Page images
PDF
EPUB

length of it is said to have been only about fourteen showing no Widmanstätten figures when etched, others miles

showing excellent figures more or less differing in It is very probable, though not conclusively proved, character. that large meteoritic showers of stones, like those of Now, in every meteoritic shower yet observed, the Paltusk and L'Aigle, reach the terrestrial atmosphere as individuals which have fallen simultaneously have been swurms of isolated bodies ; still, we must have regard to found to belong to a common type. Hence, it is reasonthe fact that a mass is much fractured during its passage ably certain that several distinct meteors are represented through the air by reason of the enormous pressure and in the Desert, and that the above masses are the result the violent change of temperature. In the case of the of several falls; and this being accepted, the assertion of Bulsura fall, for example, it was conclusively established simultaneity of fall of two or more masses on the purely that stones picked up some miles apart must originally geographical ground that they have been found in the have formed part of a stone disrupted during the atmo-same Desert, can be allowed no great weight. spheric flight.

But have masses belonging to any one of the above It is a question of a certain amount of interest as to types been found scattered over a part of the Desert so whether there is any evidence of the actual fall of a extensive as to indicate a meteoritic fall more widely shower of meteorites over a large extent of the earth's spread than any of those actually observed ? A critical surface.

examination of the cases in which such an enormous Such evidence has long been supposed to be furnished spread has been asserted proves that the evidence is by the plentiful occurrence of meteorites in the Desert of quite unsatisfactory. The results may thus be sumAtacama, a terın applied to that part of Western South marized :America which lies between the towns of Copiapo and (1) Lutschaunig.–This was a single stone. Cobija, about 330 miles distant from each other, and (2) Vaca Muerta.—The masses were in great abundance which extends inland as far as the Indian hamlet of distributed over a small area. But fragments undoubtedly. Antofagasta, about 180 miles from the coast.

belonging to this type have been brought from two other The generally received impression as to the occurrence places far distant from the main locality. Very cogent of meteorites in this desert is well illustrated by the fol- evidence is brought forward to prove that the said fraglowing statement of M. Darlu, of Valparaiso, read to the ments must have been carried to those places-the French Academy of Sciences in 1845 S

Jarquera Valley and Mejillones — from Vaca Muerta * For the last two years I have made observations of itself, shosting-stars during the nights of November 11-Noven (3) Imilac.-An examination of all the known literature her 15, without remarking a greater number than at other indicates that the whole of the fragments belonging to time I was led to make these observations by the fact this type have been got from the immediate neighbourtirat in the Desert of Atacama, which begins at Copiapo, hood of Imilac. Caracoles, Potosi, and Campo de mercorites are met with at every step. I have heard, Pucará, from which specimens, belonging to this type, also, from one who is worthy of trust, that in the Argen- have been brought, are shown to be on regular lines of tire Republic, near Santiago del Estero, there is-so to traffic starting from the Atacama coast. It is further say-a forest of enormous meteorites, the iron of which shown that Imilac specimens were in great request, and is employed by the inhabitants."

were certainly carried to very distant places along such A study of the literature indicates that “the forest lines of traffić. of enormous meteorites" near Santiago del Estero, (4) Copiapo.-It is conclusively proved that the two understood by Darlu as significative of infinity of localities, upwards of 400 miles apart, for meteoritic Damber, is really a free translation of a native state- masses belonging to this type, result from a mere interment that there were several masses having the shape change of labels, and that all the masses probably came of burge trunks with deep roots," and that not more from a single place. than four, or perhaps five, masses had really been seen (5-13) There is no satisfactory evidence furnished by in the Santiago locality at the time of Darlu's state- similarity of type for any of the meteoric irons being part ment

. There is a similar misunderstanding relative to of a widespread shower. the Atacama masses : it is clearly proved that, at a date It is thus clear that the meteorites of the Desert of long subsequent to 1845, the Desert was virtually un- Atacama afford absolutely no proof that enormous trolden and unexplored. In Darlu's time it was only meteoritic showers have ever reached the earth's surface. Crossed along definite tracks by Indians travelling be The general dryness of the air of the Desert, and the lwen San Pedro de Atacama and Copiapo, and between rarity of rain, have been sufficient to ensure the preservathe inland Antofagasta and the coast. In fact, it is esta- tion of masses which have fallen in the course of many blished that the only Atacama meteorites then'in circula- centuries unto a time when an exploration of a large tion were all got from a single small area, three or four extent of the Desert has taken place. leagues in length, in the neighbourhood of Imilac, one of That the meteoritic masses are far from being so the few watering-places on the track between San Pedro plentiful as has been imagined is conclusively proved by

the experience of Mr. George Hicks, one of the earliest Since that time the discovery of rich silver-mines in explorers of the 23rd and 24th parallels ; although much the centre of the Desert, and the working of the nitrate interested in their occurrence, he never found a mass deposits

, have led to vast changes; the Desert has been himself, and he only obtained his first specimen after more or less closely examined, and other meteoritic masses years of persevering inquiry from the Indians. have been found. Still, the number of meteorites yet Detailed information relative to the Atacama meteorites, discovered, distinct either in mineralogical characters or with a description and map of the Desert, will be found locality, is shown to be, at most, thirteen.

in the recently published number of the Mineralogical One of them, Lutschaunig, is distinct from all the rest Magazine.

L. F. 2 being a chondritic stone ; a second, Vaca Muerta, likewise differs from all the others in that it consists of nickel-iron and stony matter, both in large proportion ; a third, i milac, is a nickel-iron with cavities, like those

EARLY EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. siis ponge, filled with olivine;

a fourth, Copiapo, is a ALTHOUGH the paintings in the tombs of Memphis, of troilite and stony matter ; the remaining nine consist us the knowledge of much of the civilization of Egypt, yet of nickel-iron, virtually free from silicates, some of them hitherto we have handled but few examples of the im

and Copiapo .

plements used, and those are mostly undated. Broadly one was continued; the metal tools are every one changed speaking, the three sites just named represent respectively in form ; and the use of flints had practically died ou the Old Kingdom before 3400 B.C., the Middle Kingdom For the first time we are able to trace the definite ane about 2600 B.C., and the New Kingdom from 1600 B.C. ; decided changes in all the products of two ages so remude and though debarred from scientific work in these richest The idea that Egypt was changeless is only due to our districts of Egypt-owing to national jealousies--I have lack of knowledge ; not only fashions changed-every few been fortunate enough to discover two small towns, each years in minor details--but radical rearrangements were only occupied for a couple of centuries, which have thus made from age to age in the manufactures. revealed the works of the Middle and New Kingdoms The twelfth dynasty town-Kahun-is the more imporwith chronological exactness. Beside the Egyptian in- ant, and we will briefly note some of its products. Flint terest of these places, they are of prime importance for working was carried to a high pitch, the thin fat knive Mediterranean history, having been colonies of foreign being flaked with much skill: but alloys of copper were also workmen.

in use, and show ability in their casting and hammering, a These towns are one on each side of the entrance to thin bowl being wrought out of one piece. We find then, the Fayum province, fisty miles south of Cairo. The north- flint and metal side by side, the flint being the commiser ern town, now called Kahun, was built for the workmen material, but yet influenced in its forms by the type employed by Usertesen II., for his pyramid and temple, metal tools. Moreover, we now see the use of the numerous about 26co B.C. The southern town, now called Gurob, flint saws, formed of serrated flakes; many of them have was founded by Tahutmes III., and destroyed by Meren- black cement upon them, and one was found remaining ptah, thus lasting from about 1450 to LIGO B.C. Obtaining in its socket in a wooden sickle (Fig. 1). thus two sites of different ages, close together, we can be Beside hatchets, adzes, and chisels of bronze, we find certain that all differences are due entirely to time and needles, barbed and unbarbed fish-hooks, netting-needle not to locality. The change in an interval of 1200 years and knives of the straight-backed type. Among woode is most marked. Of the pottery, scarcely a single type tools are hoes, rakes, grain-scoops, a brick-mould, pla: of form or material is alike in the two feriods; of the terers' floats, bow-drills, plummets, &c. Perhaps the mus many varieties of beads of stone and glazed ware, hardly important of all is a fire-stick, on which five burnt holes

TIG. I.

END
VIEW

Wooden sickle with flint saw (twelfth dynasty). remain where fire has been drilled by a rotating rod : the scarce. Thus we may date the fall of fine fint manufacdrilling was begun by hacking a groove in the side of the ture in Egypt to about 2coo B.c. ; though rude fakes stick, down which the heated wood powder might run, continued to be used till late Roman times, and more until it caught alight. This shows, for the first time, how abundantly in poorer ages. Bronze tools were much the Egyptians obtained fire: and familiar as they were modified ;' hatchets and chisels less finely formed, kme with the bow-drill, they doubtless used it for the fire-stick. always double edged, fish-hooks not barbed, and punched A very interesting point is the origin of the shoe from the metal rasps were brought in. Bronze working reached sandal. Two sandal-shoes have been found; both with high level in the making of two large pans, 14 and 9 inches toe and heel straps, but with an upper of leather across across, exquisitely wrought with difficult curves, and so the foot. Tops, tip-cats, clay toys, dolls with jointed limbs, thin that they can be still bent in and out by the finger and game boards, were all in use. Among a large number Glass ornaments were commonly used, though not fours of papyri that I found are two wills, one of which is a in the earlier town. The plain beads of fine blue, violet

. recital of a will and a settlement, duly witnessed. The &c., belong to about 1300 B.C. ; while the coarser teads provisions show that the later law of Greek times was of black, yellow, green, brown, and white, with ext much the same in matters of descent as it was two patterns, are about a century later. thousand years earlier. On receiving family property the The presence of foreigners in both of these towns is man settles it on his wife ; she has a life interest in the shown by the weights discovered, which are-with scarcek dwellings, and may divide all the property among their an exception--of foreign standards, foreign forms, children at her discretion. The man's official position he foreign materials. A commercial intercourse must there left to his son. A guardian was also appointed, excluding fore have been kept up between these foreign colonies and the eldest son from that duly. Some numerical notes the Mediterranean. Beside

this evidence we find at Guole concerning fractions are also found ; and all these papyri the burials of one of the Tursha or Turseni (from As are in course of study by Mr. F. L. Griffith.

Minor), and a Hittite ; foreign art is seen in a mirrot On turning to the later town-Gurob-of about 1300 B.C., bandle with the Phænician Venus, and a wooden figure we find that the art of Aint working was lost; only a few of a Hittite ; and foreign complexions are shown by the rude leaf-shaped flakes (totally different from the earlier light bair found on some of the bodies. A very stress forms) and some little saw-flakes remain, and these are Mediterranean influence appears in the quantity of pottery

[ocr errors]

lertical with the earliest styles found at Mykenæ, at the lake seemed to be not more than six miles away from nera, and at Mytilene ; and we are now able to date where we stood-by observation the second journey I ose stages of early culture in the Greek lands to fixed it at nine miles direct south-easterly from the place. ya B.L., a fixed point of the greatest value.

This will make the terminus of the south-west corner at The most novel discovery of all is the presence of appa. 1° 17' N. lat. By prismatic compass the magnetic bearing ont y alphabetic sigas in use in both towns (Fig. 2), and of the south-east corner just south of Numba Falls was

all the circumstances amply guaranteed to be of about 137°, this will make it about to II' 30" N. lat. A magnetic 53 c. and 1300 B.C. Our existing theories of alpha- bearing of 148° taken from N. lat. 1° 25' 30" about exactly ubic development require us to suppose that the Pheni- describes the line of shore running from the south-west in letters were established before 2090 B.C.; as the corner of the lake to the south-east corner of the Albert. Wyptian writing from which De Rougé derived them, Baker fixed his position at N. lat. 1° 15', if I recollect 4 extinct after that date; and the Cypriote syllabic rightly. The centre of Mbakovia Terrace bears 121° 30' gns inust be older. Thus, though no known inscriptions magnetic from my first point of observation, this will an be placed before about 90) B.C., yet the forms must make his Vacovia about 1° 15' 45", allowing 10° west variable started about the same period as that of the first of tion. Lese towns, Kahun. The conditions that we find, there “In trying to solve the problem of the infinity of Lake ne of a great variety of signs in use, many of which have Albert as sketched by Baker, and finding that the lake of survived, while others have drifted apart into many terminus is only four miles south of where he stood to bfferent alphabets, are just what might be expected at view it from a little hill,' and on a beautifully clear

day,' one would almost feel justified in saying that he had F16. 2.

never seen the lake. But his position of Vacovia proves that he actually was there, and the general correctness of his outline of the east coast from Vacovia to Magungo also proves that he navigated the lake. When we turn

our faces north-east, we say that Baker has done exceednetg113 16 trip Signs incised in pottery (the dots separating 1100 00 wood. different examples.

ingly well, but, when we turn them southward, our senses in vain try to penetrate the mystery, because our eyes see not what Baker saw. When Gessi Pasha first sketched the lake after Baker, and reduced the immense lake to

one about ninety miles long, my faith was in Baker, igas mcised on pattery of the twelfth dynasty (Kahun).

because Gessi could not resolve by astronomical observations the south end of the lake. When Mason Bey

-an accomplished surveyor-in 1877 circumnavigated the lake, and corroborated Gessi, then I thought that

perhaps Mason had met a grassy barrier or sandbank Sigm an poltery of the e ghteenth to nineteenth dynasty (Gurob). overgrown with sedge and ambatch, and had not reached hese early times. The apparent connection of these

the true beyond, because he admitted that he could not

see very far from the deck of his steamer, my faith still rgna with sone of the mason's marcs of Egypt suggests

rested in Baker ; but now, with Lieutenant Stairs, of the hear they may have been adopted by the foreign workmen from their Egyptian fellow-labourers ; and the very lack Emin Pasha, Captain Casati, I have looked with my own

Royal Engineers, Mr. Mounteney Jephson, Surgeon Parke, literary education among such men would lead to he'r forming alphabets of their owa from such materials.

eyes upon the scene, and find that Baker has made an

error. . . We have at least now obtained two well-defined stages,

“I am somewhat surprised also at Baker's altitudes of Petween the finished and segregated alphabets of the period of kaowa inscriptions, of 93ɔ B.C. downward, and breadth attributed by him

to the lake. The shore oppo

Lake Albert, and the Blue Mountains,' and at the be original elements of Egyptian hieroglyphs, hieratic, site Vacovia is ten and a quarter miles distant, not forty nason's marks, and perhaps Hittite and cuneiform chaafters, from which the alphabets were evolved. To dis- pr fifty miles ; the Blue Mountains' are nothing else -18s the historical descent of the signs, and to form a above 6900 feet above the level of the sea, not 7000 or

but the west upland-the highest cone or hill being not mtingous theory of them, will need much discussion, 8000 feet high. The altitude of Lake Albert by aneroid ind more materials. Meanwhile, my work will lie in the and boiling-point will not exceed 2350, not 2720, feet. : Implete gathering in of what may still remain in these

“And last of all, away to the south-west where he has mons A full account and drawings of every sign and sketched his infinite stretch of lake, there rises, about - er object of importance found this year will appear forty miles from Vacovia, an immense snowy mountain 1: a few months. W. M. FLINDERS Perrie.

a solid square-browed mass with an almost level summit between two lofty ridges. If it were 'a beautifully clear

day' he should have seen this, being nearer to it by JR, STAVLEY'S GEOGRAPHICAL DIS

thirteen geographical miles than I was." COVERIES.

of the snowy Mountain, Mr. Stanley writes as folThis week an interesting letter from Mr, Stanley to lows

“My interest is greatly excited, as you may imagine, Villages of Batundu, Ituri River, Central Africa, Sep by the discovery of Ruwenzori-the Snowy Mountain-a ember 8, 1898." Speaking of Lake Albert, Mr. Stanley possible rival of Kilimanjaro. Remember that we are in

north latitude, and that this mountain must be near on * When on December 13, 1887, we sighted the lake, the the equator itself, that it is summer now, that we saw it rathern part lay at our feet almost, like an immense in the latter part of May, and that the snow-line was

We glanced rapidly over the grosser details—the about (estimate only) 1000 feet below the summit. Hence nky plateau walls of Unyoro to the east, and that of I conclude that it is not Mount Gordon Bennett, seen in brezga to the west, rising nearly 30ɔɔ feet above the December 1876 (though it may be so), which, the natives liver water, and between the walls stretched a plain-said, had only snow occasionally. At the time I saw the

mingly very flagrassy, with here and there a dark latter, there was no snow visible. It is a little further jump of brushwood - which as the plain trended south east, according to the position I gave it, than Ruwenzori. esterly becime a thin forest. The south-west edge of "All the questions which this mountain naturally gives

rise to will be settled, I hope, by this Expedition before the islands, “quæ ultra Chersonesum aureum soli nimium po it returns to the sea. If at all near my line of march, its pinque subjacent," the speech referred to his discovery of the length, height, and local history will be ascertained. My theory according to which new species are evolved, which wa young officers will like to climb to the summit, and í shortly stated as, "ea corpora vigere magis prolemque ex shall be glad to furnish them with every assistance." At the time when this letter was written, Mr. Stanley subeundis aptissima creaverit : sic stirpe n a cæteris stirpibus de

lætiorem surgere quae ipsa nescio quo pacto natura vitæ pericole was uncertain as to the destination of the streams flowing similem et in dies longius discrepantem propagari." The can between the two Muta Nzigés” :

“Many rivers will be found to issue from this curious temporaneous discovery of natural selection by Charles Darwin land between the two Muta Nzigés. What rivers are and his cordial recognition of Mr. Wallace's merits, we they? Do they belong to the Nile or the Congo ? There is mentioned : "tanta et in hoc et in illo inerat animi natiltas no river going east or south-east from this section, except veritatis quam gloriæ propriæ studiosior.” Reference was made the Katonga and Kafur, and both must receive, if any, but to Mr. Wallace's various writings. a very small supply from Gordon Bennett and Ruwenzori. The new mountain must therefore be drained principally

We regret to announce the sudden death of Dr. W. R. south and west. If south, the streams have connection McNab. He died at his residence in Dublin on Tuesday with the Lake South ; if west, the Semliki tributary of morning, the 3rd inst. Dr. McNab was Professor of Botany Lake Albert, and some river flowing to the Congo must in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, having succeeded receive the rest of its waters. Then, if the Lake South Prof. Thiselton Dyer, F.R.S. He was also Scientific Sape receives any considerable supply, the interest deepens. intendent and Referee to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glass Does the lake discharge its surplus to the Nile or to the nevin, under the Science and Art Department. He appear Congo? If to the former, then it will be of great interest to you, and you will have to admit that Lake Victoria is to have been in his usual health on Monday, and online not the main source of the Nile ; if to the Congo, then Andrew's Day (Saturday) took an energetic part in the meeting the lake will be the source of the River Lowwa or Coa, and banquet held by the Sco:ch residents in Dublin. since it is the largest tributary to the Congo from the east The Colonies and India reports the death, in Melbourne, of between the Aruwimi and the Luama. For your comfort Mr. Robert Brough Smyth, who was for sixteen years Secretary I will dare venture the opinion even now that the lake is of Mines in Victoria. He was well known in Australia in the source of the Lowwa, though I know nothing positive his contributions, especially on geological questions, to scienuntin

. of the matter. But I infer it, from the bold manner in

literature. which the Aruwimi trenches upon a domain that anyone would have imagined belonged to the Nile. It was only The new Natural Science Museum of Berlin was opened os ten minutes' march between the head of one of its streams Monday. The Berlin Correspondent of the Standard, describing to the crest of the plateau whence we looked down upon the proceedings, says that the ceremony was striking. A handthe Albert Nyanza.

“ From the mouth of the Aruwimi to the head of this some tent, surmounted by an imperial crown, was erected for the stream is 390 geographical miles in a straight line. Well

, Emperor and Empress

, who were present with the Princes next to the Aruwimi in size is the Lowwa River, and from Frederick Charles, Prince Alexander, the Hereditary Prince and the mouth of the Lowwa to the longitude of Ugampaka Princess of Meiningen, and a brilliant suite. Nearly all the post in a direct line is only 240 geographical miles."

Ministers, including Count Bismarck, who has just returned from
Friedrichsruh, and the Minister of War, were in attendan..

Count Waldersee, representatives of the Academy of Art, an
NOTES.

the Professors of the University, were also present. Dr. me

Gossler, Minister of Education, delivered an eloquent address The Gilbert Club, to which we referred last week, was in which he mentioned that the collections were founded a hurformally founded on Thursday, November 28. The following dred years ago, and expressed the hope that both science and the officers were appointed at the first general meeting :-President, State would derive equal benefit from the new institution. Frot Sir William Thomson. Vice-Presidents : Lord Rayleigh, Prof. Beyrich, the first Curator of the Museum, pledged himself to D. E. Hughes, Prof. Reinold, Mr. Jonathan Hutchinson keep abreast with the progress of science. Their Majestio (President of the Royal College of Surgeons), Dr. B. W. were conducted through the building by the keepers of the Richardson, and Mr. H. Laver, of Colchester. Mr. Latimer various collections. Clark was elected Treasurer, and Mr. Conrad Cooke, Prof. R. Meldola, and Prof. S. P. Thompson, Hon. Secretaries. The

The Paris Museum of Natural History is about to elect resolution finally adopted by the meeting was :-" That the successor to M. Chevreul in the Chair of Chemistry. objects of the Gilbert Club be as follows :-(1) To produce and At the general monthly meeting of the Royal Institution. issue an English translation of ‘De Magnete' in the manner of on December 2, the managers reported that they had to the folio edition of 1600. (2) To arrange hereafter for the appointed Prof. James Dewar, F.R.S., as Fullerian Professor tercentenary celebration of the publication of 'De Magnete ' in of Chemistry. the year 1900. (3) To promote inquiries into the personal The Academy of Sciences of Vienna has appointed Prof. G. history, life, works, and writings of Dr. Gilbert. (4) To have Niemann, of Vienna, and Major Steffan, of Cassel, to be present power, after the completion of the English edition of 'De as impartial witnesses at the excavations at Hissarlik, begun, Magnete,' to undertake the reproduction of other early works on November 25, under the direction of Dr. H. Schliemann and on electricity and magnetism, provided at such date a majority Dr. W. Dörpfeld. Captain Ernst Bötticher, who has oftes of the members of the Club so desire.” At the time of the called in question the utility of Dr. Schliemann's archäological inaugural meeting eighty-seven members had joined the Club. investigations, has been requested to take part in the excava

tions. Prof. J. Bryce's speech (read by Prof. Holland) at the presentation of Mr. A. R. Wallace for the degree of D.C.L., Mr. Hugh G. BARCLAY, in his Report as to the fund for the honoris causå, at Oxford, on November 26, was one of unusual preservation of birds in the Farne Islands, says he has every interest. We may note especially the very masterly way in which reason to believe that the birds were very well protected this the doctrine of the survival of the fittest was expressed. After

He visited the islands twice, and each time he satisfied describing Mr. Wallace's travels in Brazilian forests, and among himself, by his own personal investigations, that the birds kad

season.

pagar been unduly disturbed. Last year, at the request of the be given by Commander V. L. Cameron, R.N., Mr. J. F. lathorities, he allowed some young birds to be taken from the Blake, Mr. Henry Blackburn, Mr. Wilmott Dixo.), Mr. Stanton ants for the purpose of being placed on the lake at St. James's Coit, and Mr. Eric S. Bruce. "at, London. The following is an extract from a letter he

The annual general meeting of the Institution of Electricat ately received from Mr. Rilly, the bird-keeper there :-"The Engineers will be held at the Institution of Civil Engineers, 25 nly birda alive now of those brought from the Farne Islands are Great George Street, Westminster, on Thursday, December 12, he : ormorants, which are thriving. The puffins all died during at 8 o'clock in the evening, for the reception of the annual he first three months. The guillemots lived somewhat longer, report of the Council, and for the election of Council and le leath of the last one being the result of an accident. The Officers for the year 1890. The following paper will be further ine kutiwake also died by an accident. The terns died during discussed : “ Electric Engineering in America,” by Mr. G. L. hve severe frost, being apparently unable to get about on the ice, Addenbrooke. beur tail and wings collected the ice ; I suppose on account of ber being pinioned and not being able to use their wings freely." History Society in the Punjaub. It is to be hoped that it will

It is stated that a scheme is on foot for establishing a Natural The Council of the Dundee and District Association for the be successful, and that the Society will flourish as other Indian Pronotion of Technical and Commercial Education has issued scientific societies are doing. La fiss! Annual Report, and is able to give a very good account of be results it has achieved. With regard to the future work of

IN the introductory lecture to the agricultural class at the Le dixocation, the Council suggests that workshop instruction University of Edinburgh, delivered at the opening of the present ke lads engaged at unskilled work in factories and during the session, Prof. Wallace chose as his subject some aspects of lay should be established in connection with the evening classes Australasian agriculture. In this lecture, which has now been Hof the School Board. It also proposes the drafting of additional printed, Prof. Wallace urges that sheep farmers in this country tanarses of instruction, especially in painting, decoration, and will shortly feel the effects of rivalry with the flock masters of paltern designing, and the encouraging of higher classes in these Australia. There are 100,000,000 sheep in Australia, mostly Fubjects. In this connection the Council appropriately refers to merinos, which are not, by the way, a flesh-yielding but a wool. the last that in 1884 the Technical Instruction Commissioners giving race. Prof. Wallace hazards the opinion, by a very easy reported that "the crowded schools of drawing, modelling, process of arithmetic, that, before many years have passed, terring, and painting, maintained at the expense of the muni- Australia will be possessed of over 200,000,000. He makes, also, sipaktses of Paris, Lyons, Brussels, and other cities-absolutely the astonishing statement that merino mutton is equal in flavour pratautoms and open to all comers, well lighted, furnished with and texture to our best llighland, Welsh, or South Down 1. let models, and under the care of teachers full of enthu- mutton. Upon these two assumptions, for they are nothing kotn--stimulate those manufactures and crafts in which the fine more, he foretells calamities to the meat producers of this country, are play an important part to a degree which is without parallel which he, it is to be hoped, will not live to see. in thu can ry."

A STALACTITE cave has been discovered in Ascheloh, near A SZLIL» of questions on the effects of London fogs on cal

Halle, in Westphalia ; it is reported to be more than 100 metres urated plants has been issued by the scientific committee of the long. Hugal Horticultural Society. The experience of the current A SHARP shock of earthquake was felt at Oran, Algeria, on heaton paly is to be utilized.

November 27, at 3 p.m. It lasted ten seconds, the oscillations Å SPECIMEN of the Rurqual mus:ulus has just come ashore on being from east to west. the coast of the Médoc district. Dr. Beauregard, aide naturaliste ACCORDING to a telegram sent through Reuter's agency from at the Paris Museum, went to the spot to examine this interesting Belgrade on December 2, violent shocks of earthquake, accomCetacean Unfortunately, the brain was already in a state of panied by loud subterranean rumblings, were felt on Sunday dec_naposition, but the breasts and ears were dissected off for afternoon at Kregugewatz, Jagodina, and Kupsia. The disturb

Cplele examination. The animal was 14 metres long, and 6 ance generally travelled from east to west, but some of the shocks Peties in circumference at the thickest part of the body.

I moved from north to south.

! I'AOF. Chauveau has lately published in the Archives de MR. H. C. RUSSELL, Government Astronomer of New South Pathologu E.xpérimentale a contribution to the study of “trans.' Wales, has published the results of meteorological observaformism" in microbiology. His researches relate to Bacillus an- tions made in that colony during 1887. The number of reportdrites, and show that by experimental means various important . ing stations is now 862, being 94 more than in 1886, the Laslogical alterations may be obtained.

increase being almost wholly in rain stations. The arrangement Pror. MARSHALL Ward is about to deliver, at th eCity and station separately, is the same as in previ vus years ; but there

of the tables, which give the most important data for each bullds of London Institute, a course of six lectures on timber, are also two new tables giving the mean maximum and minimum In nature, varieties, uses, and diseases. The lectures will be aver og Morday and Thursday evenings

, at 7.30 (December 12, temperature at Sydney for each month from 1856 to 1887. The fe and 19, and January 23, 27, and 30). The object of the mean temperature of the whole colony for the last seventeen waarse is to explain as simply and clearly as possible, with the years is 61° 2. At Sydney the mean for thirty years is 62°7. aid of meerous lantern illustrations

, the nature, properties, i weather conditions at Sydney, and clearly exhibit the feculiari

The diagrams appended to the volume give a good idea of the arieties, and nses of the ordinary timbers used in construction, and to give an intelligible account of dry-rot, and allied diseases and the long one of 1874, also the long summer of 1877–78,

ties of certain periods, such as the very short winter of 1873,

with four months of hot weather, and the short summer of The second series of lectures given by the Sunday Lecture 1886-87, when there was only one month of hot weather. In wately will begin on Sunday afternoon, December 8, in St. 1878 the lowest winter temperature occurred in June, and in secarpe's Hall, Langham Place, at 4 p.m., when Mr. W. Lant 1872 in August. A comparison is made of the rainfall at the arpenter

, B.Sc., will lecture on "The Wonders of the Yellow principal places in the various colonies. The contrast between lamne l'arka Perunal Narrative," with oxy-hydrogen lantern the amount at Brisbane and Sydney and that at Melbourne is ilustrations from the lecturer's own camera. Lectures will also very striking. At the former places as much rain sometimes

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »