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UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL carried by wind or insects, while the agency of man, birds, or

wind, disseminated the hybrid seeds. - On the relation of certain CAMBRIDGE.—The following examiners have been appointed : magnetic perturbations to earthquakes, by M. Mascart. The Natural Sciences Tripos : Physics, Prof. Carey Foster and W.

former, in the Park of St. Maur, and the latter, at Gallipoli, N. Shaw; Chemistry, Prof. W. A. Tilden and Prof. Liveing ; seem to have occurred simultaneously at 11.35 p.m. on October Mineralogy. Prof. Lewis and L. Fletcher ; Geology, Prof.

25. The suspended copper bar was not in the least deflected, Green and W. W. Watts ; Botany, F. Darwin and D. H.

and the magnetic disturbance cannot be attributed to mechanical Scott ; Zoology, Prof. Lankester and S. F. Farmer ; Human

transmission of the shock.-On certain harmonic linear elements, Anatomy, Drs. Hill and Windle; Physiology, Prof. Stirling by M. Raffy: -On a formula connecting vapour-pressure with and C, S. Sherrington.

temperature, by M. N. de Saloff.-On the equilibrium of disFirst M.B. and Special B.A. : in Elementary Physics, S. L. tribution between chorine and oxygen, by M. H. Le Chatelier. Hart and H. F. Newall; Elementary Chemistry, F. H. Neville

He shows that the value of all the coefficients may be calcuand S. Kuhemann; Elementary Biology, S. F. Harmer and

lated a priori, and supplies the required formulæ. -On some Prof. H. M. Ward Special B.A. in Geology, Prof. Green and

double nitrites of ruthenium and potassium, by MM. A. Joly W. W. Watts ; in Pharmaceutical Chemistry for Second M.B.,

and M. Vèzes. In contact with alkaline nitrites, the brown M. M. Pattison Muir and H. Robinson.

sesquichloride of ruthenium is transformed into a red salt. The following are Moderators (Mathematical Tripos) for the According to the temperature, and according as the nitrite year beginning May 1, 1890:-W. W. R. Ball and A. J.

or the red chloride predominate, a deposit is formed either of Wallis. Examiners' in Part I., W. L. Mollison and E. Ć. yellow crystallice powder, sparingly soluble in cold water, Gallop; in Part II., Prof. Darwin, J. Larmor, and R.

or of large, very soluble orange-red crystals. These two subLachlan.

stances are double nitrites of potassium and ruthenium. The W. B. Hardy, of Gonville and Caius College, has been

formulae obtained do not at all agree with those for similar appointed Junior Demonstrator of Physiology.

compounds obtained by Claus, – Fixation of nitrogen by L. R. Wilberforce, M.A., of Trinity College, is approved as the Leguminosa, by M. Bréal. Having before found that a Teacher of Physics for M. B. lectures.

nodosities full of Bacteria could be easily produced in the There has been a serious discussion of the financial manage roots of a leguminous plant, by pricking with a needle previously ment and prospects of the mechanical workshops at Cambridge.

inserted in a nodosity, he here shows that such plants, with Whatever be the merits of the points in dispute, such division of nodosities, flourish on soil poor in azotized matter ; yielding crops. opinion and feeling is very unfortunate, and much to be deplored rich in nitrogen, and fixing this element in the soil by their roots. in the interests of mechanical science and engineering in the -On air in the soil, by M. Th. Schlesing, fils. Ploughed l'niversity. It was unfortunate that the University declined to land was found to contain a relatively large amount of oxygen establish an advanced examination or Tripos in engineering sub at least to the depth of 50 or 60 cm. The carbonic acid generjects; and it is calamitous that the Museums work should not ally increased with the depth ; but in two cases the reverse he given to the Department located within their own borders.

occurred, when high wind (renovating the upper layer) had been We trust a cordial understanding may soon be re-established; followed by hot and calm weather, and more CO, was generated frut this division is very unlike the strong action by which, even

in the soil than in the sub-soil. In sloping pastures, most when opinions have been divided, scientific teaching has steadily

CO, was found at the bottom. The mobility of air in the soil progressed of late years at Cambridge.

should be taken into account.-On sorbite, by MM Vincent The managers of the John Lucas Walker Fund, have made the and Delachanal. This substance very frequently occurs in following grants in aid of original research in pathology :

nature; it is found in all fruits of Rosacea, and is especially 414 25. 3. to J. G. Adami, Demonstrator of Pathology, for ex- / abundant in years (8 grammes per kilcgramme), cherries and penses of his investigations on the pathology of the heart ; £35 prunes (7 grammes). Acted cn by hydricdic acid it yields iu William Hunter, M.D. Edin., John Lucas Walker Student,

| B-hexylene and other products (ihe same as are thus obto defray expenses incurred in his research on the pathology of tained from mannite). . The fcrmation of a hexacetyl derithe blood;' 430 to E. Hanbury Hankin, to defray expenses

vative from sorbite proves that it is a hexatomic alcohol. of his research on the nature of immunity from infectious diseases. The formula of anhydrous sorbite is C&H (OH). - Researches

Mr. J. W. Clark has been re-elected President of the on crystallized digitáline, by M. Arnaud. He regards it as a Philosophical Society.

definite che mical species ; and it appears to be the type of a

whole series, including tanghinine (one of the active principles St. John's COLLEGE.-At the annual election of Fellows, on

of the tanguin. -- Experimental researches on the metamorNov. 4, the choice of the Council fell upon the following members phosis of Ånoura, by M. E. Bataillon. He finds accelerof the College : John Parker, Seventh Wrangler, 1882, well ation of the rhythm of respiration (65 to 120), and reknown as the author of numerous papers, in the Philosophical tardation of that of the heart (70 10 45) during metamorphosis. Magazine and elsewhere, on thermodynamics and electricity; Ilumphry Davy Rolleston, First Class Natural Sciences Tripos , nearly synchronous. At the stage of this appearance, further,

Before appearance of the fore-legs, the two movements were (Human Anatomy and Physiology), 1886, who has been University Demonstrator in Pathology, in Human Anatomy, and in

the production of carbonic acid was found to have diminished Physiology, author of memoirs on endocardiac pressure and on was established. -On the earthquake of July 28, 1889, in the

considerably, and the

curve rose suddenly when aërial respiration other anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological subjects, island of Kiushiu, in Japan, by M. J. Wada. This was prenow one of the Assistant Demonstrato's of Anatomy at St.

ceded by exceptional rains during July. The longer axis of the Bartholomew's Hospital ; Alfred William Flux, bracketed

ellipse of land affected was north-east to south-west, and cut in Senior Wrangler, 1887, and First Class (Division 1) Mathe

the middle, at right angles, the line joining two volcanoes, ico ma atical Tripos, Part II., 1888, Marshall Prrizeman in Political Economy, 1889, author of papers on physical opties. Mr.

kilometres apart.

BERLIN. Kolleston is the son of the late Prof. Rolleston, of Oxford. The success of students of physical and biological science at this

Physiological Society, October 18.-Prof. du Bois-Reymond, College is striking.

President, in the chair. - Prof. Kossel spoke on the application

of the microscope in connection with physiological chemistry, SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

It has long been the practice to seek for and identify any minute

crystals in tissues which occur either naturally or as the result of PARIS.

treatment with reagents, in order to arrive at a qualitative deterAcademy of Sciences, October 28.-M. Des Cloizeaux, mination of the localized distribution of certain well-known President, in the chair.-M. Bertrand presented a volume substances in the organism. To identify a crystal by measureentitled " Lectures on the Mathematical Theory of Electricity, ment of its angles is a laborious process, and to determine it by mere delivered at the College of France.”—On some hybrids observed comparison of its appearance with drawings of known crystals is recently in Provence, by M. G. De Saporta. "Three are de insufficient. The optical properties of crystals are extremely scribed : (1) between Pinus halepensis, Mill., and P. pinaster, well adapted to assist in their identification ; this is exemplified I ;(2) between Quercus Mirbeckii and Q. pubescens, Wild. ; (3) in the case of determining the plane of vibration of the ordinary het ween Tilia Natypiylla, Scop., and T. argentea, Desf. ; in and extraordinary rays when crystals are examined between each case, the pollen of a preponderating species acting on that crossed Nicols. To carry out the determination by this means, of a subordinate one, or one accidentally introduced, being the field of view of the microscope is provided with cross-wires,

whose directions are parallel to the principal planes of the two

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER & Nicols. The crystal under examination is then placed with one

ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 8. edge under one of the cross-wires ; if the field of vision remains

MONDAY, NOVEMBER 11. dark, then the planes of vibration in the crystal are known to ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30 --Cyprus: Lieut-General Site correspond to the chief planes of the two Nicols. If, however,

Robert Biddulph, G C.M.C. the field of vision becomes bright the crystal must be rotated, by

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 12. means of a graduated object-carrier until it is again dark. The ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30---Observations on the Karun angle through which the carrier has been rotated is a measure of

Colour of the Skin in certa.n' Oriental Races: Dr. J. Bed loc, FRI

Manners, Customs, Superstitions, and Religions of South African Trites: the angular inclination of the planes of vibration to the edges of Rev. James Macdonald. the crystal. When convergent polarized light is used, the majority! INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Inaugural Address of Sir Julia of crystals of organic substances, which are mostly biaxial,

Coode. K.CM.O, President, and Presentation of Mezials, Prem um

and Prizes awarded during Last Session. exhibit a lemniscate whose poles are at varying distances apart

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMDER 13. for various crystals. The distance between the poles of the lemniscate may be measured by suitable methods, is extremely

ROVAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETv, at 8. characteristic for those crystals of greatest physiological im

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 14. portance, and may be used, in conjunction with the measurement

MATHEMATICAL Society, at 8.--Isoscelian Hexagrams: R. Tucker.of the planes of vibration, as a very certain means of determining

Euler's p-Function : H. F. Raker.

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 15, the crystal. The pleochromatism of many crystals is itself in

PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5:- On the Electrification due to the Cantac of many cases sufficiently characteristic.--Dr. Virchow described

Gases and Liquids : J. Enright-Oa the Effect of Repeated Heating and the distribution of blood vessels in the eye of Selachians, and Cooling on the E ectrical Resistance and Temperature Coefficient or the several types according to which the vessels are developed in Annealed Iran: H. Tomlinson, F.R.S.--Notes on Geometrical Option 'the eyes of various classes of animals.-Dr. Benda made a com

Part II.: Prof. S. P. Thompson. munication to the effect that the coiled glands which are so widely INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 7.30 - The New Haripur za

Breakwater at Boulogne-sur-Mer : S.C. Bailey. distributed as sweat-glands in the skin when they exhibit an enlarged secretory part, and a more complicated structure, are known as cerumenous and as mammary glands. They are BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED, characterized specially by the fact that during secretion there is A Popular Treatise on the Winds : W. Ferrel (Macmillan)-South African no destruction of their epithelium. These modifications of the Butterflies vol j., Papilionida and Hesperida: R. Tamen and I. H. typical coiled glands have been found by Dr. Benda in large The Vertebrate Animals of Leicestershire and Rutland : M. Drowne (Birm numbers and widely spread in the skin of Protopterus. ---Dr. ingham, M. E. C.). --Sitzungsberichte der k b Gesellschaft der Wissen Schneider spoke on the distribution and significance of iron in schaften Math.-Naturw. Classe, 1889, i. (Prag).-Outlines of a Caurse of

Lectures on Human Physilogy: E. A. Parkyn (Allman). -Flower-Land" the animal organism. He was able to find iron in greater or less

R. Fisher (Bemrose).

Potential and its Application to the Explanatim v quantity in the cell protoplasm and nucleus of all classes of Electrical Phenomena : R. Tumlirz, translated by D. Robertson (Rivinganimals, the liver and spleen

being the organs in which its tons). --- Index Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's effice occurrence was most marked. The connective tissues were very

United States Army, vol. x. (Washington). -The Birds of Berwickshire, rol

i.: G. Muirhead (Edinburgh. Douglas). - Idylic of the Field: F. A. Knight rich in iron, and it was found with similar constancy in the cuticular

(E. Stock). -Atti della Reale Accademia deile Scienze Fisiche e Matema. layers and quite constantly in the extreme tips of fishes' teeth. tische, serie seconda, vol, fii. (Napoli).-Ferneries and Aquaria : G. Egzett The more he extended his investigations over the most widely (Dean). — Traité Encyclopédique de Photographe, 15 Octr. (Paris). differing classes of animals, whether on land, or in fresh-water, or in the sea, and the more widely different were the organs he

CONTENTS. examined, by so much the more was it seen that iron is universally

PAGE pre-ent in the animal organism. Its importance is pre-eminently Modern Views of Electricity

Twenty Years . physiological AMSTERDAM

The Calculus of Probabilities. By F. Y. E. Rny 1 Academy of Sciences, September 28.- Prof. van Our Book Shelf:

Argentine Ornithology. By R. Bowdler Sharpe.
der Staals in the chair.-M. Suringar dealt with the Melocacti
of Aruba, stating what he had himself observed concerning the de.

Benedikt and Knecht: "The Chemistry of the Coal-
Tar Colours."

8 velopment of those plants from seed and their subsequent growth. He spoke also of the manner in which the Melocacti might be Letters to the Editor :

Gore: "A Bibliography of Geodesy

9 classified according to their natural affinities, and sketched a pedigree of the species.-M. Schoute spoke of tetrahedra,

The Method of Quarter-Squares.-J. W. L. Glaisher,

F.R.S.. bounded by similar triangles, and described a new species with Darwinism. - Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. pairs of opposite edges i and el, r and r, r? and r.

9 Record of British Earthquakes.-Charles Davison. 9 STOCKHOLM

Effects of Lightning.-W.G. S. Royal Academy of Sciences, October 9.-Musci Asiæ

Electrical Cloud Phenomena.-Prof. W. K. Burton Borealis (second part): feather mosses, by the late Prof. S. O.

The Use of the Word Antiparallel. (IVith Diagrams.) Lindberg, of Helsingfors, and Dr. H. W. Arnell.-On the per -W. J. James manent committee for a photographic map of the heavens and Fossil Rhizocarps. -Sir J. Wm. Dawson, F.R.S. its work, by one of its members, Prof. Dunér.-On the Metre Specific Inductive Capacity.-W. A, Rudge Congress in Paris, September 14-28, this year, and on the

Who discovered the Teeth in Ornithorhynchus ?--Dr. prototypes of the metre and the kilogramme, by Prof. Thalén.

C. Hart Merriam, Emanuel Swedenborg as a mathematician, by Dr. G. Eneström. On the Hardening and Tempering of Steel. (IllusOn naphtoë acids, by Dr. A. G. Ekstrand. --Chemical investi trated.) By Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, F.R.S. gation of some minerals from the neighbourhood of Langesund, On a New Application of Photography to the Demonby Herr H. Bäckström.-An attempt to determine the velocity stration of Certain Physiological Processes in of light from observations on variable stars, by Dr. C. Charlier.

Plants ..

16 Notes.

Our Astronomical Column:-
Stellar Parallax by Means of Photography .


Measurements of Double Stars.

Barnard's Comet, 1888-89.
LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On a Collection of Dried Plants chiefly from the Biographical Note on J. Ć. Houzeau

Southern Shan States, Upper Burma: Colonel H. Collett and W. Botting The Karlsruhe Observatory
CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.- The Isolation of a New Hydrate of Sulphuric Geographical Notes

Objects for the Spectroscope.
Acid existing in Solution : S. U. Pickering.-Further Observations on the
Magnetic Rotation of Nitric Acid, of Hydrogen Chloride, Bromide and

The Institution of Electrical Engineers
lodide in Solution : Dr. W. H. Perkin, F.RS. --On Phosphoryl Tri University and Educational Intelligence
fluoride : T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S., and F. T. Hambly.-On the Acetyla.
tion of Cellulose : C. F. Cross and E. Bevan.-On the Action of Light on

Societies and Academies .
Moist Oxygen : A. Richardson. -- Anhydracetophenonebenzil and the Diary of Societies . .
Constitution of Linius lepideus : Drs. Japp, F.R.S., and Klings nan. Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received


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Researches undertaken under the Auspices of the Academy of Natural

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Curator-in-Charge of, and Professor of Invertebrate Palæontology at, the ROBERT PERCEVAL GRAVES, M,A., Wagner Free Institute of Science Member of the American Philosophical, Sub-Dean of the Chapel_Royal, Dublin.

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EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE: e_late CROWN PRINCE RUDOLF OF AUSTRIA. Elementary, Practical, and Experimental Physics. Trans'ated, with the Author's permission, by C. G, DANFORD. With a Preface by Dr. ALBERT GUNTHER, F.R.S., &c.

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Amongst several unsolicited Testimonials the two


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EDINBURGH, May 31. 1889.
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Abbe, Prof. Cleveland (Washington).
Abel, Sir F. A., F.R.S.
Abercromby, Hon. Ralph.
Abney, Captain W. de W., F.R.S.
Acland, A. H.
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Agassiz, Prof. Alexander (Camb., Mass.).
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Croll, Dr. J., F.R.S.
Crookes, W., F.R.S.
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Foster, Dr. M., F.R.S.
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Fou ler, Principal T.
Frankland, Prof. E., F.R.S.
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