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branch of the service to continue to be recruited by THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 14, 1889.
means of open competitions in England, at which natives of India should be allowed to compete unreservedly, and
for which the maximum age of the Native candidates, and SCIENCE AND THE FUTURE INDIAN CIVIL therefore presumably of the English candidates, should SERVICE EXAMINATIONS.
be raised to twenty-three years. 'HE following memorial, signed by a numerous and
(2) That a certain number of appointments should be highly-distinguished body of resident graduates of the University of Cambridge, has been presented to the Civil Service, which is to be recruited, locally, from
Natives and resident Europeans who satisfy certain Civil Service Commissioners :
prescribed preliminary conditions. “We, the undersigned resident graduates of the
We do not know how far these proposals have been University of Cambridge interested in the study of natural science, understanding that a reorganization of adopted by the home authorities, though we understand the open competitive examination for the Civil Service of that they have received the general approval of the India is under the consideration of the Civil Service Indian Government. We will therefore only say, in Commissioners, beg respectfully to urge on the Com- passing, that they appear to be open to two serious missioners the desirability of widening the range of the objections. examination so as to include the several branches of natural science. We think it especially important that limited a number of young men for the higher branch
First, that it seems a dangerous thing to select so the maximum number of marks obtainable by a candidate in natural science in the examination should be the of the service by open competition, since doing so will same as that obtainable by a candidate in classics or give to each one of those who succeed almost the certainty an mathematics. In support of this opinion we venture of the reversion of one of the prizes of the public serto point out that the Natural Sciences Tripos, both from vices. Under such a condition there will be far too little its numbers and from the rewards assigned by the Col- inducement for zeal in the service, and too little opporleges to those of their members who distinguish themselves therein, is now of equal importance with the tunity for selection and rejection when age and experience Classical or Mathematical Tripos.
have developed the administrative powers of the selected ** We have the honour to append a statement of the men. numbers who have during the last five years taken honours in natural science, classics, and mathematics. training of the candidates, as, for example, by requiring
Secondly, unless care be taken to regulate the previous We inclose a copy of the Cambridge University Reporter of June 12, 1888, containing a report to the Senate and a that every candidate shall have taken a University schedule of the numbers examined in each branch of degree in England or India before presenting himself at natural science in the years 1883-87.
the competitive examination, it is likely that well-taught “We would desire to call attention to the acknowledged rather than well-educated men will be selected, and that educational value of the study of natural science, and to an inferior order of men will offer themselves, since many point out that the training which it affords, combining as it does both theory and practice, is such as peculiarly to of the ablest men would be unable to submit to some fit a student for the pursuits of practical life.
years of private tuition, and to give up, as they would * We beg to state that a deputation would be happy to probably have to do, a University education for the wait on the Commissioners to explain more fully our chance of obtaining an appointment in India. views on the subject should it be their pleasure to receive Whatever decision may have been made, however, it them."
is of the utmost importance that the representatives of This memorial is signed, among others, by two Heads Cambridge who have addressed themselves to the Civil of Houses,' thirteen Professors, and twenty Fellows. Service Commissioners should be supported in every posThe memorialists, as will be seen, urge that in future sible way, and at once, by all those who have the interest competitions the position of a candidate offering natural of science and education at heart. For there is reason to science shall be not less favourable than that of those fear that the Commissioners have contemplated the comwho offer classics or mathematics. And in a highly plete withdrawal of science from these examinations ; instructive schedule they show how important a place and unfortunately many of the various regulations for the the study of the natural sciences has now attained in the Army examinations which have been brought forward L'niversity of Cambridge.
with their sanction in recent years give an air of It may be unknown to many of our readers that the probability to this suggestion. This is in no way subject to which this memorial relates has lately become weakened when we consider the extremely unfortunate one of great importance, in consequence of a proposed re- position that science candidates for the Indian Civil organization of the higher branches of the public services Service have occupied under the administration of the in India. A Commission, which we believe sat in India, Commissioners for many years past. This position, it kaown as the Public Service Commission, has advised should be said, has been due, not so much to the marks that the following changes should be made with the object ' allotted to science in the present scheme, as to the of admitting natives of India to higher and more extensive methods adopted by the Commissioners in conducting employment in the public services :
their examinations, which have long caused it to be (1) That the strength of the Covenanted Civil Service recognized by those who are engaged in the instruction should be reduced to what is necessary to fill the chief of Civil Service candidates that, as a rule, only those adaunistrative appointments of the Government, and such candidates who are excellent either in classics or mathea proportion of smaller appointments as will secure a matics, or those who are distinctly good in both, have a complete course of training for junior Civilians. This really good chance of success.
VOL. XLI.-No. 1046.
But though all these facts give reason for regarding quantity of bones to demand any very prolonged investithe rumour we refer to as very possibly correct, they gation. In some instances, on the other hand, the mass need by no means prevent those who are interested of broken bones was so enormous that from the earth in the question from entertaining strong hopes of avert- ' collected in a packing-case whose dimensions did not ing such a national disaster as that which we fear. exceed half a cubic foot, he extracted 400 half jaw-bones We have only to remind them of the very consider- of a marsupial and 2000 belonging to different rodents, able degree of success that followed the efforts recently besides the remains of innumerable bats and small birds. made by Sir Henry Roscoe and other leaders in science This discovery led to further research, and, after fifteen in the case of the examinations for admission to the Royal weeks continued exploration, he found that one cave, which Military Academy at Woolwich. These efforts, we may he had at first estimated to be about 25 feet deep, had a remind our readers, not only resulted in an advantageous depth of nearly 70 feet, and was so densely packed with revision of the Woolwich examinations, but brought bones that the yield of 6500 barrels, of the size of an about satisfactory changes in the case of the Sandhurst ordinary bulter-firkin, justified the assumption that this competitions. In connection with this result it is satis- special lap contained the remains of seven and a hali factory to observe, in the Report of the Civil Service millions of animals, belonging for the most part to Cavia, Commission for 1888, that the Commission, in a letter Hystrix, and small rodents and marsupials, the estimate directed to the Director-General of Military Education on being based on the numbers of half jaw-bones extracted July 10 in that year, have described the changes that had from the mould. been submitted to them as likely to influence beneficially In these enormous cave deposits we have, according to the education of officers in the army before they begin Dr. Lund, and his biographer Dr. Reinhardt, a prehistheir professional studies.
toric ornithological kelken modding, birds of prey having Whatever difficulties there may be in the way of ob- resorted to the lapas of Brazil as suitable retreats in taining just treatment for science candidates under the which to devour their innumerable victims, whose fracnew scheme for the selection of Indian civil servants, it tured bones. belonging in almost equal proportions to has, we fear, become again imperative that men of science extinct and living animals, have revealed to us many should unite to protest against the assumption that long-hidden secrets in the history of the changes which natural science studies are in themselves inferior as a the Brazilian fauna has experienced in the course of ages. mental training to the classical languages and mathe- Comparatively few remains of the larger living mammals matics, and to insist, so far as they may, upon such have been found, three caves only having yielded evidence studies being placed upon a proper footing in this particular of the presence of bears, of which, moreover, the bones examination. This should be done in the interests of of only five individuals were recovered. But while various education, and still more of our Indian fellow-subjects, groups, as eg. the l'ngulata, were sparsely represented, whose administrators should be men of as wide and several families among the Edentata have contributed 50 liberal an education as possible, as has, indeed, been largely to the bone remains of the Brazilian lapus that this recognized in more than one public investigation of the order would appear to have constituted the most imregulations for these appointments.
· portant section of the local fauna, both in past and recent times. Among the cave armadillos, Lund recognized
several forms, differing only by their larger size from THE LUVD JUSEUM IN THE CVLERSITY' Dasypus punctatus, and D). salintus: but besides these OF COPEVHAGE.N.
he found one of colossal dimensions, which, with a body E Museo Lurdii: En Samling af Afhandlinger om de i hibited differences of dentition which induced him to
of the size of an ox, and a tail 5 feet in length, erdet indre Brasiliens Kalkstenshuler af Professor P. 1. assign it to a special genus, to which he gave the name Lund udgraide Dyreng Jenneskeknoler. I'dgivet Chlamydotherium. A peculiar characteristic of this fossil af Dr. Lutken. Kjøbenhavn : H. Hagerup, 1838.,
animal, whose food he believes was leaves, and not THIS THIS work, as its title indicates, consists of various insects, was the fusion or overlapping of several of the
monographs, descriptive of the collections made by vertebræ into nodes, or tangles. In this respect !! Dr. Lund in his interesting exploration of the limestone resembles the still more remarkable armadillo, of whose caverns in the interior of Brazil. These important finds scales and bones he found enormous quantities, and are the fruits of nearly ten years' urremitting labour in which he described under the name of Hoplophorus This the neighbourhood of Lagoa Santa, on the Rio das animal, of which the different species varied from the sur Velhas, in the province of Minas Geraes, where Dr. Lund of a hoz to that of a rhinoceros, was described about tbe prosecuted his researches from 1835 to 1844 On the same time by Prof. Owen, to whom various specimens al completion of his cave explorations he presented the its bones had been sent from La Plata, and who estab whole of his incomparable collections to the Danish lished a new species for its reception, to which he gave na:ion. The gift has been duly appreciated, and now the name of Glyptodon. The extraordinary rigidity of constitutes, under the name of the “ Lund Maseum," the shields of some of the Brazilian armadillos, the one of the most important paläontological sections of the apparent immobility of the head, and the interlockZoological Museum in the University of Copenhagen. ing of the vertebral bones, make it difficult to unde
Dr. Lund inspected as many as 800 of the Brazilian stand how these unwieldy animals could have obtaine lapas, or bone-caves, of which he had discovered 1000. their food. The most probable solution of the probles Of these only sixty yielded any very interesting results, seems to be supplied by a study of the short buassive while scarcely half that number contained a sufficient hind legs, which, with their sharp and powerful dans.
may have served to grub up roots and tubers, and in a letter addressed to Prof. Rafn, in which his fear of tear off the branches of trailing plants. There is no being accused of recklessness in attaching too high an evidence that our living tardigrades had appeared among antiquity to man in Brazil is shown by the pains he takes the cave fauna of Brazil, where their place was supplied to indicate every possible means by which these bones by gigantic gravigrades, resembling the Megatherium. might have found their way into the cave. Thus it re
The results yielded by a careful study of the enormous mained for his annotator, the late Dr. Reinhardt, whose and varied materials obtained by Dr. Lund in his explora- descriptive history of the caves and their exploration has tions would appear, generally, to indicate that in post-added largely to the interest of the volume before us, to Pliocene ages the Mammalian fauna of Brazil was richer be the first to accept without reservation the co-existence than in recent times, entire families and sub-orders having of man with extinct animals which, according to Lund become extinct in the intervening ages, or at all events himself, occupied parts of South America more than 5000 greatly reduced as to the numbers of their genera and years ago. species. This is more especially the case in regard to The monograph treating of the human remains found the Edentata, Ungulata, Pachydermata, and Carnivora, by Lund is from the pen of Dr. Lütken, the editor which still continue to be characteristic representatives of the present work, who also supplies a résumé in of the South American fauna. In two cases only there French of the treatises contributed by his colleagues, is evidence that species which are now exclusively | Drs. 0. Winge and H. Winge, the former of whom limited to the Old World once inhabited the American writes on the birds of the Brazilian lapas, and the continent. A far more marked difference between extinct latter on the living and extinct rodents of the Minas and living animals is to be observed in the western Geraes district. Besides these important contributions than in the eastern hemisphere. Thus while the existing to the work, the reader is indebted to the late Dr. ReinBrazilian fauna comprises very few large animals, the hardt for a detailed description of the situation and predominant forms being almost dwarf-like when com- geological character of the Brazilian bone-caves, and for pared with their Eastern analogues, the post-Pliocene an interesting biographical notice of Dr. Lund. Brazilian Mastodons, Macrauchenians, Toxodons, and We learn from the preface that this collection of monogigantic armadillos and tardigrades, may rank in size graphs owes, if not its publication, at any rate the comwith the elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus, which plete and elegant form in which it has been produced, were their contemporaries in Europe at that period of the to the liberality of the directors of the Carlsberg Trust, at world's history.
whose cost, with the sanction of the Danish Royal Society, There is no ground for assuming that the change in it now forms one of those éditions de luxe which have of the South American fauna was due to any natural late years so largely enriched the scientific literature of cataclysm, and it would rather seem to be the result of Denmark. The objection that may be advanced against some regular and slow geological changes, which, by this, as well as others of the series, is that the writers affecting the then existing climatic relations, may have appear to be moved by an uncalled-for impulse to write disturbed the conditions of animal life, and thus brought down to the level of the general reader, and to explain about the destruction, or deterioration, of the larger the origin and progress of each special branch of natural mammals, which, according to Owen, succumb where history they are concerned with. Such efforts to popularize the smaller ones adapt themselves to altered conditions. the subject lead only to an inconvenient addition to the
It was not till near the close of his explorations that bulk of the volumes, and are wholly at variance with the Dr. Lund succeeded in finding human bones in such scientific aim and object of such publications. Issociation with fossil remains as to justify the conclusion that man had been the contemporary in Brazil of
HYDRAULIC MOTORS. animals long since extinct in South America. Only seven of the 800 lapas examined by him contained any Hydraulic Motors : Turbines and Pressure Engines. By human bones, and in several instances these were either
G. R. Bodmer, A.M.I.C.E. “ The Specialist's Series.” not associated directly with fossil bones, or there were
(London: Whittaker and Co., 1889.) Shounds for suspecting that they might have been carried THE essential detail which lifts the mere water-wheel
, streams that traverse them. In one of these, however, author, in some arrangement for directing the water over the Sumidouro Lapa, remains of as many as thirty indi- the buckets in the most advantageous manner, instead of siduals of all ages were found so intermingled with the allowing the water merely to follow its own course. Again, tones of the gigantic cave jaguar, Felis protopanther, and in a water-wheel only a small part of the wheel is really the monster Cavia, Hydrocharus sulcidens, together with at work at a time, the buckets of the remaining part several extinct ungulates, that whatever may have been being empty; while a turbine is arranged, as a rule, with the reason of their presence, there seems to be no ground a vertical axis, and all parts of the wheel are simultanefor doubting that primæval man was contemporaneous ously taking their fair share of the work. In this respect with these animals.
there is a great resemblance and analogy to the distinction The crania, of which admirably drawn illustrations are between the two chief instruments of ship propulsion by ziren, are of a dolichocephalic type, characterized by steam-the paddle-wheel and the screw propeller. In the strongly-marked prognathism, and remarkable for the paddle-wheel only a few of the floats act on the water at excessive thickness of the cranial walls. The first com- a time ; while in the screw propeller, completely submunication by Lund of his discovery of human remains merged, all parts are equally at work, implying a great in the Lapa di Lagoa do Sumidouro was made in 1840) | saving of weight in the propelling instrument. Mr.