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it is clear that the right way to solve the problem is for which represented the elder members of the entire nation, local authorities and School B vards to push ahead, as we one of the Onondaga MSS. records the ritual in use believe they can do without fear. The list read by Sir among the younger members of the same council, and Henry Roscoe at the opening of the proceedings shows the other the form of address used by the chief Shaman what progress in this direction has already been made ! on the initiation of a newly elected chief. towards adopting the Act, and the Conference can hardly These curious records have been turned to good fail to result in a still more vigorous attempt to make a account by Mrs Smith in the completion of her Tuscarora Wise and extensive use of its provisions.
dictionary, and in filling up her vocabulary for the "Introduction to the Study of the Indian Languages" now
preparing for publication. AMERICAN ETHNOLOGICAL REPORTS.
In the Far West, and especially in California, the
results of linguistic field work are not equally satisfactory; Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the and in the latter province, it would appear from the report
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1884-85. By of Mr. Henshaw, who was charged with the inquiry, that J. W. Powell, Director. (Washington : Government a number of the native dialects are extinct. Only a Printing Office, 1888.)
month before his arrival, an old woman had died who FRO ROM the introductory remarks of the Director of the was the last person to speak the language of the Indians
Bureau, we learn that the results of the research of Santa Cruz. The search for still surviving members of prosecuted among the North American Indians, as the several families of Indian languages current on the directed by Act of Congress, were of special interest arrival of the Spaniards has not, therefore, begun too during the continuance of the work in the fiscal year soon. The general results of these linguistic researches 1884-85.
are embodied in a work entitled “Proof-Sheets of a As in forme years, the labourers in the mound explora- Bibliography of the Languages of the North American tions were remarkably successful, more especially in the Indians." This volume, a quarto of more than 1100 Territories east of the Rocky Mountains, where Prof. pages, was compiled by Mr. Pilling, and issued in 1884 Cyrus Thomas, in 1885, and his coadjutors, Messrs. by the Institute, which, with its usual liberality, has disMiddleton and Thing, subsequently, made important tributed the hundred copies printed to other public instiinds in Indian pottery, which were unique of their kind. tutions, and to the various collaborators in the work. Even more valuable are the results of the explorations In turning from the highly interesting explanatory carried on in New Mexico by Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson, remarks of the Director to the various monographs conthe latter of whom succeeded in obtaining the largest tained in the volume before us (a folio of more than 800 and most important collection extant of objects relating pages), we have first to notice the comprehensive and to the sociology of the Zuni tribes. This rare treasury profusely illustrated treatise of Mr. Holmes, “On the of Indian relics includes specimens of woven fabrics, Ancient Art of Chiriqui on the Isthmus of Panama.” pottery, stone implements, both ancient and modern, Here the author supplies the technologist with an pictured urns, shrines, altars, sacred masks, fetishes, exhaustive history of the rise and development of plame sticks, and other objects connecte: with the plastic and textile art in this part of the continent, while ancient mythology and religious practices of these people. he also treats fully of the literature and geography of this Owing to the great variety of the objects, their true hitherto little-known province, whose position between character cannot be determined without prolonged inves- North and South America imparted to the people some tigation, and in the meanwhile they have been deposited of the characteristics of the civilization of both sections in the U.S. Museum, where they await their final classi- 1 of the western hemisphere. fication. According, however, to Mr. Curtis, these, as Almost the whole of the enormous mass of clay and well as the still more numerous collections of pottery, metal objects found in Chiriqui was extracted from tombs stone implements, and other objects, amounting to 4000 in the various huancals, or cemeteries, which are scattered specimens, which have been obtained in New Mexico, all over the Pacific slope of the province. These were first belong to the indigenous arts and industries of the made known to science by Mr. Merritt, the director of a ancient tribes who occupied the almost unknown tracts gold mine in Veragua, who, on hearing of the accidental oi Central America in which the Pueblo Indians are now discovery of a gold figure in Chiriqui, visited the district, located.
and published a report of his explorations in 1859. From In the department of linguistic research, prosecuted him we learn that in 1858, after it became known that a by the various employés of the Bureau, none have perhaps golden image had been discovered at Bugava, more than been more successful than Mrs. Ermine Smith, who was 1000 persons flocked to the spot, who it was estimated fortunate enough to discover two Onondaga MSS., and one had in that year collected 50,000 dollars' worth of gold MS. in the Mohawk dialect, all of which she has anno- from one cemetery alone, which had an area of only 12 tated and translated with the assistance of a half-caste acres. A curious fact connected with the plastic decoraof Tuscaroran descent. The origin and history of these tions of the Chiriqui vases and other objects is that no MSS. are not distinctly known, but it is conjectured that vegetable forms have served the artificers as models, they are copies of originals which have been lost or animals alone having been used for the purpose, as destroyed. In their present form, they are, however, crocodiles, armadillos, monkeys, lizards, alligators, owing alike interesting from a sociological and a linguistic point probably to their 200-mythic conceptions of their diviniof view, for while the Mohawk MS. gives an account of ties. Among the various groups of vases, the one comthe religious rites and chants of the Iroquoian League prising the so-called “ alligator ware" is the most interest
ing ; this animal being not only represented as a surface It would appear that an arrangement by sevens is common ornament, but serving as a model for the form of such dis- to various kindred tribes, and there is reason for assumsimilar objects as whistles, rattles, tables, stools, jars, ing that wherever mythic names or taboos are in use vases and other utensils. Occasionally the human figure there are, or have been, secret societies or mysteries, appears under some grotesque form, and less frequently which have been derived from early traditional history. it is used to represent a divinity. According to Mr. In an elaborate article by Prof. Cyrus Thomas, entitled Holmes, the entire system of the scrolls, frets, and other " Aids to the Study of the Maya Codices," we have an devices used in Chiriqui art have been derived from various interesting account of the far-famed Maya Codex, which parts of the body of an animal, probably the alligator, and was acquired by the Royal Library of Dresden in 1739 he regards this system of ornamentation as indigenous to and a large portion of which was collated for Lord Kingsthe district. In a separate article, the author treats of borough's great work on “Mexican Antiquities," of which textile art in its relations to the development of form it forms the larger part of the third volume. According and ornament, and more especially with respect to the to Dr. Thomas, this unique document consists not merely industries of the early American people.
of one, but of several original MSS., while it presents The article on the Central Eskimo, by Dr. Franz Boas, no evidence, as often asserted, that its symbols, figures, although complete and admirable of its kind, has com- and signs are to be accepted as alphabetical, or phonetic, paratively little interest for the English reader conver- characters, its series of dots and lines seeming to indicate sant with the results of Arctic research, since a very large a close relationship with the pictographic system in use and important part of the information given has been amongst the North American Indians. He is of opinion derived from the narratives of Franklin, Ross, Parry, and that these series have a chronological significance, based other more recent British explorers. Yet some additions on the method of counting time common to the Mexicans have been made to our older knowledge of the Eskimo and Mayas, in which a religious, or hierarchical, cycle of by Dr. Boas, who gives much interesting information 260 days was recognized, as well as the solar year calendar regarding their tribal laws and customs, the musical art of 360 days in use among the people. This interpretation of the people, and their capacity for drawing; while he must, however, for the present rank as merely conjectural, relates several curious tales and traditions, which present although his elaborate analyses of the Maya symbols canso remarkable a similarity to those of the Greenlanders not fail to be of use to the few interested in the solution and the Behring Straits' tribes as to make it probable of the curious philological problem involved in the eluthat all these people are of one race.
cidation of this unique codex, to which special notice was The Rev. 0. N. Dorsey, to whom the Bureau is first drawn by Alexander von Humboldt. His acquaintindebted for the compilation of seventeen vocabularies ance with ancient South American MSS. enabled him to of the different dialects used by the Oregon Indians, adds show that, while its symbolic characters presented a close - an interesting contribution to this volume, in which he affinity with those used by the Mexicans, the material of describes the results of bis visit, in 1883, to the Osages which the MS. was composed was the Mexican plant in the Indian Territory. During his short stay he obtained met), Agave mexicana. information regarding the existence of a secret society of seven degrees, in which a knowledge is preserved of the grades and general history of the various gentes and sub
EXACT THERMOMETRY. gentes, with their taboo and names which are regarded Traité pratique de la Thermomstrie de précision, Par Ch. with reverence and not spoken of. Owing to the strict Ed. Guillaume. Pp. xv. and 336. (Paris : Gauthiersecrecy usually maintained by members of this society, it Villars, 1889.)
'HE initiated to recite to him the traditions referring to the instrument several centuries old, and by far the most inythic history of their tribe, which had been imparted popular of all scientific apparatus. Yet probably much to them on their initiation. These traditions, which the less is generally known about it than about its companion author gives with an interlinear translation, record the implements the barometer and the telescope. The reason passage of the primæval Osages from higher worlds before for this want of knowledge lies doubtless in the fact that they bore the semblance of birds, or had acquired from a the common use of the thermometer is chiefly for rough beneficent red eagle the bodies and souls with which they observations on the temperature of the air, and for this alighted on the earth. The sacred chart on which the ordinary instruments are sufficiently accurate as they their descent was symbolized by a river flowing beside a leave the maker. cedar, the tree of life, surrounded by sun, moon, and Meteorologists and physicians, however, occasionally stars, was observed by Mr. Dorsey to be tattooed on have the zeros of their thermometers tested ; and, for the throats and chests of some of the elder men ; but factory work, other points have sometimes to be examined. the younger Osages knew nothing of such symbols, and But in chemical and physical laboratories, investigations he was asked not to speak to them on the subject. From not unfrequently require that thermometers should be all he saw and heard among these and various tribes of corrected with all possible delicacy, if the resulting Iowa and Kansas, he believes that in this traditional measurement is to be exact and valuable. For such record of the descent of their gentes from different birds operations there has hitherto been no exhaustive guide ; and animals, we have a clue not only to the names by and M. Guillaume, whose ample experience in the Bureau which they are distinguished, but to the meaning of the international des Poids et Mesures is a guarantee for the chants and war-songs which only members of the seven practical value of what he writes, has done good service degrees of their sacred societies have the right to sing. by issuing the present work at an opportune moment.
It is natural for a "Traité pratique” to refer mainly to for instance, which have their sides concave vary readily the mercurial thermometer ; for the great majority of in capacity with barometric changes. practical thermometric measurements lie within its scope. The exposure correction has exercised the minds of Having a range from – 40° to at least 360° C., and a physicists for a great many years. When the bulb but possible sensitiveness of about o**001, it rarely has to be not the stem of a thermometer is in a bath, the stem achanged for more delicate or larger-scaled appliances. may clearly have a different temperature from the bulb, Even the air thermometer-a sort of general appeal court and the reading as a whole will be too low. In most in measurements of heat-is always accompanied by a chemical and physical laboratories, it is usual to follow number of ancillary mercurial thermometers.
Regnault, and to add, to the otherwise corrected reading To begin at the beginning (which, by the way, the T., the quantity author has not done), a thermometer has to be made ;
a(T-1)N. and the method of making it has a serious influence on (N is the length in degrees of the exposed column, t is the result. One maker will overheat his glass, and thus make the bulb harder than the stem ; another will leave its mean temperature, and a is the difference between irregularities in the bulb which will cause the zero to rise can be no doubt that this correction gives too low a result
the expansion coefficients of glass and mercury.) There tregularly; a third can never perfectly "deprive," as it is termed, the stem of air ; the breath of a fourth is con- at high temperatures. It has been shown that if instead stantly leaving fatty matter in the capillary tube. In of a we simply write (a +BN)-calculating a and B from short, there are endless variations in technique, to which, all desirable accuracy. The author, however, is disposed
the results, the demands of experiment are fulfilled with for delicate instruments, attention should be drawn.
The division of the thermometer is, as might have been to leave the reader pretty much to his own devices for expected, well described ; and minute details of calibra
this correction. tion (chiefly by the method of broken threads) are duly
The remainder of M. Guillaume's work is chiefly deset forth. Then follows a notice of a less familiar voted to the comparison of the mercurial with the gas correction--that, namely, which depends on internal thermometer, and the measurement of dilatation of solid pressure when the thermometer is in a vertical position, bodies: there are some valuable tables at the end. and thai which is produced by the external) pressure of
A perusal of this “Traité pratique" will perhaps cause the air. Two methods of ascertaining the thickness of the some regret that in most of our measurements of bulb are given, but they are both inferior to Stokes's, temperature we should be obliged to employ a material wirich turns upon measuring angularly the distance be that is constantly undergoing physical change, and that tween a spot on the outside of the glass and its reflec- necessitates in instruments constructed of it so many tion from the inner surface. Then ensues a description corrections. It is, on the other hand, a fortunate circumof the usual apparatus for determining the zero (which stance that we have in the mercurial thermometer an M. Guillaume seems to read somewhat too soon after
| admirable means of establishing and measuring the immersing the bulb in the bath); and the method of corrections necessary to be imposed wherever glass is ascertaining the boiling-point of water accompanies this accurately worked with. For it cannot be too emIn the comparison of thermometers, which is next treated, phatically pointed out that every lens, cylinder, flask, or the present writer prefers an air current to the metal other glass instrument we employ is more or less plunger figured on p. 125.
amenable to these corrections. M. Guillaume's work, If we observe the zero of a thermometer soon after therefore, should command, as it deserves to command, manufacture, and subsequently at frequent intervals, we a very wide interest.
EDMUND J. Mills. shall find that it is continually rising. The late Dr. Joule abserved this ascent in one of his thermometers for more
THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA. than seven-and-twenty years. There can be no doubt that it is due to a kind of setting of harder silicates in The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and presence of softer or more viscous silicates in the mixture Burma. Edited by W. T. Blanford. Vol. I. Fishes. of which the bulb is composed. The softer glasses show
By Francis Day. Pp. 548; 164 Figs. (London : it more than the harder ones; but in all exact work, it has
Taylor and Francis, 1889.) to be determined and allowed for. This variation takes
CHE first volume of this, the last work of the wellplace at the ordinary temperature. If now we heat the known Indian ichthyologist, Francis Day, was thermometer moderately (say to 100%) and cool it, we issued under particularly painful circumstances, viz. shall notice a temporary depression due to a tem almost on the very day of the author's death. The porary set. If, again, as is often the case in factory state of Mr. Day's health during the last few months work, we heat the thermometer for a long time to a high had prevented him from attending to the correction of temperature (say 180) the glass of the bulb (especially if the proofs beyond the middle of this volume, which deals soft) will become sensibly more plastic ; and will some
with the Chondropterygians, the Physostomes, and the times yield sufficiently to external pressure to cause an Acanthopterygian family Percida; and the task of carascent of 6%. At higher temperatures the ascent is still rying the remainder through the press has fallen on greater. Measurements of zero are therefore exceedingly the editor. This work is but a condensation of the important, even for moderately accurate work, and the author's quarto "Fishes of India," completed in 1878, so author does not fail to draw minute attention to them. valuable for the copious and beautifully-executed lithoWe should have been glad if at this point he had said graphic plates which accompany it. And, fortunately, a something about the form of thermometer bulbs. Bulbs, number of these excellent illustrations (one for every
genus) have been reproduced, intercalated in the text, in we need scarcely say, is one with which M. Cartailha: a manner which is highly creditable to the Lithographic is eminently competent to deal, and all who are interEtching Company.
ested in the study of prehistoric times will be glad to Considering how much remains to be done in the in- have so compact and lucid an account of the facts to
which the work relates. He begins with a good sketch vestigation of the fish-fauna of India and its British of the rise and progress of modern ideas with regard to dependencies, it is a matter of regret that so little atten primitive civilizations and the antiquity of the human tion has been paid to the subject since Mr. Day's depar- race; and this is followed by a discussion of the ques ture from India. The supplement to the “ Fishes of tions connected with man's place in Nature, his origin, India,” published in 1888, records no more than sixty and the supposed traces of his existence during the Teradditions to the number of species, a figure which might striking manifestations of artistic impulse by men of the
tiary period. An admirable chapter is devoted to the easily have been doubled in the same lapse of ten years but Palæolithic age. The monuments of the Neolithic era for the unaccountable want of interest shown in this most in France are grouped with perfect clearness, and M. important branch of study. As an example of the results Cartailhac has not failed to do justice to any one of the which may be attained by an enthusiastic collector in various questions which these monuments have forced those regions, we may allude to the collections of fishes upon the attention of students. The scientific value of brought together during the last three or four years by as possible the use of purely hypothetical reasoning
the book is enhanced by the fact that he avoids as much Mr. Jayakar, a surgeon stationed at Muscat, at the When he comes to sets of phenomena which cannot be entrance of the Persian Gulf, and presented by him to simply and naturally accounted for, he thinks it better to the British Museum, by which no less than twenty-five offer no theory at all than to suggest purely conjectural species, many of large size and of commercial im- explanations. The illustrations, although in no way reportance, have been added to the record of the fishes markable, will be of considerable service to readers who
have not made themselves familiar with the aims and of the Indian Ocean. It is to be hoped, therefore, methods of archaeological science. that this new and well got up issue of the “Fishes of India” in a more portable form will give a fresh Experimental Science (Elementary, Practical, and Er
perimental Physics). By George M. Hopkins. (New stimulus to the study of that fauna. A little more, how York: Munn and Co. London: E. and F. X. Spon. ever, might have been done to facilitate the identifica- i 1890.) tion of species, a particularly arduous task, the difficulties | The subject of experimental physics is here set forth in of which would have been greatly lessened by the pre- a manner calculated to afford to the student, the artisan, paration of satisfactory " keys.” Such as they appear i and the mechanic, a ready and enjoyable method in this work, viz. mere abbreviated tabulations of cha- / of acquiring a knowledge of this fascinating subject. racters, without or with scarcely any groupings under Although the popular style adopted by the author perspecial headings, the synopses fail in their object, and it than to the student, it may safely be said that all classes
haps makes the book better suited to the general reader is really a matter of regret that the editor did not bring of readers will find much to interest them. All the his influence to bear for a thorough recasting of this por subjects usually included in the comprehensive term tion of the work, especially in the case of such extensive “physics' are discussed ; and, in addition, photography. genera as Barbus, Nemachilus, Lutjanus, or Serranus, microscopy, and lantern manipulation. By carefully where the work of identifying species by means of the performing each experiment at the time of writing the synopsis given is perfectly discouraging. With the enor- instructions are followed. There is an excellent chapter
| description, the author guarantees certain success if his mous multitude of species which our present knowledge on “ mechanical operations, containing many valuable requires us to grasp, it is of primary importance that every hints on glass working, simple apparatus for laboratory possible facility should be given to the naturalist who uses ' use, soldering, and moulding Mathematical expressions a manual of this kind, which after all is intended chiefly · are almost entirely excluded. for those who have but an elementary knowledge of the
The book is chiefly remarkable for its hundreds of exspecial subject.
cellent illustrations, very few of which are diagrammatic.
! Many of them, like a considerable portion of the text. The above notice was in type when we received a copy have already appeared in the Scientific Amerian, which of the second and concluding volume (509 pp., 177 figs.). i is alone sufficient guarantee of their quality. Some of We are glad to see that the editor has, in many cases,
the latest inventions, including Edison's new phonograph, recast the synopsis of genera and species. The total
are described and illustrated. number of fishes known from Indian waters is given as 1418. In concluding, we congratulate Mr. Blanford on having,
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. under difficult circumstances, so successfully brought out (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions exthis portion of the “Fauna of India”; and we join in his
pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he underlake tribute to the memory of the late author, who, as he justly
to return, or to correspond with the writers of rejected
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE, says, has rendered signal service to Indian zoology.
No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ]
"Modern Views of Electricity." OUR BOOK SHELF.
The only point really at issue between Prof. Lodge and
myself seems to be whether the difference of potential between La France Préhistorique. Par Émile Cartailhac. (Paris : two metals in contact can be measured by the Peltier effect or Félix Alcan, 1889.)
not. He asserts that he regards the statement that it can as an
axicm, while I maintain that the only reason for calling it an This volume forms one of the well-known series,
axiom is that it cannot be proved. Let us take a simple case. “ Bibliothèque Scientifique, Internationale," published Suppose we have a condenser, the plates of which are made of under the direction of M. Ém. Alglave. The subject, two different metals metallically connected, and that this con
denser is placed in a vacımm, then, so far as I can see, Prof. every tide? I have hundreds of times picked up every vestige Lodge's principle must lead to the conclusion that the difference of a fossil on perhaps an acre of Eocene or Gault, yet a couple of uf patential between the plates of the condenser is proportional tides have removed so appreciable a layer that the area has tu ihe Peltier effect; but if this is so, it is quite easy to show by appeared studded with fresh specimens that were twenty-four the second law of thermodynamics that if the system is regarded hours previously wholly covered and concealed under matrix. 2 a heat-engine, the Peltier effect cannot vanish except at the Yet this ceaseless waste does not lower the level of the beach as Xry of absolute temperature,
it ought to On the other points mentioned by Prof. Lodge in his letter, And if such slight displacements as result from coast denudachere does not seem sufficient difference of opinion between us tion have so appreciable an effect, what must take place in to make it worth while discussing them.
ocean, if subsidence is going on, and the weight of water on the lo conclusion, let me assure Prof. Lodge that I am thoroughly increase? Darwin saw that the vast rise of land, which he so a sympathy with the view that the consideration of the be. graphically describes in South America, must have been accombaviour of the medium in the electric field is absolutely panied by a corresponding depression in the bordering oceans ; Casential. I do not think there is anything inconsistent with and in turning his pages you almost expect to come on the view this in the paragraph he quotes, which was intended to express that depression in the Pacific must be the cause of the upheaval what is well known to have been the opinion of Maxwell him of the coast-line. It only wanted the liquid layer theory to elf-hat the key to the secret of electricity would be found in make the dependence of one on the other obvious. No general the "vacuum " tube.
THE REVIEWER. rise of land has, or ever can, take place, under the overwhelm
ing pressure of the great ocean depths, and oceans are thus
permanent ; the struggle is confined to whether the liquid layer The Physics of the Sub-oceanic Crust.
shall overcome lateral resistance and find relief along the coastIs your article on the above subject in NATURE of
lines, which are the nearest lines of least resistance, and already November 21 (p. 51), the important pro position that the
weakened by abrasion, forming coast ranges, or rending the earth's crust rests on a liquid layer is once more brought to the
crust, and pouring over thousands of square miles from fissure front The question reaches to the very basis of geology, but,
eruptions; or whether it shall overcome vertical resistance, and like most of those of real importance, is not now recognized
raise the beds of shallower ocean eventually, perhaps, into land. by the Society which occupies apartments in Burlington House, for deep oceans to become deeper, under pressure which may
Thus the tendency, as noticed by the writer of your article, is al free, for the purpose of forwarding the study of geology. Nothing is more obvious to the geological student than that higher peaks, the more weight is lessened by valleys being cut
increase but never relaxes, and for mountain-chains to grow into e level. We do not find that, when a thousand feet of sedrup and denuded.
This theory accounts for innumerable facts in the physics of water which was 1000 feet deep, and went on gradually
earth which space would not permit me to enter on, and is, "ng the depth until the sea or lake was filled up; but we do find, so far as I know, opposed to none. as in the coal-measures, that the entire 1000 feet was deposited
J. STARKIE GARDNER. on must uniformly shallow water ; that therefore the crust of the earth must have sagged foot by foot as additional feet of burdens Area of the Land and Depths of the Oceans in were laid upon it. Deltas that have not yet been bottomed show
Former Periods. hundreds of feet of silt, every yard of which was deposited at In a letter to Nature (p. 54), entitled “Physics of the Submaly a few feet from the surface level of the water ; estuaries and oceanic Crust,” by my friend, Mr. Jukes-Browne, the following river valleys slowly sink where there is sedimentation ; ice-caps tell passage occurs :of accumulation acc mpanied by depression and submergence, "We are at liberty to imagine a time when there was much and reelevation when the burden is melted and dissipated ; more land than there is at present, and when all the oceans were ostal formations and submergence are regarded as well-nigh comparatively shallow." unseparable, and even lava-flows flowing on to a plain have I wish to point out that such a condition of things could not sonk is level in a degree corresponding with their mass. obtain if the bulk of the ocean water was the same as now. To Where there is fifty or a thousand feet of piled-up lava-sheets you get more land, the ocean would have to be deeper than now, not may lask for a fault of like amount on its fianks, like that which, Shallower. An easy way of conceiving the effect of shallowing siti unsuspected by geologists, cuts the Isle of Mull in half. the oceans is to mentaliy lift up the present ocean-floors, the Whether we look at the past or the prezent, we seem to see result being an overflow of water and decrease of land area. evidence of a crust resting in equilibrium on a liquid layer, and The only possible way of shallowing the oceans and increasing sensitive tu even apparently insignificant readjustments of its the area of the land would be to make the ocean-floors perfectly weigbt. And if the crust did not respond to, and make room Aat, and to surround the continents with vertical walls of rock fre, the burdens laid upon it by the removal of disintegrated-in fact, to make the oceans into docks, which nevertheless land and its redeposition as silt under water, would not the seas would exceed two miles in depth. be choked fur miles round every coast? The abrading action of I pointed out this geometrical fact in “Oceans and Con. it wave cuts down the land, be it high or low, to a dead tinents" Lan article which has provided some of the stock bilom level, and sooner or later it must become first beach, arguments against their fixity. Il, therefore, theorists feel it and then sea-buttom. There it is covered with silt or sea-weed, necessary that the land areas should be greater, and the oceans md is no longer abeaded, and would, therefore, form great level shallower, in former ages, they are bound at the same time to tracts, ias.est of almost uniformly shelving coasts, unless it provide some means of decreasing the bulk of the ocean waters. yieldel Ain Atsu to the increasing weight of sediment and This seems difficult, as other theorists tell us that the amount of water. The immediate effect of cutting down cliffs, say of 100 water on the globe goes on decreasing, being used up in the fezt in height, and removing them in solution or by wave action, hydration of the crust of the earth, and point to the condition of i to relieve the pressure at their base; and I claim that, wherever things on the moon as the final stage of our planetary existence. I have excavated for the purposes of collecting under such
T. MELLARD READE. cuolations, I have found a decided slope inwards away from the Park Corner, Blundellsands, near Liverpool, se, if the strata were at all horizontal, no matter what direction
Novenber 23. thear general inclination might be at a distance from the sea zoargin. But on the beach, a little way from the base of the cliffs, the slope is, on the contrary, towards the sea, and whatever Distribution of Animals and Plants by Ocean Currents. the general inclination may be, we see the harder ledges, even Sous ce titre, vous donniez naguère (vol. xxxviii. p. 245) if laut a few inches thick, sloping away into deeper and deeper une correspondance de M. A., W. Buckland concernant divers Water until lost to view ; and if you choose to follow them and phénomènes observés à Port-Élisabeth, dans l'Afrique du Sud. dredge, you trace thein tending downwards into yet deeper Entre autres choses il y était relaté que, vers la fin de l'année water. This appears to me to be simply because the relief from 1886, un fruit analogue à celui du cocotier avait été porté par la pressure has made the beach-line the crown of a slight arch, and mer sur le rivage de Port-Élisabeth en même temps que des quanan arch that continues to grow and travel, else how could we tites considérables de pumites ou pierres-poncez. exllect day after day and year after year, oa the same spots, such Geological Magazine. 1880, p. 389; also, see letter in same maguine, » Eastware or Bracklesham Bays, fresh crops of fossils after 1321. p. 335, headed subsidence and Elevation.”