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which they could lose by burning and regain by the pro grand chemist," as its authors call him, “whom science cess they called "revivification." "Hardness (in metals] had lost too soon." is caused by the jeiunenese of the spirit and their imparity Kirwan's essay on phlogiston, in which Bergman's with the tangible parts," said Francis Bacon ;' while, views were defended, elicited a reply from Lavoisier himaccording to Stahl, steel was merely iron possessing, in self, and brought down the French school in strength to virtue of its phlogiston, the characteristics of a metal in a contest almost the last position occupied by the believers higher degree ; and this view prevails in the writings in phlogiston.? of Henckel, Newmann, Cramer, Gellert, Rinman, and An entire lecture might be profitably devoted to Macquer. This opinion survived with wonderful per- Bergman's work. His was almost the first calorimetric resistence, but it did not influence the teaching of Réau- search, and is specially interesting when taken in connecmur, who, in 1722, was, so far as I know, the first to tion with the calorimetric investigations of Lavoisier and suggest a physical theory which has been in any way | Laplace in 1780, and it is impossible to read it without justified by modern research. He assumed that when feeling that in paying the just tribute to Lavoisier's genius steel was heated “sulphurs and salts” were driven out Bergman has been overlooked. He desired to ascertain from the molecules, which he represents diagram- whether pure iron, steel, and cast iron contain the same matically, into the interstitial space between them. The amount of heat. He therefore attacked the materials with quenching of the steel and its sudden cooling prevented a solvent, and noted the heat evolved. He says the the sulphurs and salts from returning into the molecules, solvent breaks up the assemblage of the aggregation of which were thus firinly cemented by the matter between molecules and forms other unions. If the new body them, and hard rigid steel was the result. In tempering, demands more heat than the body which has been disthe sulphurs and salts partially returned into the mole- united, then the thermometer will fall. If, on the other cules, and the metal became proportionately soft. I have hand, the degree of heat required is less, the environelsewhere shown that he used the Torricellian vacuum to ment will be heated, which will result in the rise of the demonstrate that the hardening of steel is not accom thermometer. The modern development is that, when a panied by the evolution of gas, and he concluded that chemical compound is formed, heat is evolved and energy
since the hardening of steel is neither due to the is lost, but if one substance, say a metal, simply dissolves intervention of a new substance nor to the expulsion of another, the solution is attended with absorption of heat, air, it only remains to seek its cause in the changes and the product when attacked by a suitable solvent occurring in its structure." Notwithstanding this, the should evolve practically the same amount of heat, but phlogistic school were not daunted, and this brings me certainly not less than would be evolved by the individual to the work of Torbern Bergman, the great Professor at metals present in solution. This is specially interesting the University of Upsala, who in 1781 showed that steel from its relation to the calorimetric work of Lavoisier mainly differs from iron by containing about i per cent. and Laplace in 1780 and of Lavoisier in 1782, which led of plumbago, while iron does not. Read in connec- the latter to explain the nature of oxidation, and to show tion with modern research, his work seems wonderfully that a metal could be as truly “calcined" or oxidized advanced. He was so forcibly impressed by the fact that by the action of a solution as by the action of air at an the great difference in the mechanical properties of different elevated temperature. Now that the importance of thermospecimens of iron is due to the presence of small quantities chemistry is beginning to be recognized in relation to of impurity, and that the properties of iron do not vary, as industrial chemistry and metallurgy, it is to be hoped that he says, unless by chance the iron has gathered foreign Bergman's merits will be more fully considered. We are, matter," nisi forte peregrinum paullo uberius inhærat however, mainly concerned with the fact that he taught metallum." We find, even, the dawn of the view that under us that the difference between iron and steel consists in the influence of small quantities of foreign matter iron is, the fo to iš per cent of carbon which steel contains. It as he calls it, polymorphous, and plays the part of many was only natural that Black, writing in 1796, should have metals." Adeo ut jure dici queat, polymorphum ferrum attributed the hardening of steel to the "extrication of plurium simul metallorum vices sustinere. Unfortun- latent heat"; "the abatement of the hardness by the ately he confounded the plumbago or carbon he had temper” being due, he says, "to the restoration of a part isolated with phlogiston, as did Rinman in 1782, which of that heat.”+ Black failed to see that the work of was strange, because, in 1774, the latter physicist had Bergman had entirely changed the situation. The next shown that a drop of nitric acid simply whitens wrought step was made in France. It was considered necessary iron, but leaves a black stain on steel. Bergman tenaciously to establish the fact that carbon is really the element held to the phlogistic theory in relation to steel ; it was which gives steel its characteristic properties, and with inevitable that he should. The true nature of oxidation this object in view, Clouet, in 1798, melted a little had been explained ; no wonder that the defenders of the crucible of iron, weighing 57-8 grammes, containing a phlogistic theory should seek to support their case by diamond, weighing o'907 gramme, and obtained a fused appealing to the subtle and obscure changes produced in mass of steel (Fig. 1). iron by such apparently slight causes. Bergman's view His experiment was repeated by many observers, but was, however, combated by Vandermonde, Berthollet, and the results were open to doubt from the fact that furnace Monge, who showed in a report communicated to the gases could always obtain access to the iron, and might, Académie des Sciences, in 1786, that the difference be- as well as the diamond, have yielded carbon to the metal. tween the main varieties of iron is determined by varia ' R. Kirwan, " Essay on Phlogiston and the Constitution of Acids," tion in the amount of carbon, and further that steel must P. 134 (1787). contain a certain quantity of carbon in order that it might notes de MM. de Morveau, Lavuisier, de la Place, Monge, Berthollet, et de
2 Essai sur le Phlogistique," traduit de l'Anglois de M. Kirwan, avec des possess definite qualities. Bergman died in 1784, and the Fourcroy (Paris, 1788), report to which I have referred is full of respect for “ this question is, however, so important that I append the original Latin
texta. 3 See French translation of Bergman's work (Paris, 1783), p. 72. The
Menstruo laxatur compages molecularum, et nova formantur cornubia, * Sylva Sylvarum," and editi. n, 1628, p. 215. ?" Fundamenta Chemiæ," Part 3, p. 451. quoted by Guyton de Morveau
quæ, si majorem, quam diruta, figunt materiæ caloris quantitatem, in vicinia
calor ad restituendum æquilibrium diminuatur oportet, et thermometri in the article "Acier," " Encyc. Methodique, p. 421 (Paris, 1786). hydrargyrum idco subsidet : si minorem, differentia liberatur et viciniam
3 "L'art de convertir le fer forgé en acier, p. 321 et seq. (Paris, 1722). calefacit, unde etiam adscendit thermometri liquor; si denique nova connubia * ProcInst. Mech. Er.gineers, October 188, p. 706.
eamdem præcise quantitatem postulant, quod raro accidit, nulla in thermo$ "Opuscula Physica et Chemica," vol. iii. "De Analysi Ferri" (Upsala, metro videbirur variatio."-Torberni Bergman, "Opuscula Physica et *783) A dissertation delivered June 9, 1781.
Chemica," vol. iii. p. 58, 1783 (" De Analysi Ferri"). De Analysi Ferri," p. 4.
4 Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry," vol. ii p. 505 (1803). ** Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Sciences," 1786 (printed 1788), p. 5 Experiment described by Guyt.n de Morveau, Ann. de Chim., xxxi.
1799, p. 328.
The carbon might have been presented to the iron in the sphere of gas, and employing the form of apparatus shown form of a gas capable of vielding carbon, and this element in this diagram (Fig. 3. The carburized iron which was would as surely have found its way into the steel.
the result of the experiment was thrown upon the screen Margueritte, for instance, in 1865, repeated Clouet's The diamond by union with iron has passed partially a: experiment, ard showed that, although carburization can least to the other form of carbon, graphite, while treatmec: be erfected by simple contact of iron and carbon, it is with a solvent which removes the iron shows that carbon nevertheless true that in the ordinary process of cementa- has entered into intimate association with the iron, a fac tron the gas carbonic oxide plays an important part, which leads us to the next step in the study of the relatiors which had until then been overlooked. The ciscovery by between carbon ard iron. rahur, n 1800, of the occlusion of carbonic oxide by Hempel has shown that, in an atmosphere of nitroger..
iron appears to ass-milate the diamond form of carbon CALCIALE
more readily than either the graphitic or the amorphous QUAMOND
and in the air Gavein
3 represent. 27 172 great r eating the dimod and irom 2. te cum te acide ore
- med between twy terminals, 6, s.
The i glas) as rendered acu E
membe na elbeson is the beate 1 iren gure accorz'ssoperto is therr I am glad
Tooluded gas is espee::
mm Smad Fur to recenter za te mersied the exper mens o me.
en date.p firm through The reserver, e secrec: cautareator of
Petes rendered Tacurus :ror scheter: as rerez betoda bred srce 1815.
23 be cias ads u fuses 22. Ecer, Mr. Perseatedra wire und damerdage er and see. be tea: bengine brievedelecoms buits. I am forms, be directs carbon is associated with molten iron is erasesoramy uc nie daarend behaves :ke the proceset it is, and the state which form eru
his carbon assures.s venced by the rate of cooling efie nocer mass. c; even to heteroral treatment to
be sedited tass os sub ected. Let me repeat. a' are mir with carbcs in the distinct forms of cmend gab tegn! scos: are aake carbon. 15 redst be noteid , er, that carbon should e ce et de sese : amate association with
ser varer wsze mide ex ssence of carbon r soft annealed se srecerem *** ":n xb:cb it occurs in hand seei ! beseen Kerster was the first to solate, in 1837,
$* steei a regrand of iron and carbon. berterase sezaren sor: steel a carbide of iron,
We be azzec :-e forFec: but to attempt • 1 testire work atas direction would serander entre este Innocy add that within the
reis S: F Asei 's ze erch experimental edince in brate erscesce sott c'd rolled steel 19.de. Een de schied by the slow solvent
card * Es work has been 8C is cere senthas been the starting1. Sissed
******15e cascoge should reveal *42ccesser estructure et vous kinds of er seen an:: :21: bezeroare you en
e dragsco Nr. Sorby,
23rated his very
are of seei *Terored the existence
1.edhe ears constituent cesor s cioses related to
Theiad is probably a
c. are mandatically et ::
- Lwich enable me
ze vers 97239 experimenters The a
weer te supuse of Lustration,
; .a ܝܺܬ : ܘܬܝ ܘܗܽ
una che in un Seed Issetute,
o indicate the appearance when soft, hardened, and form, though the converse change has not as yet been lempered steel are respectively treated with a solvent effected. which acts gently on the mass.
Sulphur, again, with which you are familiar as a hard,
brittle, yellow solid, may be prepared and maintained for IRON AND CARBON.
a little time in the form of this brown viscous mass, but
this latter form of sulphur soon passes spontaneously and (0-2 to 1-5 PER CENT OF CARBON.)
slowly at the ordinary temperature, and instantaneously at 100°, to the solid octahedral yellow modification with
evolution of heat. The viscous form of sulphur is an HEATED TO BRIGHT REDNESS
allotropic modification of that element. A few cases of
allotropy in metals have already been established, and SLOWLY COOLED QUICKLY COOLED
when they do occur they give rise to problems of vast "SOFT" "HARD"
industrial importance. Such molecular changes in metals are usually produced by the addition of a small quantity
of foreign matter, and I have elsewhere tried to show that JAPPEARANCE OF METAL WHEN
the molecular change produced by the action of traces ETCHED WITH A SOLVENT
upon masses is a wide-spread principle of nature, and one
which was recognized at the dawn of the science of TAKES PLACE
chemistry, even in the seventh century, although distorted CONTAINS
CONTAINS explanations were given of well-known facts, and gave rise CARRIDE-CARBON
MARDENING-CARBON to entirely false hopes. But it is the same story now as
(OISSOLVED) REDACALLY MIXED
in mediaeval times : the single grain of powder which Raymond Lully said would transmute millions of its weight of lead into gold—the single grain of stone that
Solomon Trismosin thought would secure perpetual HARDENED STEEL REHEATED TO
youth-had their analogues in the small amount of TEMPERATURES VARYING FROM 200°c. 10 400°c.
plumbago which, to Bergman's astonishment in the
eighteenth century, converted iron into steel. By his “TEMPERED"
time it was recognized that the right use of alchemy consisted in the application of its methods to industry, and we still wonder at the minuteness of the quantity of certain elements which can profoundly affect the proper
ties of metals. The statements are true, and are not SENEALED STEEL THE
derived from poetical literature, early or late. Even in CAMBODIL AS IN GREY
TEMPERED AT 400°C. the moral world the significance of the action of traces SCALES
THE CARBIDE IS FINELY DIVIDED. upon masses has been recognized, and the method of
the alchemist survives in the administration of the small
quantity of powder which, in the imagination of Robert A study of the above diagram and of the admir- modification of the benevolent Dr. Jekyll. In thus
Louis Stevenson, will produce the malevolent Hyde able work of Ledeburt will show how complex the borrowing an illustration from one of the most refined relations of carbɔn and iron really are, but, for the and subtle writers of our time, I do not fear the taunt of purposes of the present inquiry it may fairly be asked, Francis Bacon,' that “sottishly do the chymics approDues a change in the mɔde of existence of carbon in priate the fancies and delights of poets in the transformairon sufficiently explain the main facts of hardening and tion of bodies to the experiments of their furnaces ;" for, lempering? It does not. It is possible to obtain by rapid although it may not be possible to transmute metals, it is cooling from a certain temperature steel which is per- easy so to transform them, by very slight influences, that fectly soft
, although analysis proves that the carbon is as regards special service required from them they may present in the form which we have recognized as behave either usefully or entirely prejudicially.
hardening carbon." No doubt in the hardening of steel the carbon changes its mode of existence, but we must cannot take the mɔst striking cases, as it is difficult to
In attempting to illustrate this part of the subject I seek some other theory to explain all the facts, and in demonstrate them in the time at my disposal. The order to do this we will turn to the behaviour of the iron following experiment, which does not, however, depend itself. In approaching this portion of the subject a few elemen- to lead up to the point I wish to insist upon. It consists
upon the action of a trace upon a miss, will enable me tary facts relative to the constitution of matter must be in the release of goll from its alloy with potassium. recalled, and in doing so I must again appeal briefly to When the alloy is treated with water, the gold comes history. It is universally accepted that metals, like all down in a finely divided, dark brown, chemically active elements, are composed of atoms of definite weights state. [Experiment shown on the screen.] and volumes grouped in molecules. In order actually to transmute one metal into another it would be one that first roused suspicion that pure iron could exist
I have chosen this experiment because it was a similar necessary to discover a method of attacking, not the in more than one form. molecule but the atom, and of changing it, and this, so far as is known, has not yet been done ; but it is possible, in a similar minner: is an allotropic form of iron known?
The question at once suggests itself, Can iron behave by influences which often appear to be very slight, to Joule afforded experimental evidence for an affirmative change the relations of the molecules to each other, and answer to this question nearly forty years ago by to alter the arrangements or distribution of the atoms communicating to the British Association in 1850 a within the molecules, and by varying in this sense the molecular arrangement of certain elements, they may be paper on some amalgams. The result of his experiments, made to pass into forms which are very different from published in detail later, in a paper which has been those in which we ordinarily know them. Carbon,
for amalgam with mercury is chemically active, as it com
sadly neglected, showed that iron released from its instance, when free, or when associated with iron, may readily be changed from the diamond to the grap'itic ! Preface to th: "Wision of the Ancients."
2 "0.1 son: Anılgani," M:n. Lit. Pul. Sz. Manchester, vol. il.  * Stahl und Eisen, vol. viii., 1888, p. 742
bines readily with the oxygen of the air at the ordinary investigations, to which, in the limited space of this lectemperature, and he claims that the iron so set free is ture, I can do but scanty justice; and finally, within the allotropic ; but Joule did much more than this. Magnus last few years, Pionchon i showed that at a temperature of had shown (1851) that the thermo-electric properties of 700° the specific heat of iron is altogether exceptional, and hard and soft steel and iron differ. Joule, in a paper on Le Chatelier" has detected that at the same temperature : some thermo-electric properties of solids, incidentally change occurs in the curve representing the electromotive shows that the generation of a thermo-electric current force of iron-both experimenters concluding that they had affords a method of ascertaining the degree of carburiza- obtained evidence of the passage of iron into an allotropu tion of iron, and he appeals to the "thermo-electricity of state. iron in different stales” as presenting a "fresh illustration Osmond, in France, then made the observations of of the extraordinary physical changes produced in iron by Gore and Barrett the starting-point of a fresh inquiry, its conversion into steel," and he adds the expression of which will now be considered at some length, as the belief that the excellence of the latter metal might Osmond has arrived at conclusions of much interest ana be tested by ascertaining the amount of change in importance. thermo-electric condition which can be produced by the
(To be continued.) process of hardening."1 It is by a thermo-electric method that the views as to the existence of iron in allotropic forms has been confirmed. Jullien seems to have inclined ON A NEW APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY to the view that iron is allotropic in his "Théorie de la
TO THE DEMONSTRATION OF CERTAIN Trempe," ? published in 1865, but he cannot be said to have
PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IV PLANTS. added much to our knowledge, although he certainly directed attention to the importance of hardening and MR. WALTER GARDINER, Lecturer on Botany in
The next step was made in Russia, in 1868. Chernoff, evening address at Newcastle on * How Plants maintain who has found an admirable exponent to English readers themselves in the Struggle for Existence," has discovered in Mr. W. Anderson, President of Section G, showed that a new method of printing photographic negatives, employsteel could not be hardened by rapid cooling until it had ing living leaves in place of sensitive paper. Mr. Gardiner been heated to a definite temperature -to a degree of read a paper on the subject before the British Association. redness which he called a. Then in 1873, Prof. Tait 3 Before dealing with the immediate subject of his paper, the used this expression in a Rede Lecture delivered at author described how prints may be obtained from ProtoCambridge: “ It seems as if iron becomes, as it were, a cocci, or the free-swimming swarm-spores of many green different metal on being raised above a certain tempera- Algæ. It is possible to take advantage of their sensitiveture; this may possibly have some connection with the ness to light. Into one end of a water tight box, a thin ferricum and ferrosum of the chemists." He also glass plate is securely fitted. The negative to be printed published his now well-known “first approximation to a is then placed next the glass, film side nearest. The box thermo-electric diagram,” which is of great interest in is filled with water containing a fairly large quantity of view of recent work. At about this time those specially swarm-spores. The lid is shut down, and the whole is interested in this question remembered that Gore had exposed to diffused light. In the case of a strong and shown that a curious molecular change could be produced well-developed negative, the swarm-spores swim towards by heating an iron wire, which sustains a momentary the most highly-illuminated parts, and there in the elongation on cooling. Barrett repeated Gore's experi- greatest numbers come to rest, and settle upon the ment, and discovered that as an iron wire cools down glass, so that, after some four or six hours, on pouring it suddenly glows, a phenomenon to which he gave the out the water and removing the negative, a print in green name recalescence, and these investigations have been swarm-spores can be obtained. The print inay be dried, pursued and developed in other directions by many skil- fixed with albumen, stained, and varnished. The author ful experimenters. 'In 1879, Wrightson called attention then dwelt upon the well-known fact that the whole of the to the abnormal expansion of carburized iron at high animal life upon the globe depends directly or indirectly temperatures.
upon the wonderful synthetic formation of proteid and The next point of special importance seems to me to protoplasm which takes place in the living tissue of be that recorded by Barus, who, by a thermo-electric plants containing chlorophyll, i.e. green plants, or, to be method, showed, in an elaborate paper published in 1879, more exact, in the green chlorophyll corpuscles. He that "the hardness of steel does not increase continuously stated that, whatever is the exact chemical nature of the with its temperature at the moment of sudden cooling, but process, this is at least clear, that the first risible product at a point lying in the dark-red heat the glass-hard state" of the assimilatory activity is starch, which, moreover, is may suddenly be attained by rapid cooling. I shall have found in the chlorophyll grains. The presence of this again to refer to the remarkable series of papers published starch can be made manifest by treating a decolorized by Barus and Strouhal, embodying the results of laborious leaf with a water solution of iodine dissolved in potassic · Phil. Trans., cxlix., 1859, P 91.
iodide. This formation of starch only takes place under 2 * Annexe au traité de la Métallurgie du Fer," 1865.
Nature, vii., 1873, pp. 86, 122, and Trans. Roz: Soc. Edin., xxvii., the influence of light; the radiant energy of the sun pro1873, p. 125.
viding the means of executing the profound synthetic 4 Proc Roy. Suc, xvii., 1869, p. 26).
chemical change, and building up proteid from the car. 5 G. Forbes, Proc. Roy, Soc. Edin, viii, 1874, 363 : Norris
, Proc. Roy: bonic acid of the air which is taken up by the leaves and 103, and 372 ; xxvi. p. 18 ; Newali, Phil. Mag. xxiv., 1887, 435 : XXV", 1888, the salts and water of the soil absorbed by the roots. If Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., No. ii. 187); No. i. 1880.
a plant and preferably a plant with thin leaves) be placed . Barus, Phil. Mag. viii., 1879. p. 34!.
in the dark over-night, and then brought out into the 8 "Hardness (Temper) 'its Llectrical, and other. Characteristics," light next morning, the desired leaves being covered with Barus, Phil. Mag., viti p. 341. 1879: Wied. Ann.. vii. p. 383, 1879; Strouhal and Barus, Wied. Ann., xi. p. 930, 1880; ibid., xx. p. 525, 1883.
a sharp and well-developed negative, starch is formed * Hardness and Magnetizatin," Wied. Ann., xx. pp. 537,, 662. 1883; **Density and (Internal) S.ructure of Hard Steel and of Quenched Glass, Comptes rendus, cii., 1886, pp. 675 and 1454, citi. j. 1133. Barus and Strouhal, American Journ., xxxi. p. 386, 1886; ibid. p. 430 ; • Ibid., cui p 819. ibid., xxxi. p. 181, 1836. “Temper and Chemical Composition," Am. 3 'I he reader will
find the principal part of Osmond's work in the following Journ., xxxii. p. 276, 1886 **Temper and Viscosity," Am. Journ.. xxxii. papers : Osmond et Werth, "Thé rie Cellulaire des Proprieiés de l'Acier." P. 444, 1886; ibid. xxxiii. p. 23, 1887: Barus, ibid., xxxiv. p. I, 1887; ibid., Ann, des Mines, vii'., 1885, p. 5:,"Transformations du Fer et du Carbone." xxxiv. p. 175, 1887. These paper, systematically discussed and enlarged, Pans, Baudoin et Cie., 1888: Etudes Métallurgiques," Arr. des Minys, are embodied with new matter in the Bulletins of the United States Geo Juillet Août, 1888. There is als a very interesting paper. **Sur les logical Survey, viz. Bull., No. 14, pp. 1-226, 1885; Bull, No. 27, pp. Nouveaux Procédés de Trempe, which he communicated to the Mining and 30-61, 1886; Bull., No. 35, PP. 11.00, 1836; Buil., No.42, pp. 93-131, 1887. Metallurgical Congress, Parts, 1889.
when light is transmitted, and in greatest quantity in the The following botanical appointments are announced :— The brightest areas. Thus a positive in starch is produced Directorship of the Botanic Garden at Berlin, vacant by the which can be developed by suitable treatment with death of Dr. Eichler, having been conferred on Prof. Engler, of iodine. (A leaf was then developed, and handed round Breslau, Prof. Urban becomes Second Director of the Berlin to the audience for inspection.] The author showed that Botanic Garden ; and Prof. Prantl, of Aschaffenburg, succeeds. it might be possible to obtain a permanent print by suit- Prof. Engler as Director of the Botanic Garden at Breslau. able washing and treatment with a soluble silver salt, Prof. Sadebeck, of Hamburg, is appointed Director of the silver iodide being formed. The author regards this discovery as a most striking illustration of the way in which Botanic Garden in that town, in the place of the late Dr. plants are working for themselves, and so for all living Reichenbach. Dr. G. von Lagerheim vacates the Professorthings, and points out that the extraordinary manner in ship at Lisbon, to which he was lately appointed, and goes to which the green parts of plants (so to speak) catch the Ecuador as Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanic radiant energy of the sun, and employ it for analytical Garden at Quito. Dr. II. Molisch, of Vienna, takes the Chair and synthetical chemical processes, may be easily and of the late Dr. Leitgeb in the Polytechnic at Gratz. Dr. F. clearly demonstrated.
Hueppe is appointed Professor of Bacteriology at the University of Prague, and is succeeded in the same Chair at Wiesbaden by
Dr. G. Frank, of Berlin. The venerable Professor von Naegeli NOTES.
retires from the Directorship of the Botanic Garden at Munich. We understand that the late Mr. John Ball, F.R.S., has Mr. F. S. Earle, Prof. E. S. Goff, and Prof. L. R. Tast have bequeathed his botanical library and herbarium to Sir Joseph been appointed special agents in the Section of Vegetable Hooker, to the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew for Pathology of the United States Department of Agriculture. the time being, and to the President of the Royal Society for the Mr. H. H. Rusby has been appointed Professor of Botany and time being, requesting them to give the same to such person or Materia Medica in the New York College of Pharmacy. persons or public institution in this country, the British colonies, The Economic Museum, Calcutta, has completed and deor elsewhere in the world, as they or any two of them may spatched the first instalment of important Indian fibres required select, with the sole object of promoting the knowledge of by the India Office for presentation to the Museums of the natural science. Right is, however, reserved for Kew to select Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew and Edinburgh, and to the previously such specimens or books as it may want.
Chambers of Commerce at Dundee and Manchester. The following is the list of names recommended by the Pre A PRIZE of about £20 is offered by the Geographical Societies sident and Council of the Royal Society for election into the of Dresden and Leipzig, for “ a physico-geographical description Council for the year 1890, at the forthcoming anniversary meet. of the course of the Elbe between Bodenbach and its entrance ing on the 30th inst. :-President : Sir George Gabriel Stokes, on the flat country, with special reference to depth, quantity of Bart. Treasurer: Dr. John Evans. Secretaries : Prof. Michael water and its variations, ice, and changes in the form of the Foster, the Lord Rayleigh. Foreign Secretary: Dr. Archibald banks." The date is the end of 1890. Geikie. Other Members of the Council : Prof. Henry Edward Armstrong, Prof. William Edward Ayrton, Charles Baron versity of Toronto, Sir Daniel Wilson, the President of the
In his address at the opening of the winter session of the UniClarke, Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. Edward Emanuel Klein, University, referred to the recent Toronto meeting of the Prof. E. Ray Lankester, Dr. Hugo Müller, Prof. Alfred
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Newton, Captain Andrew Noble, C. B., Rev. Stephen Joseph Everything available for the special requirements of the Perry, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Dr. Edward John Routh, William Association,” he said, “was placed at the disposal of the SecScovell Savory, Prof. Joseph John Thomson, Prof. Alexander tions ; and we are gratified by the assurance that
, at the close of William Williamson, Colonel Sir Charles William Wilson, a highly successful meeting, our visitors carried away with them R.E.
pleasant memories of their reception here.” The meeting of the In the list of Englishmen decorated in connection with the representatives of science in the buildings of the Toronto UniBritish Section of the Paris Exhibition, the names of the follow-versity was in some respects, as the President pointed out, ing men of science are included :-Grand Officer of the Legion peculiarly opportune. "The long-felt need of adequately of Honour : Sir William Thomson, F.R.S. Officers of the furnished and equipped laboratories and lecture-rooms for our Legion of Honour: Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., Sir Henry scientific staff was anew brought into prominence by the restoraRoscoe, M.P., F.R.S., Mr. W. H. Preece, F.R.S. Chevaliers tion to the University of its Medical Faculty; and we now enter of the Legion of Honour : Prof. Francis Elgar, Prof. W. Roberts on the work of another year provided with buildings admirably Austen, F. R.S., Dr. C. Le Neve Foster. Officer of Public In- adapted for biological and physiological study and research. struction : Mr. C. V. Boys, F.R.S.
Plans, moreover, have been approved of, which, when carried The Naturforschende Gesellschaft at Emden is to celebrate its out to their full extent, will furnish equally satisfactory accomseventy-fifth anniversary on December 29 next. The Society was modation for the departments of botany, chemistry, geology, founded in 1814 by twenty-four burgesses of Emden. The and palæontology, along with laboratories, work-rooms, museum, festivities in December will consist of a general meeting of the and other requisites for efficient instruction in the various Society and the Society's correspondents at noon in the Museum, branches of science.” and a Festessen at four o'clock.
The thirty-fourth general meeting of the Society for Psychical A REPORT of the proceedings of the International Zoological Westminster Town Hall. The President (Prof. Sidgwick) gave
Research was held on Friday afternoon, October 25, at the Congress, held in Paris two months ago, will be published an account of the International Congress of Experimental shortly.
Psychology held in Paris last August. The Congress had A French translation of Dr. Wallace's "Darwini-m” will adopted the scheme of a census of hallucinations, already set be published next year.
on foot by the Society for Psychical Research in England, The greater part of the ethnographical collection sent to France, and the United States, and it was hoped that the colthe Paris Exhibition is to remain in Paris, in the Colonial lection of statistics might gradually be extended to other EuroMuseum.
pean countries. Much matter valuable to psychologists was