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thus being collected ; and he trusted that fresh light would be observatory of the University of Naples, to the British Consul thrown on the subject of coincidental or veridical hallucinations, there, and is appended by the latter to his last Report Mount which specially interested their Society. He would be glad to Vesuvius, during the past year, has continued its moderately supply information in reply to letters addressed to hiin at Hill eruptive activity, which began in the month of December 1875. Side, Cambridge. A paper on recent telepathic experiences There were various emissions of small lava streams, which did was also read.

not reach further than the base of the cone. An additional cone We learn from Humboldt that the project of a lacustrine bio- was gradually formed, caused by the activity of the motive power logical station on Lake Plön, in East Holstein, is likely to be of the crater which, towards the end of the year, had reached a soon carried out

, thanks to the energy of Dr. Otto Zacharias, height of 100 metres (equal to 328 feet) above its original level. and the liberality of the Bohemian Baron Bela Dertcheni. This on various occasions the detonations and the red-hot projectiles station is to afford Prof. Anton Fritsch, of Prague, and his thrown up with the large quantities of smoke indicated greater assistants, constant opportunities of research on fresh-water eruptive power. During the whole year no ashes were thrown fauna. The scheme finds a good deal of favour in Berlin, and up, and consequently the crops in the surrounding country were it is hoped that the researches at the station may prove of not destroyed. The sublimations on the smoke issues were

relatively scarce, and did not present any product that called considerable benefit to fisheries.

for attention. The seismographic instruments at the ObservaWe send to America some return for the Colorado beetle and tory did not show an activity proportionate to that of the the Canadian water-weed The "weed-law” of the State of volcano. All the lava streams that issued during the year Wisconsin requires from farmers, under penalties, the destruc- flowed towards the eastern slopes of the mountain. tion of the following weeds :-Cnicus arvensis, Arctium Lappa, Chrysanthemum Lencanthemum, Sonchus arvensis, Xanthium

THE Meteorological Council have published Part I. of the strumarium, Linaria vulgaris, and Rumex crispus. Only one of Quarterly Weather Report for 1880. The work is (as before! these is a native of the United States; all the rest being natural divided into three sections: (1) a general summary of the chief ized importations from Europe, and common wild plants in this features of the weather for the quarter ; (2) tables showing the country.

movements and peculiarities of the principal cyclonic and antiProf. Roghi showed, last year, that ultra-violet radiations various elements for each month, illustrated by charts. An

cyclonic systems ; and (3) remarks on the distribution of the reduce to the same potential two conductors, a plate and a piece appendix contains tables and diagrams illustrating the diaraal of netting, applied to each other, the rays being thrown on the range of the barometer in Great Britain and Ireland during the netting-side. He now points out (Riv. Sci. Ind., July-August) years 1876-80, by F.C. Bayard. The data used are the hourly that this suggests a very simple and convenient way of measuring observations at seven Observatories in connection with the differences of potential of contact. One notes the deflection of Meteorological Office, and at Greenwich and Liverpool Observaan electrometer connected with the plate (the netting being tories. The paper shows that, even in these high latitudes, the permanently connected with earth); then, having connected the daily range is well marked during all months, notwithstanding electrometer for an instant with earth, makes the radiations act a the interference caused by non-periodic changes. Important sufficient time. He used a zinc electric lamp, and the metals seasonal differences are shown, the morning maximum being examined were placed in some cases in a bell jar, to which some distinctly higher than the evening maximum in winter, while in gas or vapour was admitted. From measurements of different summer the evening maximum is the higher of the two. The plates with the same metallic net (copper, zine, or platinum), values exhibit the influence of locality on the amplitude and the differences of potential of pairs of metals could be deduced. epoch of the diurnal inequalities, and furnish material for more Prof. Righi found the differences sensibly the same in dry and minute inquiry. moist air and in carbonic anhydride ; but with hydrogen, very different values (from those in air) appeared, where one of the

It is interesting to read of a part of the world where the buffalo metals examined was platinum, palladium, nickel, or iron is not dying out, but increasing in numbers. A journal of Perth, (doubtless owing to absorption). In ammonia all the meals, in Western Australia, says that few Australians are aware that examined with zinc net, seemed to have become less oxidizable ; certain parts of Northern Australia have vast herds of the wild and in coal gas, carbon and platinum behaved like more i buffalo (Bos bubalus) careering over its plains and wallowing in oxidizable metals. A memoir on the subject will shortly its shady pools

. The Sydney Mail states that the animals are appear.

massive and heavy, with splendid horns, and afford sport of a In an interesting paper on the management of aquaria, printed daring hunter, a wounded buffalo being one of the most dangerous

sufficiently dangerous nature to possess charms for the most in the Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, Mr. W. animals known, his great weight, prominent horns, and splendid P. Seal points out that, in the feeding of the fish, care must be taken to introduce no more food than they can eat in a short courage, making him as well respected as sought after

. The first time, as what is not eaten will soon decompose and make the the year 1829.

buffaloes were landed at Port Essington, North Australia, about water cloudy, and generate noxious gases as well. If due care is observed in regard to quantity, it does not matter how often The Naturalist's Gazette has issued an excellent series of fish are fed, except that if fed abundantly they will grow rapidly, what it calls “label lists." On one sheet there is a list of British which is not generally desired. Fish may be fed every day, or birds' eggs ; on another, a list of dragon-flies ; on another, a list but two or three times a week, with equally good results appar- of British butterflies; and so on. The names are printed in ently. They will always find a small amount of food in the suitable type on gummed paper, and collectors, in labelling aquarium in the vegetation. Where they are not fed sufficiently, their specimens, will find the lists of considerable service. they are apt to strip the plants of their leaves. In a natural

The next volume of Messrs. Ward, Lock, and Co.'s "Minerva condition fish are feeding continually and grow very rapidly. Library of Famous Books” will be "Travels on the Amazon

On November 2 a slight shock of earthquake was felt in St. and Rio Negro,” by Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace. Louis, U.S.A., and the vicinity.

F. A. BROCKHAUS, 16 Querstrasse, Leipzig, has issued a The following summary of the phases of Vesuvius during the catalogue, in four parts, containing lists of works relating to past year has been supplied by Prof. Palmieri, of the Vesuvian various branches of botany.

The Colonies and India states that a discovery has recently duced per hour, so that the experiments, in addition to their been made on a Fiji plantation, which will probably prove interest from a purely chemical point of view, may turn out to extremely valuable in all tropical countries where the cultivation bear fruit technically. The soda produced is stated to be of bananas is regarded as a settled industry. The banana disease chemically pure, and the chlorine to contain but a very small had for some time been causing much havoc on a plantation on ! admixture with other gases. Vanua Levu, and it appears that the discovery of an antidote was due to an accidental occurrence. On a flat near the sea

1 THE additions to the Zoological Scciety's Gardens during the shore there was a patch of bananas much diseased, and some

past week include a Patas Monkey (Cercopithecus patas 8 )

from West Africa, presented by the Rev. James Vernall; a time ago the sea swept into it and remained on it for about an hour. All the plants were killed as far as the standing stems by Captain M. P. Webster, s.s. Roslin Castle ; a Ring-tailed

Cheetah (Cynælurus jubatus 8) from South Africa, presented were concerned, but vigorous young shoots came up freely from Coati (Vasua rufa 9 ) from South America, presented by Mr. the roots, and were not only quite free from disease, but soon J. A. Martin ; two Short-toed Larks (Calandrella brachydactyla) began to bear much larger bunches of fruit than the parent from Devonshire, presented by Commander W. N. Latham, plants ever did. Upon noting this effect the planters deter: R.N., F.Z.S. ; a Sharp-nosed Crocodile (Crocodilus acutus) from mined to try the experiment upon a number of badly diseased Jamaica, presented by the Jamaica Institute; two Tuatera plants which the sea had not reached. They cut down the Lizards (Sphenodon punctatus) from New Zealand, presented by diseased plants, and, having stirred the ground about them, Rear-Admiral Ilenry Fairfax, R.N., C.B., F.Z.S., a Smoothpoured from one to four buckets of sea-water over each. The headed Capuchin (Cebus monachus 8 ) from Brazil, deposited ; result was that, while the parent stems withered, vigorous young a Collared Peccary (Dicotyles tajacu 8 ), four Rosy-billed Ducks shoots came freely away, without a sign of disease.

(Metopiana peposaca 8 8 8 8 ) from South America ; two Grey A SERIES of successful experiments upon the simultaneous Squirrels (Sciurus cinereus) from North America ; four production of pure crystals of sodium carbonate and chlorine gas Finches (Munia nana) from Madagascar, purchased. from common salt are described by Dr. Hempel in the current number of the Berichte. The experiments simply consisted in

1 passing a current of carbon dioxide gas through a solution of

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMV. salt contained in a special form of electrolytic cell, through STELLAR PARALLAX BY MEANS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.-Prof. which an electric current from a few Bunsen's cells or a small Pritchard has sent us his eminently successful “ Researches in dynamo was circulated. The kathode found must convenient Stellar Parallax”

by the aid of photography, from observations consisted of a plate of iron or carbon perforated with numerous

made at the Oxford University Observatory. The advantage in holes about 4 millimetres in diameter, bored obliquely, so that

point of convenience and rapidity in the multiplication of

observations which this method possesses over all others is in. bubbles of gas could readily escape upwards. For anode a calculable, and it is interesting to note that in the case of 61, similar plate of thin perforate i carbon was employed. Both elec Cygni the parallax obtained was o":4294 o" 0162, and that trodes were circular in shape, and between them was placed a Bessel's probable error is practically identical with this here diaphragm of thick asbestos paper, which was directly squeezed stated. Hence, as far as the present results are concerned, between the two plates. This arrangement was found to possess regarded as possessing an equality of accuracy.

photographic and heliometric measures of parallax may be the double advantage of bringing the two electrodes within The following list contains the stars whose parallax has been I millimetre of each other, and so greatly diminishing the determined by this novel method, and some of the results internal resistance, and of affording such excellent support to

obtained :the asbestos diaphragm that any rupture of the latter was

61, Cygni

+ 6-429 + 7 016 entirely prevented. The electrodes and their enclosed dia

61,

+ 0*432 0019 phragm were supported in a circular glass cell in such a manner u Cassiopeixe

+ 0.021 0023 that they divided the cell into two distinct chambers. To the Polaris

+ 0'052 = 0'011 glass wall of the cell on the positive or anode side was fitted a

a Cassiopeia

+ 0 035 # 0024 wide side tube, through which the salt was supplied as often as

B

+ 0'157 + 0'036

- 0*032 0'026 necessary in solid pieces, a little water being also from time to

a
Cephci

+ 0*073 +0'031 time added to replace that taken up in the crystallization of the sodium carbonate . A delivery tube was also attached to the Cygni is worthy of note. The average of eight determinations

The almost identical parallax of the two components of 61 upper portion of the anode chamber in order to conduct away gives a value o" 437, which is a close approximation to Dr. the liberated chlorine gas. The negative or kathode chamber Belopolsky's value of 0.50 as the absolute parallax of 61 Cygni. was supplied at its upper end with an opening serving on the Bessel determined a small negative parallax for u Cassiopeia, one hand to introduce the carbon dioxide delivery tube, and on but Dr. Struve 'assigned it a value + 0"-342. The very small the other to extract the crystals of sodium carbonate. The positive parallax given by Prof. Pritchard may be explanatory of

Bessel's negative determination. apparatus was thus found to work continuously for weeks to

The small negative parallax found for a Cassiopeiæ would gether, the asbestos diaphragm withstanding the pressure very indicate that it and the comparison stars are in the same group, satisfactorily. The separation of the soda crystals is readily although its bright line spectrum points to a constitution different explained by the well-known fact of the difficult solubility of from that of other stars in this constellation. sodium carbonate in solutions of sodium chloride; as fast as the it evident that no relation exists between the lustre and parallax

Even a cursory examination of the summary of results renders electric current decomposes the sodium chloride into chlorine of stars, and indeed, since we probably view bodies which are and sodium, the carbon dioxide converts the sodium hydrate still in various stages of condensation, we should hardly expect formed by the reaction of the sodium upon water into the normal to find any such relation. carbonate, which, in presence of the constantly replenished com MEASUREMENTS OF DOUBLE STARS.- Astronomische Nachmon salt, at once separates in the usual monoclinic form of richten, Nos, 2929-30, contain a series of double star observaNa.Coz. 10H,0. The total resistance of the cell is only about tions made with the 36-inch refractor of the Lick Observatory five and a half volts, which may be still further reduced by by Mr. S. W. Burnham. The discovery is claimed of two very constructing both electrodes of carbon. Using a small dynamo. double has also been detected by Mr. E. E. Barnard just outside

saint stars in the trapezium of Orion, and an excessively faint electric machine, 64'5 grams of chlorine and 259.8 grams of and preceding the trapezium. The observers believe that, in Na,CO3. 10H1,0 per horse-power of 680 volt-amperes were pro- spite of the numerous alleged discoveries of saint stars in this

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region, it is impossible to see such as these now found with an some change in the spectrum away from the nucleus, but was aperture much less than that of the Lick telescope. A list is unable to complete the observation on account of clouds, and therefore given of the principal communications to astronomical have not since had an opportunity of repeating it. periodicals relating to the alleged discovery of faint stars in the (2) The bright lines most constantly seen in the spectruin of trapezium of Orion.

this star are C, F, and Dy, but their appearance is somewhat BARNARD'S COMET, 1888-89.--Comptes rendus, No. 17,

irregular. Continuous observations, with special reference to October 21, 1889, contains some observations made by MM. the relative intensities of the lines, are suggested. The lines are Rayet and Courty of the motion of Barnard's comet, the posi- well seen in a co-inch equatorial with a Maclean spectroscopic tions of the comparison stars being also given. The series of eye-piece. Bright fluting of carbon have also been suspected, observations extend from September 11, 1888, to September 27, and comparisons should be made with the Bunset or spirit1889.

lamp to confirm these. The continuous spectrum should also be

carefully examined for maxima. b, D, and other absorptionBIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON J. C. Houzeau.-M. A. Lan- lines, have also been recorded. caster, the collaborator with Houzeau of the most comprehensive (3) This is a star which gives a spectrum of dark fiutings bibliography extant, has proved himself, in this note, to be fading away towards the red. Duner records bands 2 to 9, and the most capable of writing his deceased friend's biography. describes the spectrum as superb. Band 3, near D, is of extra. Houzeau's scientific and literary labours cover an extensive ordinary width. The spectra of this type have been explained field : astronomy and geodesy, mathematics and meteorology, as mixed metallic fluting absorption and carbon floting radiation. geology and geography, are áll represented in his works; and The carbon flutings probably present are 517 and 468-474, which when but a young man, he directed the triangulation of his again may be determined by comparison with the spirit-lamp, country. In politics Houzeau was an enthusiast, and whilst in 517 being the brightest green fluting: America, about 1861-69, he gave a considerable amount of atten

Dunér's notation and mean wave-lengths of the dark bands tion to the subject of the emancipation of the slaves, and wrote are as follows :-(1) 648-666, (2) 616'2-629:8, (3) 586 7-5968, numerous and important articles upon it. In 1875, Houzeau (4) 559-8-564'9, (5) 5452-551-5, (6) 524 3-528-1, (7 516-8completed a series of astronomical and meteorological observa: 522·2, (8) 495 9-5030, (9) 4760-483-0, (10) 460-7-473. The tions made at Jamaica, and in the following year was appointed bright spaces between 7 and 8, and 9 and 10 are probably due Director of the Brussels Observatory. His crowning work-the to carbon. “Vade Mecum of Astronomy," was finished in 1882. It repre (4) This is a star of Class II.a, which is now divided into two sented the work of a lifetime, and as a guide to astronomers is groups, one having spectra of the type of a Tauri (Group 111.), invaluable. Such a compilation, however, calls for continual and the other of the sun (Group V.). The lines should be careadditions, and a general bibliography was published in 1887, fully observed, and differences from the solar spectrum, if any, with the assistance of M. A. Lancaster. This was Houzeau's noted, so that the star can be classed in one group or the other. last work, but before his death, on July 12, 1888, he earnestly The principal criteria so far determined for Group III. are expressed the wish that it should be carried on by his colla: strong lines at 469 and 540. 568 and 579. The line at 540 borator. Houzeau's life was full of vicissitudes, and his biography forms with E (5268), and the iron line at 5327 (both solar lines), is most interesting.

an equi- distant trio. The difference between the two groups THE KARLSRUHE Observatory. The third volume of the may perhaps best be observed by a comparison of Aldebaran Publications of the Grand-Ducal Observatory of Karlsruhe has and Capella. recently been published by Dr. W. Valentiner, the Director. (5) The spectrum of this star is Class I.a (Group IV.). The The bulk of the volume is by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz, and relative intensities of the hydrogen and metallic lines should be consists, first, of a series of measures with the 6-inch refractor of noted, in order that the star may be arranged with others in the two star-clusters M. 35 and M. 25 ; secondly, of a discussion order of temperature. of the orbit of Comet Wells, 1882 I., and the derivation of (6) Dunér gives the spectrum of this star as Class III 6 (Group definitive elements ; and lastly, of auxiliary tables for the com- VI.), in which the main features are three dark carbon datings putation of parallax for 169 different observatories.

fading away towards the blue. Other absorptions, if any, should Dr. Boy Mattheissen adds a short paper on the orbit of Comet be carefully observed, and their relative intensities recorded. Denning, 1881 V.

(7) This is a variable star, which reached its maximum on The volume contains three plates, the first two being maps of November 6. The magnitude at maximum is given by Gore as the star-clusters under observation, whilst the third gives photo- 6'9-8-3, and the period as 165'1 days. The spectrum has not graphs of the same two clusters as taken by Dr. E. von Gothard yet, so far as I know, been recorded. A. FOWLER. at Herény.

OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE.
Sidereal Time at Greenwich, at 10p.m. November 7 = 1h. 9m. gs.

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

The telegrams in the papers of Monday and Tuesday from
Name.

R.A.
Mag Colour.

1890'0.

Mr. Stanley are of the most suggestive and interesting charac.er. 1890*0.

For one thing, Emin, Casati, and others who have been holding out, are safe, though the brave Pasha has evidently been deserted

by most of his men. That Mr. Stanley's expedition was needed (1) Nebula in Andromeda Greenish-white.

+ 40 30*14 the result has proved. He reached the Albert Nyanza for the (2) y Cassiopeia

Bluish-white. (3) 47 Piscium ... Yellowish-red.

third time, not a moment too soon to rescue the retreating (4), Ceti Yellowish-white.

Decl.

h. m. $. o 35

2

+60 7
+ 6 59'2

4 O 50 1 0 42 58 O 13 48 0 7 34 O 21 42 18

party. We need not dwell on the sacrifices that have been en(5) y Pegasi White.

tailed ; they might to some extent have been avoided, but per(6) D.M. + 34° 55'

Deep red.

+34 53 (7) T Herculis Reddish.

sonally Mr. Stanley is not to blame. The geographical results 4 56 +31 O

of the expedition, as shadowed in the too brief telegram in

Tuesday's papers, are evidently of the highest interest. There Remarks.

is now no doubt that there is a southern Albert Lake, Muta (1) Dr. Huggins notes that the spectrum ends abruptly in the From the time when he himself discovered what he called Beatrice

Nzige, which Mr. Stanley has named Lake Albert Edward. orange. Maxima of brightness have since been recorded by myself at, approximately, 468–474, 517, and 546, and the latter

Gulf until the present, no one had seen this lake. At first it two have also been confirmed by Mr. Taylor. Further con

was thought to be a part of the northern lake, Albert Nyanza, but firmation is required. For comparison, a Bunsen or spirit-lamp

that idea had to be given up. Now it is clear that it is connected flame will be found convenient for the first two, and the brightest

with that lake by the River Sempliki. The southern lake is sluting seen when lead chloride is introduced into the flame for

900 feet higher than the northern, and so is about 3200 feet the third. Mr. Lockyer suggests that since the central conden

above sea-level, and 450 feet above Lake Tanganyika, with sation is probably at a higher temperature than the surrounding

which it is unlikely to have any connection. Mr. Stanley skirted portions of the nebula, different parts of the nebula should show

the snowy mountain range referred to in his letters of six months differences in their spectra. Observing with Mr. Lockyer's 30

ago, and found that they send down fifty streams to feed the inch reflector at Westgate-on-Sea, on October 20, I suspected

* Roy. Soc. Proc., vol. xlv. pp. 385-392.

- 9 26

+14 34

Var.

?

Sempliki. Awamba, Usongora, Toro, Ahaiyama, Unyampaka, Cretin to the Legoarant Islands, by the former Governor, Viceand Anhori, are all districts around the west, north, and east Admiral Freiherr von Schleinitz, with a map designed by shores of the Lake Albert Edward, three sides of which Mr. him. According to this account, Kaiser Wilhelmsland is subStanley says he has traversed-probably the east, west, and north ject to the south-east trade wind. This is, however, occasionally sides, though it is possible he may have gone round the south relieved by the opposite wind, when, viz., the sun in southing side. It is probable that the lake as laid down on our maps is imparts to the Australian continent a temperature higher than much too large, and that it is comparatively small Mr. Stanley that of New Guinea. The temperature, averaging 26 to 27° C., found it to be 15 miles wide at Beatrice Gull. From the lake is not so high as might be inferred from the equatorial situation he struck south-east to Karagwe and Uzinze, on the south-west of the land, a fact due in part to the prevalence of the trade and south of Victoria Nyanza, and no doubt found at Mslala the wind, which also brings with it a cooling sea-current to the stores which have been accumulating for many months. Thus coast, and in part to the considerable elevation of most of the it will be seen Mr. Stanley has solved one of the few remaining island. The north-west, blowing especially from January to problems of African geography. He has found the south-west April, comes on the whole with greater force than the southsource of the Nile, and established the true relations which exist east. Calms often occur from March to May and from October among the great lakes of Central Africa. He has filled up an to December. Precipitation is on the whole copious, but there important blank in our mass, and collected observations which are many differences according to the local variations in the will enable us to understand the physical geography of one of configuration of the land. The navigation of the coast offers no the most interesting regions on the continent. Probably he particular dangers and difficulties, either for steamers or sailingwill be able to tell us what has become of the Alexandra Lake vessels. Serious storms are extremely rare, nor are there any of his former expedition. It may be as well to state that the reefs in the channel proper. Sea currents do not strike direct telegram of Monday was in effect the first part of that of Tuesday, on the coast, and they are not generally very strong. The tides and therefore Emin's safety was not again referred to in the are inconsiderable, the spring floods keeping under 1 metre. latter. The Zanzibar Correspondent of the Times telegraphed on the site of the new Rathhaus. At a depth of o to 0*7 metre

SOME interesting remains have been found in Hamburg on November 5 that authentic news had reached Lamu that Dr. Peters and the whole of his party had been massacred, except with dams of thin willow twigs (Salix fragilis), in many places

the ground was covered to a height of 10 to 15 centimetres one European and one Somali, wounded, who are at Ngao. Some say they were killed by Masais, and some by Somalis.

two, sometimes even three, layers above one another, and

separated from one another by equally thick earth layers. FROM the Journal of the Anthropological Society in Vienna, The building rests on clay, i.e. submerged ground, which conwe take the following conclusions of Dr. B. Hagen, respecting tained heaps of freshwater shells, e.g. Valvata piscinalis, the Malay peoples : — Their great predilection for the sea, Bythinia tentaculata, &c., as also Cardium edule, Tellina baltica, which makes them pray to Allah that they may die on sea,

Mactra solida, &c. When therefore the dam was made, the seems to render the Malay race adapted for the Polynesian water must have been strongly brackish. The interest in this and Further Indian Archipelago. The centre from which discovery was heightened when there was found, under St. they migrated is to be sought in the highlands of West Anne's Bridge, at a depth of 0.5 metre, a regularly paved street Sumatra, particularly in the old kingdom of Menang-Kabau. of small boulders, such as were still used for stone pavement Thence the peoples extended slowly eastwards; at first prob- in all North German towns in the last century. The stone dam ably the races now to be found only in the interior of the was about 5 metres broad, and encased on both sides by thick great islands (the Battas in Sumatra, the Sundanese in Java, wooden planks, in order, in the swampy ground, to prevent the Dayaks in Borneo, the Alfurus in Celebes, &c.). These the slipping out of the stones sideways. The ascertained ** aborigines" of the islands crushed out a population already changes in the level of the North Sea give no positive clue in possession, as remains of which the Negritos may be taken. to the age of the Hamburg finds. The Malays in the narrower sense occupying Sumatra, Malacca, and North Borneo, are to be regarded as the last emigration from the centre referred to, occurring from the twelfth to the fifteenth century A.D. With the Indians and Chinese, who have been long in intercourse with the archipelago, arose

THE INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL mixtures and crosses, in less measure also with the Arabs.

ENGINEERS. One must not therefore expect the pure racial type, especially in the coast population. The crania of the anthropological collections On Monday evening the first annual dinner of the Institution

of Electrical Engineers took place at the Criterion Reof any service for a judgment of the Malay peoples.of staurant, Sir William Thomson, the President, occupying the more value are the measurements of the living begun by chair. Many different branches of science were represented on Dr. Weisbach and executed by Dr. Hagen in 400 cases.

the occasion, and some of the after-dinner speeches rose to a The latter's conclusions are :-(1) The peoples in the interior high level of excellence. of Sumatra-the Battas, the Allas, and the Malays of Menang.

Due horour having been done to the usual loyal toasts, and Kabau-compose a closely allied group always in direct contrast Major Webber and Captain Wharton having responded for the with the hither-Indian peoples, and yet showing just as little Army and Navy, the Chairman proposed “Her Majesty's community with the Chinese. We must therefore take them for Ministers ” Lord Salisbury said, in response :the pure original type, characterizable as follows :-Small, com

Sir William Thomson and Gentlemen, — I have to thank you pact, vigorous figure of less than 1600 mm. average size ; long on behalf of my colleagues in the Goverment and myself for the arms; very short legs; very long and broad mesocephalous exceedingly kind reception you have given to the kind words in skull of very great compass, with high forehead ; a prognathous which Sir William Thomson has proposed this toast. I do not face 10 per cent. broader than long, with large mouth, and uncom- feel that I can accept the guise in which he put my name forward. monly short, fat, and broad nose with large round nostrils opening on the contrary, though recognizing, as every individual must mostly frontwise, and with broad nasal root. (2) The Malays of do, and as I have especial reason to do, the enormous benefits the east coast of Sumatra and those of the coasts of Malacca which electrical science confers upon mankind, I feel that I have indicate a much greater affinity to the Indians than to their

reason rather to apologize for my appearance in this assembly, tribal peoples of Menang-Kabau. They are plainly therefore When I look round on so many learned and distinguished men, i thoroughly mixed with Indian blood. (3) The Javanese peoples feel rather in the position of a profane person who has got inside stand much nearer to the original type of the Sumatrans than the Eleusinian mysteries. But I have an excuse. The gallant to the Malays just mentioned. They show therefore less mixture gentlemen who replied for the Army and Navy were able to show with Indian, but on the other hand more mixture with Chinese, many particulars in which their special professional vocation was blood, and the Javanese more so than the Sundanese.

sustained and pushed forward by the discoveries of electrical

science. But I will venture to say that there is no department The second number of this year's "Information respect. under the Government so profoundly indebted to the discoveries ing Kaiser Wilhelmsland and the Bismarck Archipelago,"

of those who have made this science as the Foreign Office, with issued by the German New Guinea Company, contains a de. which I have the honour to be connected. I may say that we scription of the north coast of New Guinea, from Cape positively exist by virtue of the electric telegraph. The whole

work of all the Chancelleries in Europe is now practically con- was such that the forces which it produced could only act in ducted by the light of that great science, which is not so old as its own immediate neighbourhood, and therelore those who were the century in which we live. And there is a strange feeling that to utilize its forces and translate them into practical work were you have in com nunicating constantly and frequently day by day compelled to gather round the steam engine in vast factories, in with men whose inmost thoughts you know by the telegraph, but great manufacturing towns, and in great establi-hments where whose faces you have never seen. It is something more than a men were collected together in unnatural, and often unwholemere departmental effect which these great discoveries have had some, aggregation. Now an agent has been discovered, by upon the government of the world. I have often thought that if which the forces of the steam-engine, stiff, confined to its uwo history were more philosophically written, instead of being centre, can be carried along, far away from its original souTCES, divided according to the domination of particular dynasties to distances which are already great, and which science promises or the supremacy of particular races, it would be cut off into to make more considerable still. I do not despair of the result the compartments indicated by the influence of particular that this distribution of forces may scatter those aggregations of discoveries upon the destinies of mankind. Speaking only of humanity, which I think it is not one of the highest merits of these modern times, you would have the epoch marked by the discovery of the steam-engine to have produced. If it ever the discovery of gunpowder, the epoch marked by the dis does happen that in the house of the artisan you can turn on covery of the printing-press, and you would have the epoch power as now you can turn on gas--and there is nothing in the marked by the discovery of the steam-engine. And those essence of the problem, nothing in the facts of the science, a: discoveries have had an influence infinitely more powerful, not we know them, that should prevent such a consommation from only upon the large collective destinies, but upon the daily taking place--if ever that distribution of power should be so life and experience of multitudes of human beings, than even organized, you will then see men and women able to pursue in the careers of the greatest conquerors or the devices of the their own homes many of the industries which now require the greatest statesmen. In that list which our ignorance of ancient aggregation at the factory: You may, above all, see women history in its essential character forbids us to make as long as n? and children pursue these industries without that disruption of doubt it might be made, the last competitor for notice and families which is one of the most unhappy results of the present not the least would be the science of electricity. I think the requirements of industry. And if ever that result should come historian of the future when he looks back will recognize that from the discoveries of Oersted and Faraday, you may say that there has been a larger influence upon the destinies of mankind they have done more than merely to add to the physical forces of exercised by this strange and fascinating discovery than even mankind. They will have done mueb to sustain that unity, that in the discovery of the steam-engine itself

, because it is a integrity of the family, upon which rest the moral hopes of our discovery which operates so immediately upon the moral and race and the strength of the community to which we belong. intellectual nature and action of mankind.' The electric tele These are some of the thoughts which electricity suggests to one graph has achieved this great and paradoxical result, that it has, of my trade, Pardon me if I have wandered into what may as it were, assembled all mankind upon one great plane where seem to be speculative and unfamiliar fields. But, after all, the they can see everything that is done, and hear everything that is point of view from which we must admire the splendid additions said, and judge of every policy that is pursued at the very to our knowledge which the scientific men of the world, and moment when those events take place ; and you have by the especially of England, during this centary have made, is that action of the electric telegraph, combine 1 together almost at they have enabled mankind to be more happy, to be more conone moment, and acting at one moment upon the agencies which tented, and therefore to be more moral, govern mankind, the influences of the whole intelligent world Sir Frederick Abel proposed, and Sir George Gabriel Stokes with respect to everything that is passing at that time on the responded for, " The Learned Societies"; and Sir John Coode face of the globe. 'It is a phenomenon to which nothing in the responded for the toast of "The Professional Societies," which history of our planet up to this time presents anything which is was proposed by Mr. Latimer Clark. The toast of "The Inequal or similar, and it is an effect and operation of which the stitution of Electrical Engineers " was then proposed by Lord intensity and power increases year by year. When you ask Salisbury. In the course of his response, Sr Williain Thomson what is the effect of the electric telegraph upon the condition said :of mankind, I would ask you to think of what is the most One very renarkable piece of work they should think of conspicuous feature in the politics of our time, the one especially this year, and during the last few weeks, when they which occupies the thoughts of every statesman, and which deplored the loss of one of the greatest workers in electrical places the whole future of the whole civilized world in a con- science and its practical application that the world had ever seen dition of doubt and question. It is the existence of those - Joule. The great scientific discoveries of Faraday, which gigantic armies held in leash by the various Governments of the were prepared almost deliberately for the purpose of allowing world, whose tremendous power may be a guarantee for the others to turn them to account for the good of man, hat been happiness of mankind

and the maintenance of civilization, but going on for about fifteen years, when a young man took up the who, on the other hand, hold in their hands powers of destruc. subject with a profound und penetrating genius most rare in any tion which are almost equal to the task of levelling civilization branch of human study, and perceived relations with mechanical to the ground. What gives these armies their power? What power which had never been suspected before. Joule saw the enables them to exist ? By what power is it that one single will relations between electricity and force, and his very first detercan control these vast millions of men and direct their destructive mination of the mechanic equivalent was an electrical measureenergies at one moment on one point? What is the condition of ment. His communication to the British Association, when it simultaneous direction and action which alone gives to these vast met in Cork in the year 1841, pointed out for the first time the armies this tremendous power? It is nothing less than the electric distinct mechanical relation between electric phenomena and telegraph. And it is from that small discovery, worked out by mechanical force. Joule was not a mere visionary who saw and a few distinguished men in their laboratories upon experiments admired something in the air, but he pursued what he saw to the of an apparently trivial character, on matter and instruments very utmost practical point of work, and he it was who derernot, in the first instance, of a very recondite description-it is mined the mechanical equivalent of heat. Afterwards he on that discovery that the huge belligerent power of molera thoroughly confirmed the principle of his first determination of States, which marks off our epoch of history from all that have the mechanical equivalent of heat. Both in electricity and gone before, must be held, by anyone who investigates into the mechanical action he laid the foundation of the great developcauses of things, absolutely to depend. I would venture to hope ment of thermodynamics, which would be looked upon in that this is not all, in its great effect upon the history and govern- future generations as the crowning scientific work of the present ment of our race, that electricity may achieve. Whether it so century. It was not all due to Joule, but he had achieved one far is good or evil in the main, it must be for the future to deter- of the very greatest monuments of scientific work in the present mine. We only know that the effect, whatever it is, will be century. For an Institution of Electrical Engineer it was gigantic. But in the latter half of the short life of this young interesting to think that the error relating to one of the most science another aspect of it has been developed-an aspect which important electrical elements, the unit of resistance (now called I cannot help hoping may be connected with great benefits to the the ohm), as determined electrically in the first place by a Comvast community of industrious and labouring men-I mean that mittee of the British Association, and by purely electrical facility for the distribution of power of which electricity has method, was first discovered by Joule's mechanical measurement. given such a splendid instance. The event of the last century It was foule's mechanical measurement which first corrected the was the discovery of the steam-engine. Bit the steam-engine British Association unit, and gave the true ohm.

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