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view on Monday, December 16, at 8 p.m., and on and after sums up the results of his mission. His journey took place Tuesday, December 17, it will be open to visitors on presentation the latter part of October. He had a fortnight at his disposto of card. The Exhibition will consist of pictures by the late Mr. and during that time be visited as many gardens as possible le 0. G. Rejlander, and a selection from over 200 of his famous tween Hyères and Mentine. One of the most interesting of the figure and genre studies will be shown. The pictures will be on gardens visited was a branch establishment, at Hyères, of the view for about six weeks.

Société d'Acclimatation, Paris. Here a good deal of experts Ox November 21 the American Philosophical Society, Phila

mental gardening is practised, plants of all kinds being planted delphia, celebrated the hundredth anniversary of its first occu

and tested as to their hardiness, &c. Mr. Watson system pation of its present hall. The banquet was a great success.

while he was inspecting these gardens the idea was suggested The following were the toasts :-"The language of Science " that a well-managed botanical station, devoted chiefly to e and Philosophy is universal, but adopts various dialectic forms perimental testing, proving, and breeding operations amongs to diffuse knowledge," proposed by Prof. John W. Mallet, plants, would, if established in some such favoured locality representative from the Royal Society of London ; " Our kindred Hyères, be capable of much valuable work.” Societies in every clime," proposed by Prof. Joseph Lovering, The following are the lecture arrangements at the Red President of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Institution, so far as they relate to science, before Easter :"All research into the Book of Nature has not discovered an Prof. A. W. Rücker, six Christmas lectures to juveniles m erratuin,” proposed by Sir Daniel Wilson, President of the Unie electricity; Prof. G. J. Romanes, ten lectures on the por versity of Toronto ; " The successful pursuit of Science expunges Darwinian period ; Mr. Frederick Niecks, four lectures on the error—it never antagonizes truth,” proposed by the Hon. Lyon early developments of the forms of instrumental music (with G. Tyler, President of William and Mary College ; “Men musical illustrations); Prof. Flower, three lectures on the tal Analysis is the efficient solvent of many difficulties in natural history of the horse and of its extinct and existing allie: Science and Philosophy," proposed by the Rev. Dr. Charles W. | the Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, seven lectures on electricity an! Shields, Princeton College ; and “The labours and achieve magnetism. The Friday evening meetings will begin on JAQUAT ments of great teachers in Science and Philosophy live after 24, when a discourse will be given by Prof. Dewar on the them-these are their monuments," proposed by the Right Rev. scientific work of Joule. Succeeding discourses will probal} Dr. John J. Keane, President of the Catholic University of be given by Sir Frederick Abel, Mr. Henry B. Wheatley, Pr. America.

J. A. Fleming, Mr. Shelford Bidwell, Prof. C. Hubert H Dr. Pax, of Breslau, has been appointed Curator of the Fitzgerald, the Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, and other gentleme

Parry, Mr. Francis Gotch, Prof. T. E. Thorpe, Prof. G. F. Botanic Garden in Berlin ; Mr. D. G. Fairchild, Assistant in the section of Vegetable Pathology in the United States Department Messrs. MACMILLAN AND Co. will shortly publish the first of Agriculture; Dr. H. Dingler, Professor of Botany in the part of Prof. Eimer's work on “ Organic Evolution as the Re Forest Academy of Aschaffenburg ; Dr. F. Noll, Professor of sult of the Inheritance of Acquired Characters according to the Botany in the University of Bonn; and Dr. N. Wille, of Stock. Laws of Organic Growth,” translated by J. T. Cunningham holm, Lecturer on Botany at the Royal Agricultural Institution M.A., F.R.S.E., late Fellow of University College, Oxford. at Aas, near Christiania.

Messrs. BLACKWOOD AND Sons have just published "The Prof. BORNMÜLLER, Director of the Botanic Garden at Construction of the Wonderful Canon of logarithms," a transBelgrade, has started on a twelve months' botanical tour through lation of “Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio," by Asia Minor

. Beginning at Amasia, he will travel through the John Napier, of Merchiston. The work was published in 1619 country between the courses of the Kisil-Irmak and Euphrates, but is so rare as to be very little known, being only once re southward to the completely unexplored mountains of Ak-dagh printed in 1620, and never translated. The present translation The Botanical Gazette says that this country has only once been is by William Rae Macdonald, who also contributes notes and explored, thirty-five years ago, by the Russian bɔtanist Wiede a catalogue of Napier's works. mann. According to the same authority, Prof. Bornmüller is a Slight shocks of earthquake, lasting from five to ten seconds, young and very successful explorer, with a great deal of ex were felt on Sunday, at Taranto, Foggia, Chieti, Monte perience, especially from his long journey in 1886, through saraceno, Agnone, Ancona, and Urbino. At Torremileto, in Dalmatia, Monte Negro, Greece, Turkey, East Bulgaria, and the province of Foggia, a strong shock is said to have been felt; Asia Minor. His original collection will be transferred to and a slight shock, followed by a somewhat stronger one, eWeimar, where it will be carefully gone through by Prof.

curred at Naples soon aster 6 a.m. On Monday there were Hausknecht.

seismic disturbances in Dalmatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina


According to a telegram, through Reuter's Agency, from Vienna, The "mountain laurel," or Kalmia, and the Indian corn, are a somewhat severe shock was felt on Monday, at 6.30, at suggested in American papers as national flowers for the United Knin, Dernis, Sebenico, Trau, Scardona, and Spalato, the States.

direction of the movement being from north-east to south-west In the December number of the Kew Bulletin Mr. Thiselton A violent shock, lasting five seconds, occurred at 6.40 at Serajevo, Dyer explains that for some years, when it has been necessary to being felt three minutes later at Novi and Krupa also. find space in the Palm House at Kew for the development of new At the ordinary meeting of the Council of the Sanitary Assurand interesting species of palms, he has not hesitated to transfer ance Association, on Monday last, arrangements were complete! to the Temperate House plants which he thought would probably for a series of lectures during January and February 1890, in endure a lower temperature. The experiment has been most the theatre of the College of State Medicine, Great Russell successful, many of the plants luxuriating in the change. Anxious Street. The series will include the following :-Mr. II. Rutherto obtain further information as to cool cultivation of tropical furd, barrister-at-law, on "House Sanitation from a House and sub-tropical plants, Mr. Dyer lately applied for leave to holder's Point of View," Sir Joseph Fayrer, F.R.S., in the send Mr. Watson, assistant curator at Kew, to the south of chair ; Prof. T. Roger Smith, on " Household Warming and France to report on what he might be able to observe. Per Ventilation,” Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., in the chair; Mr. mission was given ; and Mr. Dyer's statement is followed by a Mark H. Judge, on “ The Sanitary Registration of Buildings series of valuable and interesting notes in which Mr. Watson Bill,” Lord Henry Bruce, M.P., in the chair. The object of

Asociation being to promote good sanitary arrangements in the second in Protection Island, in Puget Sound; the third at

hezes of all classes of the community, both men and the junction of the Willamette River with the Columbia ; and ne are invited to these lectures. Discussion is invited. the fourth in the middle portion of the Willamette Valley. The Tul "Fauna of British India,” of which we noticed the first two latter colonies are now separated by so narrɔw a strip of

territory that they will doubtless become united during the next lans of fishes last week, is making steady progress. Mr.

few years. All the pheasants of the three colonies last menpese Oates will produce the first volume of the birds of tioned app:ar to have been i oported fro n China by Judge O. la ising the present month. The work will be principally N. Denny. banded on the great Hume Collection in the British Museum, od the author of the "Hand-book of the Birds of British The American Agricultural Department has been making bumab," may be trusted to give a thoroughly good account of caresul inquiry as to the food of crows; and the result, as set forth lords of India. Side by side with his three volumes on in a Report by Mr. Walter B. Barrows, is likely to surprise maian ornithology, Mr. Oates will also publish a new edition those who have always contended that these birds do very much | Mr. A. O. Hume's "Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds,” which more good than harm. It is not disputed that they destroy in. po long been out of print. For this purpose Mr. Hume bas jurious insects, that they are enemies of mice and other rodents, truled to Mr. Oates the whole of the material collected by and that they are occasionally valuable as scavengers ; but these ma lyf a second edition, and there is no doubt that the work

services are slight in comparison with the mischief for which ill be warmly welcomed by naturalists. Portraits of some of they are responsible. The injury done by them to Intian corn, be learling men who have contributed to the history of Indian wheat, rye, oats, and other cereals is enormous. According to mihology will be given in this new edition, and will form an one observer, the crow eats corn “from ten minutes after planting viterering feature of the work.

until the blades are three inches high ;” and more than a score

of other observers testify that he not only pulls up the young Mr. Francis XICHOLSON, a well-known Manchester ornitho. plants, but digs up the newly sown seed. His dep:edations exisgist, is 22 at to issue an English translation of Sunderall's tend to potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, pea-nats, cherries, "Tentamen,' with a memoir and portrait. This work will be strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries; and he widely dispelcome at the present time, when increased attention is being tributes certain poisonous plants, the seeds of which are pard to the classification of birds.

improved rather than impaired by passage through his digestive M1. SZIKUN will, we understand, propound his system of organs. As if all this were not enough, it is shown that the arrangement of the class Aves in the January number of the Ibis, crow eats beneficial insects, and that he makes himself a most and the memoir will doubtless be a valuable one, as the author formidable nuisance by destroying the eggs and young both of sezowo tę have devoted close study to the subject during the domesticated fowls and wild birds. :! twe years

Two new seismoscopes, made by Brassart Brothers, of Rome, WL. . P. GOODWIN, who was with Sir William McGregor and adopted at the Italian meteorological stations, are described in his recent exploration of Mount Owen Stanley, is about to in the Rivista Scientifico Industriale of October 15. They are of best on a lecturing tour in America. He was successful in a very simple nature, the one consisting merely of an iron rod, izing veveral interesting photographs of the country visited by about 5 inches long, leaning slightly agains: an adjustable screw the Expedition, and he paid especial attention to the habits of support near its middle, and with its lower pointed end in a He Burds of l'aradise and the Bower-birds. He has some cup. When a shock or tremor occurs, the rod falls away from femarkable sheiches of the playing grounds of some of the latter,

its support and is ciu_ht by a fixed metallic ring making electric nerably of Amtlvornis sulalaris, of Sharpe, which rivals in contact and ringing a bell. In the other instrument

, the ring is decorative faculty the Gardener Bower-bird (Amblyornis mechanism of a timepiece, showing when the shock occurred.

connected with a hinged lever arrangement, which stops th: the pages, of North Western New Guinea. Powe. Glard lias recently discovered a micro-organism which

The National Association for the Promotion of Technical per is the power of conferring luminosity or phosphorescence and Seconda y Education has issued an excellent Report on the upon ditlerent crustaceans. This microbe was found in the existing facilities for technical and scientific instruction in Eng. sees of Talitrus, and is easily cultivated in appropriate media.

land and Wales As Mr. Acland and Mr. Llewellyn Smith li on kills Tahiru.

explain in a presatory note, the Report is not intended so much

for experts as for those who wish to obtain, without consulting M Limeat, member of the New York Historical Society, many Blue-books and other official documents

, some trustworthy has presented the French Academy of Inscriptions with a sum information as to what is being done. The facts have been joulucing 1600 francs per annum; his intention being that a arranged with the utmost care, and the work ought to be of pore of 3000 francs shall be offered every three years for the considerable service in helping to show “what are the gaps in best printed work concerning the history, gecgraphy, archæology, our educational system that must be filled, and how great is bregraphy, linguistics, and numismatics of North America. the need for the re-organization and improvement of existing De hra prize will be granted in 1892, and the Academy has agencies.” bezried that the works submitted for consideration shall not melale ta matters referring to an earlier date than 1776. The sophical Society, published in vol. ii., 4th series, of the Pro

The Annual Report of the Manchester Literary and Philo. sepetution will be open to the author of any work on the ceedings, shows a marked improvement in the financial condition abject published after July 1, 1889, in any of the following of the Society, the membership being only one less than at the Suwo copies must be sent to the Secretary of the French Institute corresponding period last year. The volume contains many

papers and abstracts of papers of varying interest. There is a

long paper on “Hymenoptera Orientalis” by Mr. Cameron, giving In the Pacific Coast region there are now four flourishing descripti ns of the various species, their

habits and localities, wilonies of intrestuced pheasants. Dr. C. Hart Meriam, who and references to the literature of the subject. Dr. A. Hodgkinkeleta to the subject in his last Report to the American Agri- son communicates an interesting paper on the “ Physical Cause malveral Isepartment, says that the most northerly of these of Colour in Natural and Artificial Bədies,” recording experiwiones is at the south end of Vancouver Island, near Victoria ; ments which tend to show whether the colour is produced by a

before I)ecember 31, 1891.

structure of thin plates, or one of fine lines. There are two level with the centre of the stopper. Through the strappers papers on leaves from the cutting of the Ship Canal, one giving aperture is bored in such a manner that, when the stoppers a general description, and the other, by Dr. Schunck, F.R.S. rotated into a certain position, connection is established beves showing that the green colouring-matter, which has proved to the interior of the flask and the side tube. A vertical tube de be so permanent, is due to a modified form of chlorophyll ; spec. passes through the stopper and penetrates to near the bus troscopic examination of the colouring-matter showed it to be of the flask; this tube is also closed at its uppe identical with that produced by the action of dilute hydrochloric by means of a platinum stopper. The stoppers are lite acid on ordinary chlorophyll.

polished and adjusted with great care. Each flask weigh: sho The Middlesex Natural History and Science Society has 70 grams and has a capacity of about 100 cc. In the desir issued a volume containing its Transactions during the session determinations the two Aasks were counterpoised on the 1888-89. The volume opens with an interesting Presidential pans of the balance. One of them was then filled with pure de address by Prof. Flower, on the Natural History Museum, nitrogen gas, which was subsequently displaced by the par Cromwell Road, and some recent additions thereto. Mr. E fuorine, the electrolysis apparatus being connected wih M. Nelson has an illustrated paper on diatom structure ; and upper end of the vertical tube of the density flask by means Mr. J. A. Brown contributes a paper

, also illustrated, on work; through the apparatus for five minutes after cold silicon

flexible platinum tubing. The fluorine was allowed to pro ing sites and inhabited land surfaces of the Paläolithic period readily ignited by the gas issuing from the side exit tube. ! in the Thames Valley.

stopper of the flask was then rotated through half a revolu.. The fourth volume of “Blackie's Modern Cyclopædia” has so as to completely shut off the exit tube, and the stopper ut been issued. It begins with the word "fire" and ends with vertical tube replaced. The flask was again weighed again the ** Ilorin.” The work, as we have said on former occasions, is other flask containing air, and the difference of weight das! adıirably edited by Dr. C. Annandale. The articles are the amount of residual nitrogen was estimated by opening a necessarily brief ; but, so far as we have been able to test them, stopper of the vertical tube under water, when the fiume they are clear and accurate. There is no falling off in the instantly decomposed an equivalent of water, liberating system present volume.

and forming hydrofluoric acid. The mixture of oxygen and Messrs. Ward, LOCK, AND Co., have added to their residual nitrogen was then collected, and the oxygen absorbed * Minerva Library of Famous Books” a reprint of Dr. A. R. pyrogallic acid and potash. Three determinations yielded, Wallace's fascinating “Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and the density of fluorine compared with that of hydrogen, 1871 Rio Negro.” A biographical sketch of the author is contributed 18-26, and 18-33. These values appear to indicate that by Mr. G. T. Bettany, the editor of the series ; and the volume number 19, usually taken as representing the atomic weight includes a portrait of Dr. Wallace, a map, and full page fluorine, is slightly too high, and this view is confirmed by illustrations.

low numbers obtained in former determinations of the density

phosphorus trifluoride. HAZELL's Annual for 1890—the fifth issue-has been published. It is edited by Mr. E. D. Price. An immense quantity

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the of information, alphabetically arranged, has been packed into past week include a Malayan Bear (Ursus maluyanus $ ) free this useful volume. Many articles which the editor describes as Malacca, a Gold Pheasant (Thaumala picta ) from China. ** new and important ” have been inserted in the present issue. presented by Captain Bason ; a Common Squirrel 1 SaA Science Clur has been formed among the students of the Mexican Deer (Cariacus mexicanus 8 ) from Peru, 3 Grey

vulgaris), British, presented by Mr, W. Aubrey Chandler University of St. Andrews for the purpose of developing breasted Parrakeet (Bolborhynchus monachus) from Monte the interest already taken in scientific pursuits. Prof. W. c. Video, deposited ; an American Bison (Bison americans : McIntosh, F.R.S., has been elected Hon. President for the born in the Gardens. session 1889-90.

ANOTHER important paper by M. Henri Moissan upon the perfected mode of preparation and upon the density of fluorine,

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUWN. is contributed to the current number of the Comptes rendus. Since the appearance of his paper of two years ago, M. Moissan

OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE. has employed an electrolysis apparatus of much larger size, and Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m., December 12 = 3k. has added to it an accessory apparatus by means of which the 27m. 93. gas may be obtained quite free from vapour of hydrofluoric acid, which, as described in NATURE last week, is the cause of the


Colour R.A. 189a Dod 1834 destructive action upon platinum. The platinum U-tube of the new apparatus has a capacity of 160 c.c., and contains during

(1) G. C. 768 the electrolysis 100 c.c. of hydrofluoric acid. The exit tube at (2) D.M. + 71° zor

Reddish-yellow. | 3 the positive side, from which the fluorine is liberated, is con

(3) Eridani

Yellow, (4) Eridani

White tinued into a small platinum spiral condenser immersed in a (5) 27a Schj.



h, m. s.
3 39 39

3 27 5
| 3 10


Red-yellow. bath of methyl chloride at - 50° C., where all but the last trace

(6) R Lacertæ

Orange of hydrofluoric acid is retained. From this the gas is led through two platinum tubes filled with fragments of sodium fluoride, a

Remarks. salt which combines with hydrofluoric acid with great energy, (I) The General Catalogue description of this nebula is a forming hydrogen sodium fluoride. By these means the Auorine follows : -!!! Bright; very large, irregular figure. According is obtained perfectly pure, and is quite invisible in dry air, no to Tempel, this is a variable nebula, and its spectrum, which trace of fuming being apparent, as is the case before purifica- has not yet been recorded, will therefore have a special interest tion. In order to determine the density of the gas, a couple of Continued observations may, very probably, give a clue to the ingeniously constructed platinum flasks have been employed. (2) Duner classes this with stars of Group II., but states that Each of these flasks is closed by a cylindrical stopper also of the spectrum is only feebly developed. Further observatie platinum ; to the side of the neck a side tube is attached on a are necessary before it can be placed in position on the *323*

7 Var

23 38 23


R.A. h. m. s.

h. m. S.

22 201


29 2

stare curve." As I have previously pointed out, the "seebly CORONA OF JANUARY 1, 1889.-Prof. Tacchini, in the Atti Heloped" stars of the group are probably either early or late della R. Accademia dei Lincei (p. 472), gives a note on the kecm, as the bands would be weak in either case. If it be an corona as shown in a positive copy, on glass, of one of Mr. kaly sime, the bands in the blue will be most strongly deve Barnard's negatives taken during this eclipse. The corona expei: while, if it be a late star of the group, the bands in the tends, according to Prof. Tacchini, from +64° to -68on the will be strongest. In the latter case, lines would probably west limb of the sun, and from +53° 10 - 68° on the east limb,

these being about the limits of the zone of the maximum fre13. Konkoly classes this with stars of the solar type. As in quency of protuberances derived from his own observations. rer stars of this class which have appeared in these columns, Two of the protuberances on the photograph were observed merations are required to decide whether the star belongs to at Rome and at Palermo. brce III. or to Group V. (For criterin, see p. 20.)

MINOR PLANET (12), VICTORIA.- Dr. Gill has issued the 1.4 This is a star of Group IV., of which observations of ephemeris of this planet for the opposition of 1889, computed Des relative intensities of the hydrogen and metallic lines are from elements which have been corrected from the observations bune, su that the star may be arranged in a line of tempera- of 1888, re with others.

Observatories co-operating in the meridian observations of 13. This is a star of Group VI., which Duner describes as Victoria should compare their results with this ephemeris, emkuing a spectrum consisting of three zones, band 2 being prob- ploying 8":80 for the solar parallax. by also present. Particular attention should be given to the Dr. Auwers has undertaken the discussion of the meridian beruty of the band 6 as compared with the others. Other observations, so the detailed results should be forwarded to him Bundary bands should also be looked for, as they are seen in as soon as possible. Merzi slans of lower mngnitude, and it is important that we COMET SWIFT (f 1889, NOVEMBER 17).-The following swald know whether their presence is dependent solely upon ephemeris is given by Dr. R. Schorr (Astr. Nachr., No. 2937) :kas hagatness of the star, or really indicates a difference in the



Decl. -aktan of the star itself. (For notation of bands, see p. 112.) ól The maximum of this variable will occur on December 27 Dec. 12...23 47 28 ... +19 6-7 Dec. 22... 0 19

+21 49.4 The patient is 315 days, and the magnitude varies from < 13.5 13... 50 31

19 236 23...

22 24

22 418 nuinimum to 86 at maximum. "The spectrum has not yet 14...

53 36 ...

19 404 24... 25 43 beers recordei.

15... 56 42 19 57-1 25...

22 35'2 41,- Some of the comets of which ephemerides have recently 16...

59 50. 20 136

26... 32 23 22 501 yeared in NATURE may possibly be bright enough for spec. 17... o 2 59.. 20 299 27... 35 44

23 4.8 PS396X1PIC examination. It is not likely that, at their present 18... 6 10 20 46'1 28... 39 6... 23 19'3 venhelson listances, their temperatures will be very high, so

19... 9 22 ... 21 22 29... 42 30... 23 336 suggests for comparison spectra may be confined to those 20... 12 35 ... 21 18 1! 30... 45 54 .. 23 477 muualle for low-lemperature comets. The probable sequence


15 50 ... 21 33.81 31... 49 18... 24 15 land spectra za a comet leaves aphelion is as follows :-(1) The The brightness of the comet = 0·81 (December 12) and 0:57

trampi a planetary nebula, as in the comets of 1866-67, (December 31), that at discovery being taken as unity. kered by Dr, Huggins. This consists of a single line in the

Comptes rendus, No. 23 (December 2, 1889), contains obserf«um of the chiel nebula line near A 500. (2) The low. vations of this comet extending from November 20 to Novemseratate spectrum of carbon, consisting chiefly of three ber 27. It is noted that the comet is very feeble and diffuse. As og nek A 483 519, and 561. (3) The high-temperature ecran of carbon, consisting mainly of flutings near A 564,

PERIODIC COMETS.-Several short period comets return to 31; and a group of five Autings extending from 468 to

the sun in 1890, and their ephemerides will be furnished as soon 54. The most convenient comparison to begin with will be

as issued. The perihelion passage of Brorsen's comet will

occur about February 25, Denning's comet may be expected to lloc ame a spiru-lamp, which will give the hot carbon TURE. If this does not show coincidences with the comet- third week in September. The orbit of Barnard's comet has not

return to peribelion in May, and D'Arrest's comet about the un dunde, a comparison with the bright futing in the spectrum un burung magnesium should be made. This will determine yet been sufficiently defined to enable the date of perihelion be presence or abeence of the chief nebula line. If neither passage to be stated. Sb.2. comcdences, the positions of the bands relatively to the

THE ECLIPSE PARTIES. –The following telegram relating to by cartoon flutings may roughly indicate the presence or absence

the eclipse parties has been received :-" Loanda, December 7. of cand carbon. As the two less refrangible Autings of cool - The United States corvette Pensacola, Captain Arthur R. carlen fall very near to two of hot carbon, the best criterion for Yates, with the Solar Eclipse Expedition on board, arrived at wol carbon is the fluting at X 483, which is about one-third of St. Paul de Loanda to-day. The voyage down was very smooth, the distance from the fluting commencing at 474 towards that with delightful sailing. The astronomers were at work on the ummencing near 517. Any variation of the form of the least instruments all the way, and are all ready for the eclipse. The refringibile comelary band from the corresponding carbon futing time is now so short that it is inadvisable to attempt to take the surat be tuvieri, as this varies with the temperature (see Roy.

party and all their instruments inland, so the Expedition will ok. Proc., vol. xlv. p. 168).


locate at Cape Ledo immediately, and send one or two branch I'UOTOMETRIC INTENSITY OF CORONAL Light.—The ob

parties inland, with such instruments as are not bulky or heavy,

and can quickly be set up and adjusted. The European eclipse kervations made by l'ruf. Thorpe during the solar eclipse of 1886 trhu! Trans., vol. clxxx., p. 363, 1889) show that the diminu- Royal Astronomical Society, London, has already arrived with

observers are beginning to arrive here. Mr. Taylor, of the iwani mtensity of corunal light at different distances from the

a small outfit of apparatus. None of the French or German un e limb does not vary according to the law of inverse squares.

astronomers are yet here. Cape Ledo turns out to be in every The following measurements make this apparent :

way the most favourable point for locating the American ExpeInstance m Solar Photometric Intensity

dition. Not only are the meteorological conditions likely to be em diameten Observed. Law of Inverse Squares.

better, but the party can live for the most part on the Pensacola, 16 0 '066


as she will lie at a safe anchorage near the shore. The health Oʻ053


of the members of the party is thus insured. The eclipse is 0'043


several seconds longer there than at Muxima, and chances for 0'034


clear afternoon skies appear to be rather better. If nothing is. 0*026


heard from the Expedition for the next few days, it may either 36 0*021


be taken that the Eclipse Station is finally located at Cape. The brightness of the brightest measured part of the corona Ledo, or that the semi-cannibal Quissamas have cleared out the 135 solar semi-diameters) was 200 times less bright than that whole Expedition." Lf the surlace of the moon, or about o'o6 candle, whilst the Lurhest spat at 3-66 solar semi-diameters was only 1/800 of the "reglutess, or bois candle. The results obtained will be useful

RECENT INDIAN SURVEYS. in amparing the brightness of the corona on this occasion with THE "Statement exhibiting the Moral and Material Prothat of other eclipses, and determining what connection the gress and Condition of India," recently issued, devotes, Sadni sport periods have with the coronal phenomena.

as usual, a section to the survey work of the past year, of.


which the following is a summary. The work of the Survey of mapped, and a compilation of recent observations by exch
India is divided under five heads, namely :-(1) Trigonometrical in Tibet and Bhutan will shortly be published.
Survey, (2) Topographical Survey, (3) Cadastral Survey, (4) Marine Survey.--The survey-vessel Investigator and
Special Surveys and Explorations, (5) Map Production. boat parties were employed on marine surveys through

Trigonometrical. ---Out of twenty-six survey parties employed the open season, the staff being employed in the chart during the year, only one was engaged on trigonometrical work. during the monsoon months. The 'Investigator accomplis It carried secondary triangulation for 370 miles along the Coro- 4630 miles, and the boat parties 1542 miles of sound mandel coast as far as the Tanjore District ; the work is intended Among the results of the year's work were soundings ronni as a basis for marine survey operations. Some triangulation in approaches to Madras, whereby it was shown that there extension of the great Indian triangles had to be undertaken in 1700 fathoms of water on a spot hitherto marked on the Baluchistan as a basis for topographical maps there.

as “5 fathoms doubtful."' Surveys were made mund Topographical.—The number of parties engaged in this work Laccadive and the Andaman Islands, at the Palk Straits, was reduced from eight to six, and 15,673 square miles of topo- Western Coral Banks, on the Malabar coast near Canne graphical survey were accomplished, which included 934 square and Tellicherry, and off Parbandar. Interesting marine con miles of survey in the Southern Mahratta country, the same isms, some of them quite new, were brought up by the trans party doing a quantity of detached forest survey in the valuable especially from a depth of 250 fathoms off the Andamans. teak forests of Kanara ; 1085 square miles of topographical observations for temperature have enabled the survey to con work in Guzerat, besides 285 square miles of detailed forest a temperature curve which is fairly constant for all parts of in survey in the jungles of Tbana and Nasik. Parties 15 and 16 seas. continued the Baluchistan survey, accomplishing in all 11,977 Geological Survey.- Among the investigations by the square miles. The cold and snow in winter, as well as the logical Survey during the year 1888 may be mentioned difficulty in getting supplies, were extremely trying to the examination of the auriferous rocks known as the Dhare parties. 977 square miles were surveyed in the Himalayan dis- rocks, bands of which occur in the gneiss mountains, men tricts of Kangra, Simla, and the native States pertaining to the edge of the Deccan trap in the meridian of Kalast those districts ; 4535 square miles of triangulation and 1284 across the upper basins of the Kistna, Tangabhadra, Pena square miles of topographical survey in the Madura district and and Cauvery Rivers. At many places in the e tank the States of Travancore and Cochin of South India. The cost Dharwar rock, the geological officers discovered trace of the Himalayan work and of the Baluchistan surveys was con extensive gold workings, the existence of which was herbiy siderably cheaper per square mile than in the previous year. known to the present inhabitants. The investigator cus

Forest Surveys. - Iwo half-parties of the Topographical Sur- that in many places, especially in the Kolar and Maski burk vey did fresh work, as above stated, in Bombay, Ground was gold will be found in quantities that will repay working broken in the forests near Hoskungabad of the Central Pro- workers of past centuries used to crush the ore in saucer live vinces; but in the first year, on account of climatic difficulties hollows in the solid, tough, trappoid rocks, with rounded grate and the ruggedness of the country, the out-turn of work was crushers, weighing about a ton each. The supposed das small. 343 square miles of forest survey were effected in the sources in the Anantapur district of Madras were examinal, forests of the Prome and Thayetmyo districts of Lower Burmah. with only negative results. The coal-field of Singareni, o In Gorakpur of the North-West Provinces, and in Orissa, sur. Nizam's dominions, was examined ; it was estimated the veys of certain forest reserves were made by cadastral parties 17,000,000 tons of coal were available in the field. working in the neighbourhood. The whole area of forest sur- geologists reported that the cost of raising coal into waggone veys accomplished by all these parties during the year was 893 the pit's mouth ought not eventually to exceed 2 rupees a les square miles.

Further examinations were made of the coal-bearing rocks of Geodetic.— Telegraphic longitude operations were resumed, Western Chota Nagpore and of Rajmehal ; the latter mal and seven arcs of longitude were measured between trigono- source cannot be thoroughly tested until bore holes are metrical stations in Southern India. The season's observations down. The seams of coal at Kohst, in Baluchistan, were for tend strongly to confirm previous evidence that on the coast of to contain 11 to 2 feet of good coal at times; cal from sreta India there is a perceptible deviation of the plum-line towards workings is now chiefly used in locomotives ; but the best plasir the ocean.

permanent workings has not yet been settled. The series Tidal and Levelling Operations. The recording of tidal sources at Khatun, in Baluchistan, and in the Rawal ini curves by self-registering ide-gauges, their reduction, and the trict of the Punjab, were visited by officers of the Survey; publication of tide-tables, were continued at eighteen stations, Khatun oil is too thick to flow down a pipe for forty tuiles to the of which seven are permanent, and eleven are temporary for railway, where it has made excellent fuel. The Cashme five years.

The registrations of tides were satisfactory, and coal-field, in the upper valley of the Chenab, was zu there were few failuies. So far as predictions of high water examined. were concerned, 98 per cent. of the entries in the tables were The report of the Cadastral Surveys and Settlements is des correct within 8 inches of actual heights at open coast stations, of scientific interest. and 69 per cent. at riverain stations, while as to time of high water, 56 and 71 per cent, respectively of the entries were correct within fifteen minutes. Levelling operations were UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL prosecuted from Madras to Vizagapatam, at False Point, to connect the Marine Survey beach marks with the main line of

INTELLIGENCE. level, and from Chinsurah'to Nuddea, along the right bank of the OxforD.-In the course of the term which has just comes Hooghly. There were 597 miles of double levelling accomplished. an end, Mr. J. B. Farmer, B. A., has been elected to a Fellow In Upper Bırmah, survey parties or surveyors accompanied the ship

at Magdalen, after an examination in botany-1 subje! columns which parched through the northern Shan States, the which no Fellowship has been allotted for many years; southern Shan States, and the columns that operated in the Yaw the Burclett-Coutts Scholarship in Geology has been awarded country, the Chindwan Valley, and the Mogoung district. Mr. F. Pullinger, Corpus. Triangulation was carried over 23,274 square miles, and

Mr. Hatchett Jackson will continue to act as Deputy Prafeet 20,780 square miles of hitherto unknown country were mapped of Comparative Anatomy for the next two terins at least

. on a scale of four miles to the inch, of which 7605 belonged to the

The recently founded Readership in Geography seems to kar Shan States. North-east from Mandalay, the survey was proved a success this term, as Mr. Machinder had a casa carried as far as the Kanlow ferry, on the Salween River, a fifty in regular attendance. place on the old caravan road between Burmah and China. A large scale map was made of the Ruby Mines tract, showing the sites of all ruby workings. Surveyors accompanied an exploring expedition from the Assam Valley, across the Patkoi ranges,

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. into the Hukong Valley of Upper Burmah, and surveyed two

LONDON. practical passes through the Patkoi hills. A good map of the Royal Society, November 21.-"On the Tubercles on 4 Black Mountain country was prepared on observations and Roots of Leguminous Plants, with special reference to the le surveys taken by officers deputed with the Hazara field force. and the

Bean." By H. Marshall Ward, M.A., F.R.S.

, FL The hill country of Western Nepal has been observed and late Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, Professor of Blotāns

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