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first letter, we are at liberty to imagine a time when there was for the life of me understand how the theory of natural much more land than there is at present, and when all the selection can be seriously assailed by investigations into oceans were comparatively shallow. A. J. JUKES-BROWNE. the formation of galls by insects. Gall-formation has always

appeared to me to be a pathological, that is a perverted

physiological process, and to be due to the action of some animal Galls.

irritant upon normal vegetable tissues during their period of RATORE rushing into arguments on this subject, it appears to active growth. These formations are therefore, io my mind, fairly me that more good might be done by entering into investiga- on a par with the globular nests produced by the larvæ of the tions of ihe physiolngical and morphological problems involved,

Estrus, or bot-fly, in the bides of oxen ; or to the inflammatory A gall fly of a particular species inserts an egg in a certain foci in the tissues of the kidneys, due to the translation of Bacilli, Ivanion

on a certain plant (oak, for instance). Another gall-fly in the case of ulcerative endocarditis. Other examples bearing ke a different species inserts its egg almost in the same position on the subject will doubtless occur to your readers.' In all such * the same plant. But the results are totally dissimilar. An instances we have certain changes in the cellular or protoplasnic abourmal growth is set up, from irritation, in either case ; but tissue-elements of the host, brought about by the growth and

be nature of this growth is quite different. The initial irritation development of a foreigner in their midst ; and natural selection, is set up by the presence of the egg, and in most gall-insects the in so far as it operates in such cases, seems to have sided mostly FEKTY' that is to say, it increases vastly in size before the with the stranger, and to be to his advantage alone. That the Java is balched. The irritation is continued by the larva, and host under these circumstances performs actions “which, if not the gall is produced, varying in form in accordance with the self-sacrificing," are at least " disinterested," must be admitted ; Fecies of gall-Ay that deposited the egg. But I want to know but it is the self-sacrifice of coercion and disinterestedness under in what consists the difference in the active inilation that causes compulsion.

W. AINSLIE Hollis. great a divergence in the results? I am not aware that this Brighton, December 1. has ever been an uered. But I am quite sure it could be answered on purely physiological grounds if carefully studied. The answer would not in the least detract from the importance

Luminous Night Clouds. of the point as regads natural selection ; but it might very The many inquiries and appeals regarding observations of maternally modify speculative theories based on results only, luminous night clouds which have recently appeared in the wabungi a precise knowledge of the agencies that produced those columns of NATURE, and the growing imporiance of the subject, jedes

R. McLACHLAN. will justify me, perhaps, in sending to you, for publication in Lewisham, November 29.

that journal, the following item, so long after the event it

describes took place. ALTHOUGH I see no need of a better explanation iban Prof.

About the middle of November 1887, between eight and nine Ramase': (NATURE, November 28, p. 80) of the difficulty in the evening, as I was walking homewards from my day's work, which galls seem at first sight to present for natural selection,

I noticed what appeared to me to be the arch of a rainbow very yet I teg leave to say some words of further elucidation.

low above the western horizon, and of a snow-white colour. A When i was said by Darwin (" Origin of Species," bank of clouds was rapidly approaching from the west, which, at Ehap. vi!; * If it could be proved that any part of the

the time of the first appearance of the arch, covered nearly half structure of any one species had teen formed for the excin the sky, the eastern half being clear. The arch appeared to sive gead of another species, it would annihilate my theory, move eastwards, with and in the midst of the clouds, for it confor such could not have been produced through patural selectinually rose above the horizon, and, in the course of about half fice,"

he evidently meant only species living without organic an hour, had apprcached the zenith. conection with each other, viz. his own example of the rattle

At this time I called (ut everal people to witness the nake. The argument does by no means apply to organisms phenomenon, which certainly presented a most extraordinary living in a relation of symbiosis, as is the case with gall-bearing appearance. The arch appeared to be uniformly of about planes as the larvæ inhabiting the galls. Such associations form, 3 or 4° in width, and extended north-north-east and southas it were, one upound organism. Natural selection evidently south-west across the whole sky. The latter was about wholly may act in favour of each symbiont separately, provided only overcast with the clouds at this time, except the arch, which that the efect will not damage the other symbiont in such a presented a glaring brightness, and illuminated the earth alegres as seriously to impair its existence. Some “disin with a weird splendour four or five times exceeding that of the tested regeediture of energy and of organic substance is not brightest moonlight. Eszloded by natural selection, but may be promoted, if of

While at the zenith, the stars shone through the entire width soltantage to the other partner. Thus the production of galls of the arch with apparently more than ordinary brightness ; but will scarcely do any serious injury to an oak, and even if such as the arch approached towards and receded from that point, were sometimes the case, there would be no comparison the width of the transparency was observed to diminish rapidly to the damage worked, for instance, by Trichinæ, on the with the distance, until at io° or 15° on either side the stars ganum of man and animals, which hosts, nevertheless, in were invisible through it. uerquence of the stimulus caused by the parasite, afford the The phenomenon appeared to be a division in the cloud Pulsance for capsules protecting the worms, just as plants pro- stratum, the opposite walls of which were pretty clearly defined ; duce manifold structures beneficial to the gall-insects. If and there appeared to be absolutely nothing between these opTrichina would altack a species of mammals as frequently as, posite clond walls but the purest air and the white light of the arch. for wastane, leal-cutting ants attack some tropical plants, ihen I remember also that the wall or border of cloud on either side howe kosts would be forced either to develop, by survival of the of the arch was slowly revolving upon an axis parallel with the htlest, some prolection against their invasion, or they would arch ; just as is often seen in ihe front bank of clouds of an succumb to the enemy and die out.

approaching storm. But I do not remember the direction of the Aualegous examples might be multiplied of both plants and rotation, or whether both borders rotated in the same or in animals, and it is especially to be remembered, as alluded to by opposite directions. l'rof. Romane, that the chemical activities of parasites, includ

The arch moved towards the east at about the same pace ing the clatoration of lements affecting the saps and tissues of that it approached from the west, and with apparently the same the bost, are as moch under the guidance of natural selection as width and direction of extension. There was no moonlight at are their morphological variations. D. WETTERHAN.

the time, and only a gentle breeze was blowing. The weather Freiburg, Badenia, November 30.

preceding the phenomenon was fine for several weeks; but a few days afterwards, or on November 19, there was a sudden

and extraordinary fall of the temperature, accompanied by some W117 all due deference to your able correspondents Dr. snow and very high wind. St. Gearge Mivart and Prof. G. J. Romanes, I cannot I have thought that possibly this phenomenon might throw

some light on the subject of luminous clouds, and that this staan buy s elaterais discussion in " Animals

and Plants under Domestica: to the students of that subject. I may add, however, that the Tarvin therough acquaintance with these important structures is tolerably accurate description of it may therefore be of interest that Darwin unests in the accordance of galls, for instance, on reses, with luminosity of the arch did not appear to proceed directly from BESLEMTO ring brough bud-variation.

the clouds themselves, but from the clear space between the

clouds ; although, according to the best of my recollection, irresponsible amateurs, whose industry is often wasted by luminous filaments seemed to extend from the clouds for a short being misapplied. There ought, nevertheless, to be linge distance into the span of the arch. Evan McLENNAN.

difficulty in distributing the observational resources avail Brooklyn, Iowa, U.S.A., November 22.

able as advantageously as possible by the intervention

some recognized authority, a central repository being * Electrical Figures.

the same time constitutet whence computers could obtak

on demand the materials needed for the investigation of I RECENTLY noticed a pretty form of electrical discharge, particular systems. The tasks of stellar astronomy are so which has probably been described before, but was new to me. multitudinous as imperatively to demand combination for Perhaps one of your readers will be able to refer us to an account their effectual treatment. of it. The poles of a Voss machine are put very near together : a

Discovery, meanwhile, must advance as it can. It 43 plate of ebonite it inch thick is placed between them. As the far from desirable that it should remain stationary machine works, a succession of delicate ramified discharges run Although our acquaintance among double stars is already over both surfaces of the plate : they are bright green, and each embarrassingly large, we cannot refuse to extend it crooked line is discontinuous—a series of dashes, as if stitched Every addition to it, indeed, is, for a variety of reasons, out in silk, now above and now below the surface.

to be welcomed. Winchester College, December 6.

W. B. CROFT. Information on the general subject of stellar com

positeness can only be gained by continually widening

the area of research. The comparative frequency of its NEW DOUBLE STARS.

occurrence can thus only be estimated. Struve found one

in forty of 120,000 stars examined by him down to 181 THE ,

thinking, needs initiative. A mental impulse is the for the brighter stars, as being in general much nearer the spring of discovery, even by a purely visual process. The earth, and consequently of more facile optical separation mind prompts the eye, interprets what it suggests, bodies Every twenty-fifth star in Piazzi's Catalogue, every eleventh out its semi-disclosures. So that to perceive what has in Flamsteed's, proved accordingly to have a companron never been perceived before is, in a sort of way, an act of within less than 32". But the process of dividing star invention. It thus happens that an accurate is not always has since made such strides as to show that the real prean original observer. Novelties, as such, are almost in- ponderance of single over double ones must be much accessible to many persons with exquisite powers of vision smaller than these numbers indicate. Perhaps, indeed, for whatever is already known to be within its range. no star can be called absolutely single. Between a small

The late Baron Dembowski was an example of a first- companion sun and a large planet in its self-luminous rate observer but slightly endowed for detection ; Mr. Burn- stage it is not easy to establish a distinction. The star ham, on the other hand, is a born discoverer. The accidents we know best may not always have been, in its " surpassing of his career have turned his attention almost exclusively glory," so undeniably solitary as it now is. Jupiter, if it to double stars; and his glance seems to have a com- ever shone with anything like stellar lustre, would have pulsive power of turning simple into compound objects constituted with it a fine unequal pair such as are plentiby long and intent looking. His Chicago thousand of fully exemplified in our catalogues. new pairs are famous; he bids fair to accumulate an The distribution of double stars is characterized by a equally imposing array at Lick. Nor does he neglect the somewhat irregular condensation towards the Milky Way old in the search for the new. The more exciting is not They abound in Cygnus and Lyra, are scanty in Cas. permitted to exclude what is in many respects the more siopeia and Cepheus; while Struve met with rich regions useful occupation.

where lucid stars are few, in Auriga, Telescopium, and Lync Progress in double-star astronomy is absolutely de: Burnham, however, could detect no marked local pre pendent upon remeasurements of the relative positions ferences among his numerous pairs. Sir John Herschel and distances of known pairs. We can otherwise learn was struck with the paucity of close doubles in the nothing as to the nature of their connection. Inquiries southern hemisphere; but no searching scrutiny has yet about them can, by this means alone, be pushed through been carried out there with modern instruments. the three successive stages leading up towards complete The curious tendency of stars already in close associa knowledge. In the first place, it has to be decided whether tion to split up still further when sufficiently powerful the stars shift their places perceptibly with reference one means are brought to bear upon them, has been strongly to the other. If they are "fixed," but with a common accentuated by Mr. Burnham's investigations. Primaries proper motion, then they may safely be set down as with double satellites, such as Rigel, or satellites with physically coupled, although centuries may elapse before double primaries, such as & and B Scorpii, swarm on his the character of their mutual revolutions becomes ap lists. A fresh instance of the former kind is 5 Piscium parent. In the next place, the nature of relative motions, (100), registered by Struve as somewhat widely double. where they exist, has to be ascertained. Should they but found to be triple last autumn with the Lick twelve prove to be rectilinear, that fact alone overthrows the inch achromatic. The satellite of Struve's companion, at possibility of any real connection between the stars. Each an interval of less than one second from it, is of the pursues its way independently of the other. Finally, in eleventh magnitude. The bright stars are estimated by the interesting cases in which curvilinear motion shows Burnham as of sixth and eighth, but were photometricalls itself, persistent micrometrical measures are required to determined at Harvard as of 54 and 64 inagnitudes determine the shape and period of the orbit traced out. and Webb thought that the chief of the pair occasionally

Yet the majority of these objects receive little or no rose to the fourth rank of lustre. A presumption is tha: attention. This is in part due to their great numbers. afforded that both fluctuate in light. Their spectrum, like About 12,000 double stars-using the term in the widest that of most variable double stars, is of the Sirian type sense-are now known; nearly 5000 are in really close and their real fellowship is made manifest by a community conjunction-so close, in some 1400 instances, as to of proper motion. We have here, then, a genuine ternary render the chances of accidental juxtaposition all but system. evanescent. Only between fifty and sixty stellar orbits Aldebaran is the centre of a mixed group. A small have, however, as yet been computed, and many of them star at 30" detected by Mr. Burnham at Chicago on October from most inadequate data. The truth is, that this branch 31, 1877, was described by him as making with the ruddy of work wants organizing. It is too vast and too im- bright star, a pair resembling Mars and his outer satellite portant to be abandoned to the capricious incursions of (Astr. Vach., No. 2189). A drift together through space

is prabable, Mr. Burnham's remeasurements after eleven Like 85 Pegasi, 8 Equulei is optically triple, while years indicating relative fixity, notwithstanding Aldebaran's physically double, the companionship of Struve's more appreciable advance in the meantime. A more remote distant attendant being in each case temporary and accicompanion, however, discovered by Herschel in 1781, is dental. The bright star of 8 Equulei was divided by certainly optical, and has been shown at Lick to be double O. Struve in 1852, and the pair soon proved to be in

14. No. 2875). Most likely it forms part of the cluster exceptionally rapid motion. They constitute, in fact, the of the Hyades, upon which Aldebaran is casually projected. swiftest binary system yet known. Glasenapp's period,

The division of the leading member of the group nevertheless, of 11} years is evidently too short. The known as u Orionis illustrates Struve's remark that Lick measures show the star to be lagging slightly behind multiple stars are intermediate between double stars and its predicted place. clusters Herschel saw it as doubly triple, one set being The investigation of stellar orbits has scarcely yet much fainter than the other. Each proved, under Struve's emerged from a tentative stage. Its results are for the ind Barlow's scrutiny, quadruple, with two very small stars most part loose approximations, largely open to future between ; while the chief of the decuple assemblage has correction. There are very few stars of which the period been resolved at Lick into an excessively close pair, re- is known within a few years; there are perhaps two--42 alling the case of Sir J. Herschel's quintuple star 45 Comæ and & Ursæ--of which it is known within a few Leporis, broken up into nine components by Burnhain in months. This is due to no lack of skill or diligence in 1874. No relative, and scarcely any absolute motion is the computers, but solely to the deficiencies, both in quality perceptible among the constituents of o Orionis; but one and quantity, of the materials at their command. 'Very of them, called “ashen" by Struve, "grape-red” by Webb, small errors become enormous when they affect the relative is perhaps variable in colour.

situations of objects divided by a mere hair-breadth The Pointer " next the Pole, a Ursa Majoris, has of sky; and there is no branch of astronomy in which so far been seen as double only with the giant telescope “personality” has played a more conspicuous or a more of Mount Hamilton. The extreme difficulty of the pair vexatious part than in double-star measurements. This at arises from the disparity of light between its members, least is abolished by photography ; which has, however, as the eleventh magnitude satellite at 0.83 being almost yet proved applicable only to a limited class of coupled swallowed up in the glare of its brilliant primary. This stars. With the extension of its powers to all, a new disparity, too, throws some shadow of doubt on the reality era in the knowledge of stellar revolutions may be exof the connection, since the supply of small stars for the pected to open. occupation of chance positions is of course vastly greater

A. M. CLERKE. than of large. The similar, but more distant companion of Cassiopeix (at 2"18) also recently discovered at Lick, is hence not unlikely to prove merely optical, the GEOLOGICAL EXCURSION TO THE ACTIVE Milky Way, in which this pair occurs, being pre-eminently

AND EXTINCT VOLCANOES OF SOUTHERN nch in such objects; and the presumption is still smaller

ITALY. tenuin ferunteenince agnitude neighbour of du Cyani owns a THE escursionale geologists to the volcanico regions out, the proper motion of the larger star will speedily clusion. We have already referred to the first part of decide istr. Vach, No. 2912.) There can, on the other the excursion to the Lipari Islands, and the interesting hand, be no hesitation in admitting that n Ophiuchi, re state of activity in which the volcanoes of Vulcano and solved last spring by the same indefatigable observer into Stromboli were found to be in. On leaving those islands (wo nearly equal components, ato”:35, constitutes a physical the party proceeded to examine the Val di Bove, the system, and one in which rapid movements may be looked Cyclopean Íslands, the slopes of Etna with its numerous for The stars evidently travel together, else they should parasitic cones and lava streams, and the central crater have been, through the effects of a proper motion of one itself. The Italian Minister of Public Instruction allowed second of arc in ten years, so far apart a little time back the party to sleep in the observatory near the mountain that they could not possibly have escaped separate dis- summit, and although the weather was rough and misty, cerament. Their relation to the Milky Way is picturesque, about half the party were able to get a good view of the and has been thought to be significant. "Situated at the crater, which is now in a solfataric condition. The extreine northern and pointed extremity of a luminous geologists had also the advantage of becoming acquainted esagated patch of milky light," Mr. Gore remarks, n with the mud volcanoes of Paterno. In this part of the 1)paiochi "looks as if it were drawing the nebulous matter excursion the party had the valuble help of Prof. 0. after it like the tail of a comet” (Journal Liverpool Astr. Silvestri, to whom Dr. Johnston-Lavis handed over the Sariety, vol vii. p. 178). But we may safely regard the direction at Etna, although still acting as general director appearance as illusory.

and interpreting Prof. Silvestri's demonstrations. All Some of Mr. Burnham's measures of known doubles along the journey the party were fêted by the prefect also supply results of interest. Thus, the duplex, sea of the province and the mayors of the different comgreen companion of y Androinedæ can now barely be munes, and found invaluable hospitality in the splendid "elongated" with a magnifying power of 2700 on the villa of the Marquis Favara at Biancavilla. The second great reíractor. Yet, so lately as 1581, the two stars could fortnight of the excursion was spent at Naples and be distinguished with eight inches of aperture. The un- its vicinity, under the direction of Dr. Johnston-Lavis, equal pair, 99 Herculis, discovered by Alvan Clark in aided for the sedimentary rocks by Prof. Bassani of the 1899, is even more recalcitrant. No amount of optical University of Naples. Although the weather was not so constraint can now extract from it the slightest indication favourable as in Sicily, the delay only amounted to two of duplicity. Since 1878, 85 Pegasi has traversed 213° of days. Many thanks are due to the mayor of Naples for Ils orbit; and Mr. Schaeberle's new elements, embodying his hosp tality in providing for the party a splendid steam the Lick data, give it a period of 22 years, and oblige yacht for their visit to Capri and Ischia, so affording very us (on the dubious assumption that Brünnow's small greatly increased facilities for their excursions. The parallax can be depended upon) to ascribe a mass to the members gave a day to the examination of the reservoirs system eleven times the solar, the components revolving and other works connected with the new and most perfect at pearly eighteen times the distance of the earth from and purest town water supply in Europe, as well as the the sun. The sun and Jupiter, if of equal areal lustre, new drainage works and destruction of the old town of would present, at half the supposed distance of 85 Pegasi, Naples. Although the visit to the crater of Vesuvius had just its telescopic aspect.

to be delayed for upwards of ten days for suitable weather,

the party had the good fortune to see the volcano in great marked crystals of clear transparentice projected fros perfection. There existed at the time of the visit four their outer surfaces for distances ranging from to a concentric crater rings and two main vents ejecting red- an inch. These crystals, as well as I could observe fross hot lava cakes, which the geologists were able to approach within ten yards, after which they descended some distance on the slopes of the great cone to a small lava stream issuing from its sides, at which various experiments were performed. The director, who has visited the crater over sixty times, remarked that he had never but once seen it to greater perfection.

The numerous volcanoes of the Phlegrean fields were examined, and most of those present expressed their satisfaction at the many important lessons to be learnt from them. At Pompeii the members had the valuable direction of Dr. A. Sambon for the archæological part, whilst Dr. Johnston-Lavis devoted himself only to explaining the phenomena and materials associated with the destruction of the buried cities.

After Naples the party examined on their way northwards the volcano of Roccamonfina, under the direction of Dr. Johnston-Lavis, and Monte Cassino under that of Prof. Bassani of Naples. The Lyceum at Sessa Aurunca was kindly lent by the commune to accommodate the members during their night's stay on their way over the mountain, a sumptuous dinner being provided by the municipality. The carriages the next day were offered by the province of Terra di Lavoro, and after the ascent had been made of the central cone (Mount Santa Croce) a lunch not less sumptuous than the dinner of the preceding evening was given by the town of Roccamonfina.

The next day was devoted to Monte Cassino, its manuscript and art treasures, as well as the Cretaceous limestones constituting the mountain upon which it is built. Prof. Bassani acted as geological director.

At Rome the party examined the concentric craters, parasitic cones, crater lakes, lava streams of the Alban volcano, also the fossiliserous Pliocene beds capped by volcanic deposits close to the Eternal City. The lower Mesozoic limestones, the travertine, the sulphur springs, and all the other points of geological interest of the Campagna Romana were visited.

As directors of the excursions around Rome may be mentioned Profs. Mele, Portis, and Strüver. Signor Zezi (secretary of the Italian Geological Survey), Signors Demarchi, Clerici, Tellini, and Prof. Lanciani kindly undertook the archæological demonstrations which acted as dessert to the rich geological repast.

The official excursions terminated on October 28, with the trip to Tivoli, although a number of geologists remained to visit the sights of Rome. In the evening a dinner was offered to Dr. Johnston-Lavis, Mr. L. Sambon, and the Roman directors. The thanks of the party were offered to the Minister of Public Instruction, Prefects and Mayors, and private individuals, who had done so much to facilitate the progress, through often almost inaccessible districts, for a large party.

Special votes of thanks were proposed to the different Italian geologists who had kindly offered their services in directing the party through their districts, and lastly to Dr. Johnston-Lavis for originating this new departure in scientific excursions, as well as acting not only as director in his own districts, but interpreting and organizing during the whole excursion, and to Mr. L. Sambon for his administrative skill, his attainments in different branches ! of science, which added so much to the success and comfort of over forty English geologists, not to speak of the numerous Italians who from time to time joined.

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REMARKABLE HAILSTONES.

FIG. 2. OND: 43 of the present volume of NATURE the follow

ing extract is given from a paper by Prof. Houston the evanescent nature of the material, were hexagonal in the Journal of the Franklin Institute :-“On some of the prisms with clearly cut terminal facets. They resembled hailstones, though not on the majority of them, well- | the projecting crystals that form so common a lining in

geodic masses, in which they have formed by gradual the Royal Society of Edinburgh. A committee was appointed crystallization from the mother-liquor. They differed, to carry out the resolution, including, among others, Mr. John bowever, of course, in being on the outer surface of the Murray (Challenger Expedition), Convener ; Mr. Gillies Smith, spherules."

Hon. Treasurer ; Lord President Inglis, Lord Kingsburgh, Lord It is evident from Prof. Houston's paper that this Maclaren, Sir William Thomson, Sir Arthur Mitchell, Prof. peculiar form of hail was unknown to him, and, as it must also have been unknown to many who have propounded Robertson Smith, Prof. Chiene, Dr. Alexander Buchan, Mr. theories as to the formation of hail which will not account Robert Cox, and Mr. William Peddie. It was proposed that an for it. I think that a service may be rendered to meteoro

etched engraving of the portrait be prepared for distribution logy by the reproduction of three of the exquisite litho among the subscribers, the plate to be destroyed after the regraphs of this form of hail given in Prof. Abich's paper, quired number of copies have been thrown off. It was further

Ceber krystallinischen Hagel im Thrialethischen ge resolved that all the Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, urge," published at Tiflis in 1871. The hailstones repre- the Professor's old pupils, and others, be afforded an opportunity sented in Figs. 1-3 all fell on June 9 (21), 1867, at Bjeloi of taking part in this public recognitition of Prof. Tait's eminent Klrutsch, a village about twenty miles south-west of Tiflis, services to science.

Italy, France, and the United States of America were represented in the elections to foreign membership of the Royal Society on Thursday last. Prof. Stanislao Cannizzaro, of Rome, was elected on the ground of his researches on molecular and atomic weights ; Prof. Chauveau, of Paris, for his researches on the mechanism of the circulation, animal heat, nutrition, and the pathology of infectious diseases ; and Prof. Rowland, of Baltimore, for his determination in absolute measure of the magnetic susceptibilities of iron, nickel, and cobalt ; for his accurate measurements of fundamental physical constants ; for the experimental proof of the electro-magnetic effect of electric convection ; for the theory and construction of curved diffraction-gratings of very great dispersive power ; and for the effectual aid which he has given to the progress of physics in America and other countries.

ADMIRAL Mouchez and MM. Janssen and Perrotin, head astronomers of the Observatories of Paris, Meudon, and Nice, were raised, in November, to the grade of Officer of the Order of the Rose of Brazil, and MM. Frassenet, Paul, and Prosper Henry, admitted to knighthood in the same order. The Paris Correspondent of the Daily News says that the diplomas securing to them these distinctions were the last official documents signed by Dom Pedro. He asked his secretary to add a personal compliment to each of the astronomers with whom he was personally acquainted.

Some time ago we announced that a Physical Society was about to be formed in Liverpool. This has now been done, and we are glad to learn that the new Society begins its career under most favourable conditions. The meeting at which it

was constituted was well attended, and displayed much interest and 12.433 feet above sea-level (lat. 41° 33' N., long. 44° in the scheme. Nearly ninety names were at once handed in to

the secretary, Mr. T. Tarleton, for membership. Prof. Oliver Thesries of the formation of hail are almost innumer- Lodge, F.R.S., was appointed President. The next meeting able. I was reading a pamphlet not long since which will be held in the Physics Theatre, University College, Livercontained summaries of, I think, twenty-three theories. pool, on Monday, the 16th inst., at 8 o'clock, when the President Sotne-like Prof. Schwedoff's, that hailstones come from will deliver his inaugural address. interplanetary space (Brit. Ass. Report, Southampton, 1882, p. 458)—are very droll; but the subject is a very diffi DR. JOHN G. McKENDRICK, F.R.S., Professor of Physiology rule one, and one upon which I do not know of a single in the University of Glasgow, has been elected President of the good treatise in our language. Possibly, the reproduction Philosophical Society of Glasgow.' of these figures may induce someone to prepare an exhaustive memoir. I could place a large amount of PROF. LESQUEREUX, the eminent American bryologist and historical and theoretical material at the disposal of any palæontologist, died in his house at Columbus, Ohio, on October competent person who would undertake the preparation 25, at the age of nearly eighty-nine years. of such a work, it being quite impossible for me to do it myself.

G. J. SYMONS. We regret to learn from a memoir that has been sent to us

by Prof. Barboza du Bocage, that Señor José Augusto de Souza

died recently at Lisbon, where he was Curator of the Zoological NOTES

Department in the Museum. He was the author of some useful At : largely attended meeting in Edinburgh on Tuesday, memoirs on African birds, and is best known for his Catalogue Dec. 3, Sir Douglas Maclagan in the chair, it was resolved that of the Accipitres, Columba, and Galing in the Lisbon Museum. Mr. Geo. Reid, R.S.A., should be commissioned to paint a por The fifth of the series of "One Man ” Photographic Exhibitrait of Prof. P.G. Tait, to be placed permanently in the rooms of tions at the Camera Club will be open for private and press

FIK. 3.

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