events, discharged the whole duty voluntarily imposed on myself, by conveying to the public, in a popular form, a more minute, a fuller, and a more practical account of the mineral springs of Germany, than has ever before been attempted in this or I may say in any country, considering the manner and form of the book, and the general collective character of its details."
The public are no doubt bound to reward the doctor's fine public spirit by its approbation, particularly when its effects are so highly recommended. But the doctor is not satisfied with blowing this grand flourish; he rises to a still higher key. "Germany," he remarks, boasts of hundreds of publications on mineral waters, not a few of which are excellent. But a work presenting the narrative of a grand tour to all the most fashionable mineral watering places in Germany in regular succession-a tour in which amusement is blended with information, and descriptive sketches of the humours and fancies' of each Spa are mixed up with the accurate details, collected on the spot, of every thing that is useful in a medical point of view, such a work, I believe, does not exist in any language. Yet no one can doubt that such a work is sought for by all who wish to visit the spas of Germany. I have only to hope that the present one will have accomplished that desideratum." He beats George Robins hollow-the very sublime of puffery; the beau ideal of bawling quackery: Morrison is completely outdone—
Qui Goss non odit amat tua puffia Granville.
Tired of puffing himself, the doctor commences a long discussion on the wonderful, the stupendous properties and effects of mineral waters in general, but of German waters more particularly. He concludes with this sapient council
"To such as are able and willing to try the effect of some one of the German Spas, I would say, haste away and make the trial by any means,' (i. e. first providing yourself with my book). Do not waste your life and your purse in swallowing endless drugs, and ringing the changes of remedies and doctors, pent up in a hot house in London during the summer months, or in being lifted in and out of the carriage, the prey of some chronic and insidious disorder, which baffles your vigilant physician's skill, or in being sent from Brighton to Tunbridge, and from thence to Leamington or Cheltenham, merely to return again to Brighton or London, exactly as you left it, having in the mean time tried as many doctors as places, and as many new remedies and places as doctors, to no purpose. Fly, I say, from all these evils, proceed to some spring of health,