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falls in one month as would make a year's rainfall at Melbourne. or France; and we are, in fact, in presence of a lost ari, & At Sydney the least annual rainfall on record is 21.49 inches, which there has been no occasion from the time that iron se and the greatest 82-81 inches. The question of evaporation into common use. That was a long time ago in India. Steel continues to receive considerable attention ; the tabular results and very good steel, too-must have been for many general are published, with the rain and river results, in a separate in the hands of the ancient inhabitants of the Konkan when the volume.
first cave temples were hewn-at least 2000 years ago. Oo be The Meteorological Report of the Straits Settlements has other hand, the position of the flakes, both in Sind and : been published for the year 1888, being the fifth year in which Kolaba, shows that they belong to a very recent geologic! meteorological observations in the colony have been made the period. The Kolaba specimens, except one or two, come from subject of a general systematic report. The temperature of the the surface of the lacustrine gravels abundant in the valley air ranged between 67°2 and 96°, and solar radiation varied from the Konkan. All search for them in places where sections ; 81° to 179°; the lowest temperature on the grass was 61°. these gravels are exposed has hitherto been fruitless, and > Rainfall observations were received from forty-one stations. , few water-worn specimens found came out of a river bed. The The annual amount differs considerably in the various provinces, most commonly occur at places where fresh water is to be been the mean of the stations ranging from 65:6 inches in Singapore, , near an estuary. to 17 inches in Penang, and 123'2 inches in Province
The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the Wellesley. The greatest fall in twenty-four hours, was 12 inches at Bertam, Province Wellesley, on October 21. The past week include a Rhesus Monkey (Macacus rhesus P) free Report also contains a tabular statement of annual and monthly India, presented by Colonel J. D. C. Ferrell ; two comme rainfall at Singapore since 1869, and diagrams of annual rainfall by Mr. Charles Petrzywaski; an Arctic Fox (Canis lagopus !
Marmosets (Hapale jacchus) from South-East Brazil, presen: and other elements since 1870, at the same place.
from Siberia, presented by Mr. Stuart N. Corlett ; a Cora Crai. The International Commission for the scientific investigation '(Crex pratensis) from Essex, presented by Mr. Bihby : free of the Lake of Constance have nearly finished their task, which , Common Snakes (Tropidonotus natrix), British, presented by consisted of drawing a new and comprehensive map on a scale of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway ; a European Bison 1:25,000 ; investigating the currents, density, temperatures, and (Bison bonasus 8 ) from Central Europe, deposited ; a Stanley chemical composition of the water ; and minutely describing the Chevrotain (Tragulus stanleyanus) from Ceylon, a Prevent's Aora and fauna of the lake. A full account will be issued when Squirrel (Sciurus prevosti 8 ) from Malacca, a Common Rr the researches are complete.
(Capreolus caprea 8), European, a White-faced Tree Last We have received the latest instalment (pp. 321-84) of vol. xvi. of Dendrocygna riduata) from Brazil
, four Black-necked Swass the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, session 1888
(Cygnus nigricollis) from Antarctic America, a Curlew (V. 89. It contains :- The solubility of carbonate of lime in fresh and
menius arguata), British, two Indian Cobras (Vaia iripu sea water, by W. S. Anderson, chemist at Marine Station, Panama, a Hawk's-billed Turtle (Chelone imbricata) from the
from India, an Annulated Snake (Leptodira annulata) from Granton (continued); secretion of carbonate of lime by animals, part ii., by Robert Irvine and Dr. G. Sims Woodhead ;
| East Indies, purchased ; two Crested Pigeons (Ocypraps lopiec: theoretical description of a new " azimuth diagra m," by Captain
bred in the Gardens. Patrick Weir, communicated by Sir William Thomson ; note on Captain Weir's paper, by Prof. Tait; on the coagulation of egg and serum albumen, vitellin, and serum globulin, by heat,
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUJV. by Dr. John Berry Haycraft and Dr. C. W. Duggan.
OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE. The fourteenth part of Cassell's “New Popular Educator" has been published. It includes a clearly printed map of the
Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m., December 5 = pk. world.
59m. 335. At a recent meeting of the Bombay Anthropological Society,
Mag. Colour. R. A. r8ga Dec. $y Mr. W. E. Sinclair, of the Civil Service, read a paper on Aint remains in the Kolaba district. Referring to a collection belonging to the Society made in the Ghar Hills, near Sukker, on (1) G. C. 648 the Indus, Mr. Sinclair said that these hills were evidently a
(2) D M. + 30 410
(3) y Persei... sort of “Black Country” to the flint-using races. Cones and flakes (4) i Cassiopeia...
Bluish-white. can be got there literally by the hundredweight. There is no
(5) I. M. + 57 702 ...
Reddish. 323 3
Remarks. first. Amongst the wildest forest tribes to-day the use of stone does not go beyond weighting a fishing-line or bird arrow with a follows : - Pretty bright, pretty small
, round, brighter in the
(1) The General Catalogue description of this nebula 2s >> pebble ; and although stone spindle-weights are still used on the middle. The spectrum has not yet been recorded. coast, these are no more barbarous than the stones in an English! (2) This is a star of Group II., in which Danér records the mill. These cones of Aint are covered with long grooves of a bands 2-8, and states that the bands 2 and 3 are especially well curved section ; and the flakes show each one face correspond. acivanced, and it accordingly falls in a late species (13) of the ing to such a groove, which shows that they have been struck
group. As I have before pointed out with reference to simler off such cones. The cones themselves have a peculiar typical stars, absorption lines of metallic substances, and possibly af form, and the art of producing fake or cone is one lost in the hydrogen, may be expected at this stage, and it is important India of to-day. Where a Aint shows that peculiar groove, note the presence or absence of these, as they will probably there is good reasɔn to assume that it was made before iron was form a connecting link between the stars of this group and the known in India. On all the agates and chalcedonies in the carbon Auting near b, as compared with its appearance in other
slightly hotter stars of Group III. The intensity of the bright Kolaba collection there are the same strange grooves, the same stars of the group, will be an additional check in placing it m long blade-like flakes matching them, as in Sind or in England position on the temperature curve."
h. m. $
2 36 48
h. m. s.
20... 21. 22...
10 ... II... 12...
16 24 ...
6 23-1 6 34'2 6 454
20 15 21 34 21 54
38 23 ..
(3) This is classed with stars of the solar type by Gothard, COMET BROOKS (d 1889, JULY 6).—The following elements iul there is not sufficient detail in his description of the spectrum and.ephemeris have been computed by Dr. Knopf from observaps enable us to say whether it be Group III. or V. Further tions made at Mount Hamilton, July 8 ; Dresden, August 25; itservations with special reference to this point are therefore and Vienna, October 24:in quired (for criteria, see p. 20). Gothard's statement as to the lour of the star should be checked, as most of the stars of
September 29*7436 Berlin Mean Time, Torous III. and V. are yellowish. The stars which are not far
w = 343 18 56-5 letnuved from Group IV., on either side, are the whitest.
S = 17 58 296 Mean Eq. 1889.0. 11 This is a star of Group IV., and the usual observations
6 3 596 ire sogested.
28 4 133 15. This is a very fine example of the stars of Group VI.,
501":8156 howing the subsidiary bands 4 and 5: The band 6 a 564)
U = 7'071 years. rrears to be most subject to variation in the different stars of he group as described by Dunér, in some cases being wide and
Ephemeris for Berlin Midnight. ule, and in others wile and dark. As this may subsequently 1889. R.A. Decl. 1889. R.A.
Decl. leem the basis of a temperature classification, the character of
h. m. s. ke land in the star under consideration should be carefully Dec. 7... 0 7 58 ... + 2 48'1 Dec. 19 ... O 22 54 ... + 455'2 wted. The presence or absence of lines in the spectrum should
8... 9 7
24 15 aloe Le recorded. [Dunér's notation for the bands in the spec
25 36... 5 17'0 Irama of stars of Group VI, is as follows :-(1) 656, (2) 621,
26 58... 5 27-9 5 6045, (4; 589:8, (5) 576'o, (6) 5633, (7) 551, (8) 528-3,
12 41 ...
5 38 9 (9.5183, (10) 472*7. (6), (9), and (10) are the dark flutings of
13 55 ... 340 2 24 29 45 5 49'9 carbon.1
25 31 9.. 9 0'9 10 The period of this variable is given by Gore as 210 days, 14...
6 120 ani ibe tragnitudes at maximum and minimum as 77-9'2 and 15 ... 17 40
27. 34 I... 12*5 respectively. The spectrum has not yet been recorded. The 16 ... 18 57 ...,
28 Manswm will occur on December 15.
29... 36 55 ... ;) Thors variable has a period of 288'1 days, the next maxi. 18 ...
4 444 30...
6 56-5 Im occurring on December 14. The magnitude at maximum 19...
4 55'2 31 ... 39 52... 7 77 to given by Gore as 81-87, and that at minimum as < 13. It sull doubtful whether the star belongs to Group II. or to
Mr. Chandler notes (Astr. Four. No. 204) that the result of an Exsoup l'I., and the approaching maximum may afford an
inquiry into the corrected elements of this comet is extremely npportunity of settling the question.
interesting. The descending node of the comet's orbit upon
that of Jupiter lies at 185°:5 long., Jupiter's aptelion at 191°, SCX-SPOT OF JUNE, JULY, AND AUGUST, 1889.- The
and the comet's aphelion at 183. The aphelion distances are Memor of the Società degli Spettroscopisti Italiani for October
5 4541 and 5'3992 respectively, the mutual inclination of the contains a series of observations by Prof. Riccò of this spot.
orbits is 3°, and the orbital velocities nearly the same ; so that The latitude of the spot from its appearance on June 16 and
when both bodies happen to be near this region they will daring the first semi-rotation, varied between the limits - 5"9 remain together many months. and -75. At the second appearance, the variation w COMET SWIFT (f 1889, NOVEMBER 17).- The following eleDeiween - 795 and - 10°.8, whilst at the third appearance, in menis and ephenieris are given by Dr. Zelbrin Circular August, the limiting latitudes were - 895 and - 10°.
No. 69, issued by the Vienna Academy of Sciences, November The group of spots that appeared on June 30 was found to 25, 1889, and have been computed from observations made at Lave a latitude as high as 41°. The following day, however, Rochester, November 17 ; Vienna and Palermo, November 20; the latitude was found to be 405, and on July 2 the group and at Vienna, November 22 :lisappeared. Prol Sparer, in a communication to Prof. Riccò, notes that
T = 1889 December 10-5665 Berlin Mean Time. the fogowing bright lines were measured at Potsdam on June 28
8 = 309 51 12 in a procinence that appeared as the above large spot was disappearing over the sun's edge.
w = 109 24 70 Mean Eq. 1889'0.
7 14 1
log 9 = 0'07554
Al cos B = + 132" ... AB = - 14".
Ephemeris for Berlin midnight.
Log A. Logr. Bright-
23 41 56 ... + 18
32-4 96509 0'0759 I'29 Sodium
96457 0'0756 1*32 D 2
The brightness at discovery has been taken as unity. PHOTOGRAPHIC STAR SPECTRA. -As a portion of the Henry
S CASSIOPEJÆ.—The Rev. T. E. Espin, examining the specl'raper memorial, the spectra of stars are being photographed
trum of this star on November 27, found that it resembled in ai Chosica in Peru. Or the photographs that have been re
appearance that of R Andromedæ, the bright F line blazing out ses ved at Harvard College, Prof. Pickering notes (4 str. Wacher; plainly visible even with the least dispersion used. The star is
upon the background of the continuous pectrum, and being S. 2934) several have similar spectra 1o the bright line' oder in Cygaus. The hydrogen line F is bright in 9 Muscæ, not included by Duner in his classical work, “ Les Étoiles à the same as in Cassiopeixe, and the presence of bright hydrogen Spectres de la Troisième Classe," Lut its general spectrum is luues in 7 Angus and R Hydra is also confirmed by the photo apparently of that type-Group II. of Mr. Lockyer's classificagraphs.
tion. Mr. Espin adds that "the yellow is brilliant, suggesting Sumerums photographs have been taken at Ilarvard College (bright) lines, but the star is at present too faint to be sure.” of the spectra of the stars in the Pleiades, and an examination of The star is a variable of very long period, 607-5 days ; the them show that the hydrogen line F in the spectrum of Pleione next expected maximum falls on D cember 26, so that it may T. + 23' 55consists of a narrow bright line superposed on
show scme further ard interesting developments during the next a roader dark line. The other hydrogen lines, especially that three weeks. Chandler, however, records his suspicion that the dasar ls, show some indications of a similar effect.
period is shortening, so that the actual maximum may be very With respect to this, Prof. Pickering observes that an in close at hand. The maximum brightness varies from 67 mag. lere-sing analogy between the Pleiades and a Orionis appears to 8:6. Mr. Espin estimated it as 78 on the night of an be fact that in both cases extensive nebulosities surround observation. Place for 1890: R.A. ih. im. 345. ; Decl. an with bright lines in their spectra.
72° 1'9 N.
558 8 5316 526'9 518-8
R.A. h. m.
THE ANNIVERSARY MEETING OF THE But if I have said that the scientific mind is needed in the Hous ROYAL SOCIETY.
of Commons, I will also say this, that the House of Commun
has in these days to face not only great political problems, ON Saturday last, St. Andrew's Dav, the Royal Society held some of those questions which are surging up and coming mo
its anniversary meeting. The President' read the anni more to the front, I mean the great social problems-problem versary address, a copy of which has not yet reached us. The connected with the aggregation of vast multitudes in town medals were then presented as follows: the Copley Medal to problems connected with the question how to make the Int the Rev. Dr. Salmon (received by Sir R. S. Ball); the Davy the poor happier, how to make it easier for men to support a Medal to Dr. Perkin ; à Royal Medal to Dr. Gaskell ; and a of continuous labour, bow, in short, to sweeten life, and to make Royal Medal to Prof. Thorpe. The Society next proceeded to that toil which falls upon us all lighter to the poor with some may elect the Officers and Council for the ensuing year. The selected of hope, and easier with some degree of comfort and names we have already published.
venience. But it is to science that the public must look for In the evening the Fellows and their friends dined together at in solving these questions. You have done mach already, the Whitehall Rooms, Hôtel Métropole, the President in the you will add a still nobler title to the admiration of the world chair. Over two hundred Fellows and guests were present. you deal with these subjects, as I am sure you will, in sode
The toast of "The Royal Society” was proposed by the manner as to make it impossible for the practical politician Speaker of the House of Commons. He said : -Sir George separate himself from the nobler follower of science. It is well Stokes and Gentlemen,-If I thought the audience whom a very deep sense of the value of this Society and of the feelias I have the honour to address, took the same view as I do which is abroad with regard to it, that I beg to propose to ya of my own want of qualifications for proposing this toast, I think - and I thank you most cordially for the toleration with whis I should at once sit down ; but it is because I trust to your you have listened to my few remarks-the toast of " The Royal generous forbearance for a few moments that I ask you to allow Society." me to propose a toast which needs no advocacy of mine, the In response, the President said :-My Lords and Gentleme, toast of the Royal Society. I suppose the reason why your -On behalf of the Society which I have the honour to repres President has selected me to propose this toast is owing to the on this occasion, I beg to return our thanks for the honour fact of the official position that I hold in the House of Commons, have done us in drinking the toast. This Society is by far : and also partly owing to the fact that the holder of one chair has oldest scientific Society in the Kingdom, but it cannot fr« 3 heen willing to pay a compliment to the holder of another. moment compare in antiquity with that other institution rate There are very few members of the House of Commons, I which the Speaker presides. Our aims are of course naturale believe, who are entitled to put three letters to their name to very different, and our modes of procedure are different too. Wp indicate membership of your society. I omit those Privy Coun have, as the other House has, discussions in our body, but ra cillors who, I believe, by virtue of their office, have a claim to discussions are usually carried on with calmness, and we be looked upon as members of this Society. I am speaking now deavour--those of us who pursue different branches of science of the strictly scientific men, and I believe I could number the —to assist one another. I do not think that that is always the strictly scientific members of the House of Commons who are case in the other Society. Perhaps there is nowadays at time members of the Royal Society on the fingers of one hand. But something akin to obstruction rather than assistance. Howev I may say that those members of the House of Commons make in order that truth may be elicited, it is necessary that the up for their numerical weakness by the qualities they display, should be contact between mind and mind, and contact me the high place they have filled, by their pre-eminence in debate, times produces severance. It is better that that contact sharuk? and by the records they have left upon the Statute-book of the take place in order that we should understand one another. 1 country. It may be said that five members is a small infusion Society does not exactly deal with social problems such as the to leaven the whole lump of the House of Commons, and I am Speaker has alluded to, still there are many cases in which que very conscious that scientific gentlemen may regard at times with tions of great interest to the bulk of the population are capable a seeling of displeasure, if not with a more contemptuous feeling, of being illuminated by scientific researches. To take one te some of our modes of procedure and some of our habits of markable example which has been brought prominently belon thought in the House of Commons. You may think that we do us. Let us consider the investigations, so important in the not display that calmness of judgment, that patient investigation results, so purely scientific in inception, which have been earn of detail, which characterize the scientific mind. You may think on by M. Pasteur in France. As the result of a long series of scie that we import into our discussions too much of a very unscientific tific experiments, he has now succeeded in protecting in a grez heat, and that we are diverted from our objects by a great many majority of instances those persons who have been so unfortuna cross-currents of prejudice and of party. However that may be, as to have been bitten by rabid animals from that ternble disease Sir, I believe that the object that you and we have in view which ordinarily follows in the wake. His merits in that repes is the same. The great' historian Hume, speaking of the have been duly acknowledged in this country. We know that inception of this Society, said that it was the part of recently, within the course of the present year, the Lord Mapo scientific men to lift the veil from the mysteries of called a meeting at the Mansion House to make some recugu: Nature. It is a humbler function which the House of tion on the part of this country of the great debt which we owe Commons has to discharge-to solve the great social and to M. Pasteur for those researches. I mention that as political questions of the lay. But the object of both is the but it is only one, of many instances in which great stai same, the attainment of truth, and, by whatever means we can advantages have accrued from purely scientific investigation attain that object, that object ought to be the main purpose of I trust that harmony will long continue to exist between our lives. I believe I am right
in saying this Society owes its Society which I have the honour to represent, and that inception and its origin to the University of Oxford.' In these which the Speaker represents. I can say this much-tail later days it owes a debt to the great sister University, in the whatever Government may have been in power, there have fact that that University has sent to the chair of your society a frequently been applications made to the Royal Society for se gentleman who combines in his own person, not for the first vice on some purely scientific questions on which the Cabinet di time, the functions of a Professor, of a member of the University the day did not feel that they had the requisite knowledge ? of Cambridge, and of President of this great scientific body. pronounce an opinion ; and this I must say, that the Royal Sir, I am very loth, indeed, to trespass any longer upon your Society has freely given the best of their knowledge on the time. I have no claim whatever to do so. I will only very subjects to the Government of the day, without any considera humbly express my views. My own individual opinion is worth tion of what the politics of that Government might be less and insignificant ; but possibly invested for a few moments trust that this will ever continue to be the case, and that the with a representative character, and speaking for the House of Royal Society may go on in a peaceful way doing the future Commons, and that great public who are behind it, I would say which belong to it, and that the country may reap the benelo that the public of the present day regard not only with that resulting therefrom. vague astonishment, which they might well do, the great achieve Responding for the toast of "The Medallists," proposed to ments of science, but they look with admiration upon the great the President, Prof. Thorpe said :-MrPresident, my Lords men who have illustrated the history of your Society, and they and Gentlemen,- We must all regret, I am sure, that De
. see in that very lengthened list one of the greatest tributes to the Salmon's duties as Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, should greatness of their country. I do, Sir, very much feel the imper- have prevented him from being present amongst ns to-day to section with which I have addressed to you these few words. receive the Copley Medal in person and to respond to the trai
ich has just been so cordially drunk by you. For reasons and the Levant. A beneficent fortune, we are glad to know, ich my brother melallists at least can fully appreciate, no one has not been unmindful of Dr. Perkin's success in thus enriching la thai regret more keenly than I do. I may confess that it the world, and she has endowed him with a share of that material
mlb a feeling akin to astonishment that I received through benefit which his skill and genius as an investigator has conferred ww-nalared friend the intimation that the Council of the upon us all. That competency, and the well-earned leisure which ciay had seen fit to honour such chemical work as I had been has sprung from it, Dr. Perkin has dedicated, with a directness le ku do by the signal recommendation of the award of a and singleness of purpose which merits our warmest appreciation, byal Metal but that feeling culminated into something like to the service of science. Nothing, I think, more clearly inalertation wlien you, Sir, informed me of your wish that I dicates the truly scientific character of his mind, and his love of rald reply, in the absence of the Copley Medallist, to the science for its own sake, than that he should, whilst compara12. with which you have connected my name ; and I began tively a young man, have turned aside from the pursuit of the alize the full force of the truth that there are occasions when great wealth which all his friends thought would ultimately be lo taure blessed to give than to receive. Dr. Salmon's absence, within his grasp in order that he might follow, undisturbed, his WEITT, enables me to attempt to give expression to the feeling innate desire for pure scientific research. The ten years which wwfaction and pleasure with which, I am informed, the have elapsed since our late President alluded in such charactertematial world regards this year's award of the Copley istically graceful terms to Dr. Perkin's labours in the domains of h The worker in the field of pure mathematics appeals pure and applied chemistry have been rich in scientific achieve
recognition to a very select few; his work is, indeed, caviare ment, and they have now culminated in that laborious series of the general ; his are not the triumphs which appeal to the researches on one of the most abstruse points of physical malar fancy or which strike the popular imagination. If he chemistry which has been so fittingly rewarded by you by the loans for fane, he must be content to wait with the certain gift of the Davy medal. I have already alluded to the bowledge that, if his work be good and true, it will at length feeling with which I received the intimation from my good. lect with the recognition it merits from a tribunal which is un natured friend that the Council of the Royal Society had been el by prejudice and is insensible to the forces of fashion or pleased to confer upon me a distinction which is my sole excuse boa For nearly half a century Dr. Salmon has so worked for trespassing upon your indulgence to-night. I will only again od to-day he receives his reward at the hands of the highest refer to that feeling to say that in deference to the express wish Sarihc tribunal in the world by the award to him of the most of my di tinguished friend I am doing my best to get over it. I Feasa gift which it is in the power of that tribunal to bestow. am bound to add that my friend has himself supplied a reason Meriber medallists, Dr. Gaskell and Dr. Perkin, are happily which in some measure serves to explain the circumstance. the to-night to receive the congratulations of their fellow. Among the pieces of work which the Council have thought Poren u science, and to be witnesses of the cordiality with worthy of notice was a redetermination of the atomic weight of and their bealth has been drunk by you. But I cannot forego gold made in conjunction with Mr. Arthur Laurie. I shall not he opportunity of saying also, in their case, how entirely your trouble you with the reasons which made that redetermination seem wards have been appreciated by the great body of scientific specially desirable, but that it was desirable will be evident from Fewo, both within and without the Royal Society. To be the fact that no fewer than three independent investigations were falsed by me who are themselves praised is, we all know, the in progress at the same time in Germany, England, and America. lery hugis form of approbation that a man can enjoy, and All the results have now been published, and they are, I think, purb, to my knowledge is the
happy lot of the gentlemen whom in very fair accord. But my distinguished friend, whose goodnu kase bera pleased to honour to-night. It is, h )wever, one nature is only equalled by his candour, has reminded me that f the pesarjes to a man who is in the position in which I now there is a discrepancy of a remote decimal place or so in our Nuncil
, and who does not pretend to be an Admirable several values for the atomic weight, and, in default of any ushton, that he is unable from his own knowledge, or rather other probable hypothesis, it had occurred to him that the real 1. the imperfecti sa of it, to do adequate justice to the claims motive of the Council in making the award was to give me with sach men have upon your regard. Dr. Gaskell's work is so
both the hint and the opportunity to clear up the disparity. alirely owside my own province that it would be in the highest The Gold Medal, he pointed out, would afford an ample sup
agres presumptuous on my part to offer you any expression of ply of the material on which to base a new determination, 1-T na upitaon as to its merits. Of my colleague and sellow and the Silver Medal would come in handy for the pre
wker Dr. Perkin, to whom your Council has awarded the paration of the necessary standard solutions. This seemed Har Medal, I trust I may be allowed to speak with greater to me to put the whole matter in a new light, but, on liraloro, because in his case I am more or less upon my own turning to the official intimation of the award forwarded Kuund, and am talking about matters which are within my own to me by Dr. Foster, and then to a friendly letter which kuweige. It is exactly ten years since that Dr. Perkin was the President has been so good as to send me, I have not wered by your Council in the position in which I find myself gathered that this intention was ever
in the mind of the Council, : - lay In awanling him a Royal Medal on that occasion, our
and until I receive a further official intimation that such was the barmer President, the late Mr. Spottiswoode, took the oppor- case, I mean to do my best to preserve intact the counterfeit * Uy lo ay tbat Dr. Perkin had then been, during more than presentment of the gracious lady which adorns the medals. Werly years, one of the most industrious and successful workers There is just one other matter connected with my work to which, La organic chemistry, and he added that it was seldom that an with your permission, I would allude. Reference was made in mestigator had extended his researches over so wide a range as
the terms of the award to a series of researches on fluorine as the case with Dr. Perkin, whose work had always com
compounds on which I have been engaged for some years past. banded the admiration of chemists for its accuracy and com
I wish to mention, and I do 30 with a very special. kolenes, and for the originality of its conception. There is pleasure, that much of this work has been carried out for a chemist here present who will not cordially re-echo these in co-operation with some of my senior students at the hed. Dr. Perkin is, no doubt, known to you all as the Normal School of Science. This work has been at all ngreator of one of the most important branches of modern times difficult, often disagreeable, and occasionally dangerous, se maal industry-that of the manufacture of colouring matters and I am glad to seize this opportunity of testifying to the zeal, postetal tar derivatives-an industry which has acquired almost assiduity, and, I may add, courage, which my collaborateurs have seal propurtions, and which has effected a complete revolu- | shown in the progress of the
investigations. It is a further bvs in the tinctorial arts. I say it with bated breath to you, satisfaction to me to add that the qualities thus evoked and the ir , as the member for the University of Cambridge, but we all
training thus ac quired have been of material benefit to them in
their professional advancement, and I can wish them no greater janud of the whole race of politicians put together when com good fortune than that it may be their
lot in time to come to bred with that man who has made two blades of grass to grow
occupy my place here, and to be received by you with that in. PORTE ataly one blade grew before. I do not know that Dr. dulgence which you have extended to me to-night. erkan has achieved that feat, but I claim for him that he has done en more than this, for he has succeeded in demolishing o entire agricultural industry. By his researches he has shown A NEW METHOD OF PREPARING FLUORINE
What we have practically at our own doors, or at least in our A NEW method of preparing fluorine has been discovered by M. brae:ly only to be obtained from the madder fields of Avignon has attended M. Mois san's efforts to prepare anhydrous Auoride
of platinu:n. During the process of his memorable work upon sympathetic fibres below the ganglion does not produce dile the isolation of fuorine by the electrolysis of hydrofluoric acil of the pupil or constriction of the vessels of the car, containing hydrogen potassium fluoride, one of the most remark stimulation of the sympathetic nerve-fibres above the gangia able phenomena noticed was the rapidity with which the produces these changes in the normal manner. platinum rod forming the positive electrode was corroded by the The method of action of nicotin can be tested in a more lising action of the liberated gaseous Aporine. It was surmised that a manner by local application to the isolated nerve and gangina Maoride of platinum was the product of this action, but hitherto When the sympathetic in the neck has been brushed over all efforts to isolate such a body have proved unsuccessful. In a I per cent. solution of nicotin, stimulation of it produces fact, for a reason which will be discussed subsequently, it is im- usual dilation of the pupil and constriction of the vessels of possible to prepare platinum fluoride in the wet way. M. ear; but when the superior cervical ganglion and the flamem Moissan has, however, been enabled to prepare anhydrous proceeding from it have been brushed over with the i per platinum fluoride by the action of pure dry Nuorine itself upon nicotin, stimulation of the sympathetic in the neck is found to the metal. It was found at the outset that, when fluorine is free completely without effect, while stimulation of the filamen from admixed vapour of hydrofluoric acid, it exerts no action running from the ganglion to the carotid arteries produces , whatever upon platinum, even when the latter is in a finely- normal action. divided state, and heated to 100° C. But when the temperature Hence nicotin paralyses the cells of the superior was of the metal is raised to between 500° and 600° C., combination ganglion. readily occurs with formation of tetrafluoride of platinum and a On the fibres of the cervical sympathetic, which are the small quantity of protofluoride. The moment the gas is mixed motor for the head generally and secretory for the saliuurt with a little vapour of hydrofluoric acid, the action is immensely glands, we have made a few experiments only; but so far accelerated, and then occurs readily at ordinary temperatures. have been unable to detect any effect from stimulating The same rapid action occurs when platinum is placed in hydro- sympathetic in the neck after nicotin has been applied to ide fluoric acid saturated with free fuorine, which accounts for the ganglion. disappearance of the positive terminal during the electrolysis. We conclude that the dilator fibre for the pupil, leIn order to prepare the fluoride of platinum, å bundle of wires constrictor fibres for the car (probably alra shuse for la of the metal is introduced into a thick platinum or fluor-spar tube, generally), and the secretory fibres for the plants, end in :.. through which a current of Auorine gas from the electrolysis of the superior cervical ganglion. apparatus is passed. On heating the tube to low redness, Ganglion of the Solar Plerus.- In the dog, cat, and als the wires become rapidly converted to fuoride, when they the splanchnic nerve on the left side runs to two chiel gangla are. quickly transferred to a dry stoppered bottle. If the masses, which we may call respectively the celiac and super, operation is performed in a platinum tube, a large quantity mesenteric ganglia. The renal ganglia are scattered, but it of fused fluoride remains in the tube. The tetrafluoride of dog the chief one often lies underneath the supra renal bo's platinum, PtF,, formed upon the wires, consists either of fused and in the cat the chief one is placed between the artery : masses of a deep red colour, or of small buff-coloured crystals vein about | inch from the superior mesenterie ganglion. resembling anhydrous platinum chloride. It is exceedingly To determine whether the inhibitory fibres of the splands : hygroscopic With water it behaves in a most curious manner. end in the nerve-cells of the solar plexus we proceeded as "? With a small quantity of water it produces a fawn-coloured case of the superior cervical ganglion. Having ascertained : solution, which almost immediately becomes warm, and decom- the application of i per cent nicotin to the splanchmc leava il poses with precipitation of hydrated platinic oxide and free inhibitory power unaffected, we found that nicotin appliei, hydrofluoric acid. If the quantity of water is greater and the the whole plexus at once abolishes the inhibitory power of temperature low, the fawn-coloured solution may be preserved splanchnic; but inhibition can still be produced by stimulate: for a few minutes, at the expiration of which, or immediately on the fibres proceeding from the ganglia. Hence, the inhaly boiling the solution, the fluoride decomposes in the manner fibres of the splanchnic end in the cells of the war Nexus. above indicated. This peculiar behaviour with water explains the Our experiments are not sufficiently numerous, espeaa i impossibility of preparing the fluoride in the wet way. When with regard to the connection of the coeliac ganglion with: the anhydrous fluoride is heated to bright redness in a platinum stomach, to make it certain that the one ganglion is entire ! tube closed at one end, fuorine at once begins to be evolved as connected with fibres to the intestine, and the other with gas, and if a crystal of silicon be held at the mouth of the tube it fibres to the stomach ; but we think they show tkzt in the meas, takes fire and burns brilliantly in the gas. The residual platinum and possibly altogether, the stomachic inhibitory fibres al is found on examining the contents of the tube to consist of dis- splanchnic nerve end in the cells of the caliat gunglion, and tinct crystals of the metal. Hence by far the most convenient intestinal inhibitory fibres of the splanchnic end in the is method of preparing fluorine for lecture purposes is to form a con- the superior mesenteric ganglion. siderable quantity of the fluoride first by passing the product of the We find, however, that the motor fibres of the sugus lor's electrolysis over bundles of platinum wire heated to low redness, stomach and intestines do not end in the nerde-aalis uj te vid and afterwards to heat the fuoride thus obtained to full redness plexus. in a platinum tube closed at one end. It only remains now to The connection of the vaso-motor fibres of the splancharu discover another method of preparing Auoride of platinum in the with the nerve-cells of the solar plexus can be determinati, dry way, to be able to dispense with the expensive electrolysis taking a tracing of the arterial blood-pressure and stimulas; apparatus altogether. M. Moissan has also prepared a fluoride the splanchnic before and after the application of nicotia to !) of gold in the same manner. It is likewise very hygroscopic, ganglia. By applying nicotin to both ganglia, the rise of blaval decomposable by water, and yields gaseous Auorine on heating pressure caused by stimulating the splanchnic is reduced to rart to redness.
small limits, and by applying it to the renal plexus as well
, the effect of splanchnic stimulation on the blood pressure is abolish! Since in this case there is no fall of blood pressure, we conce's
that the vaso-dilator as well as the vaso-constrictor Abrusy SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
splanchnic end in the cells of the solar and renal Nexuses. LONDON.)
Combining oncometer observations on the dog with bloo!
pressure observations on the rabbit and cat, we think there » Royal Society, November 21.-—"On the Local Paralysis of fair evidence that the splanchnic vaso-motor fibres for the ticky Peripheral Ganglia, and on the Connection of Different Classes and in the cells of the renal plexus. of Nerve-Fibres with them.” By J. N. Langley, F.R.S., We have experimented upon various peripheral ganglia ober Fellow of Trinity College, and W. Lee Dickinson, Caius than those mentioned above, and, though our results are as College, Cambridge.
incomplete, with essentially similar results; that is, we have We found that in the rabbit, 30 to 40 milligrams of nicotin obtained an abolition of the effect of some one or more of the injected into a vein stopped the effect of stimulating the sym- classes of nerve-fibres running to them. We think, then, there pathetic in the neck, not only on the pupil, but also on the is fair ground to conclude that by stimulating the norte fier vessels of the ear. It occurred to us that this action of nicotin running to and those from any peripheral ganglion, before might be due to a paralysis of the
nerve-cells of the superior after the application of dilute nicotin to it, the class of neten cervical ganglion, and not to a paralysis of the peripheral which end in the nerve-cells of the ganglion can
be listinguis all endings of the sympathetic nerve. On testing this view, we from those which run throngh the ganglion without bangs * found that, after a certain dose of nicotin, stimulation of the nected with nerve-cells.