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from the belief that methods which involve working at “Division of labour would produce a differentiation of the high temperatures are necessarily inaccurate; but the single cells in such a colony : thus certain cells would be se: school of Ste. Claire-Deville has shown that they are not, apart for obtaining food and for locomotion, while certain and there are signs among us that our traditional love for other cells would be exclusively reproductive." But how the study of metals is reviving. Of course it cannot be can the fact of a cell happening to fall into a position that chemists and physicists are afraid "that science will "especially fitted” for the performance of a certain funcbe degraded by being applied to any purpose of vulgar tion, lead to its performning this function? Supposing utility," for I trust that I shall at least have shown that that the physical influences of the environment have the empire over matter, and the true advancement of modified the arrangement, or cohesion, size, or number of science, which I suppose is the object of all research, may molecules in a cell, or modified their molecular motions, be as certainly secured in the field of metallurgy as in how can such influences give it a power, not of reproany other.
ducing its thus “ acquired” characters, or the characters of the cell before it becomes thus differentiated, but of
reproducing the whole organism whereof it forms a part? PROF. WEISMANN'S “ ESSAYS."
Is it credible that any impacts and reactions thus occa
sioned should produce so marvellous a result? I do not PROF: WEISMANN'S suggestions are with reason know any phenomena in Nature which could warrant us valuable ; nevertheless certain questions treated of by him Of course, if we were dealing with races of creatures seem to me to require further solution, and at present to sexually reproduced, it is conceivable enough that, out of constitute difficulties which oppose themselves to an multitudinous, indefinite, minute accidental changes in the entire acceptance of his hypotheses.
| arrangements of the molecules of their germs, favourable Death in the Metazoa is, according to him, due (new arrangements might be selected in the struggle for life translation, Clarendon Press, p. 21) to the cells of their | But we are here concerned with nothing of the kind, but tissues having ceased to be able to reproduce themselves with the first appearance of the earliest Metazoa repro in "the limitation of their powers of reproduction." Such duced. If we meditate on the conditions affirmed by the a cessation may be an inevitable result of an excessive | Professor to have produced that origin, it will, I think, amount of work or efficiency on their part, and “the | be clear that no hypothesis suggested by him will answer advantages gained by the whole organism" might, as he , the question how any of the cells of the first coberen: says (p. 61), “ more than compensate for the disadvantages colonies came to reproduce, not such cells as their anceswhich follow from the disappearance of single cells." tors (or, rather, the earlier living portions of their very
But granting all this, how did such a process begin? selves) had by countless processes of fission produced. Some Metazoon must have been the first to die through but a whole " cell-colony," such as that whereof they had. this failure of reproduction in its component tissue-cells. by the hypothesis, for the first time come to form a part. Yet if the Protozoa were, and are (as Prof. Weismann re With respect to the immortality of Monoplastides and presents), naturally immortal, the first Metazoa must have the question of death generally, he (the Professor) makes been entirely composed of immortal cells, and therefore various remarks which do not appear to be satisfactory. themselves potentially immortal. Granted that cell. The process of spontaneous fission, he says (p. 35.aggregations become every now and then accidentally cannot be truly called death. .. Nothing dies, the body dissolved, that would be “accidental death." Why should of the animal only divides into two similar parts possessing natural death arise, and, if it did, what advantage could the same constitution." Where such a perfect simiların ensue from the failure of cell-reproduction ? It could not exists we may say not only that there is no death, but also benefit the race, because as yet there was no race, but that there is no birth. In some of the Monoplastides, how only individual clusters of naturally immortal cells which ever, the relationship between parent and offspring doe had happened to divide imperfectly. The Professor tells, exist, but this, of course, need not necessarily involve us (p. 29) it is “conceivable that all cells may possess the death ; as we see in higher species and in our own. But power of refusing to absorb nutriment, and therefore of the fact that death does not take place during, or soon ceasing to undergo further division.” But how and why 'after, fission, does not prove that death never naturally should a cell begin, for the very first time, to practice this occurs at all, and that the cell can balance its metabolism abstinence? That it should do so, is, of course, like indefinitely. Very likely it may be able so to do, but this many other things “conceivable," but to my judgment it can hardly be affirmed to be an absolute certainty. What does not appear credible. Of course when once we have may be certainly affirmed is that reproduction by fission a race of mortal organisms propagating by germ cells, it does not entail death to the degree that sexual reproduction is easy enough to understand how such a race would be 'entails it. But reproduction by gemmation may equally benefited by the death of the “ useless mouths” belong- fail to entail death; as we see in the parthenogener.c ing to it, and therefore by the cessation of the tissue- ' Aphis and many Hydrozoa. reproduction which leads to such death. The difficulty In Euglypha we can, as Prof. Weismann admits (p.64 lies in the natural death of the very first Metazoa which 'recognize the daughter cell (which is for a time without a ever lived. Here, as in so many cases, it is "the first nucleus, and we also find a very marked distinction step ” which tries us. How, from this perennial race of between the segments of transversely dividing infusorians, microscopic immortals, are we to obtain our first Metazoon where one has to form a new mouth and the other a naturally mortal?
new anus. By the hypothesis, each component cell consists of a After all that can be urged, then, in contrasting the form of protoplasm which has the power of growing and multiplication by fission of Monoplastides with reproducdividing. It is not easy to see how the mere coalescence tion in the life cycle of Polyplastides, there seems to me of such cells can lead any one, or any set, of such cells to be more of a true reproductive process in the former to acquire an altogether new power-that of reproducing than the Professor is disposed to allow. In some Heliane the whole complex organism of which it has come to be and Ciliata we have all the complexity of indirect nucleus a part? The Professor tells us (p. 27) that probably division by karyokinesis, while in Euglypha we have cell "these units soon lost their primitive homogeneity. As division without any antecedent separation of the nucleus the result of mere relative position, some of the cells into two parts. Of course it is easy enough to understand were especially fitted to provide for the nutrition of the how a mere augmentation in bulk may overcome cohesion, colony, while others undertook the work of reproduction.” how internal molecular arrangement may cause cleavage Referring to Magosphara planula, he says (p. 75):- | along definite lines, and, perhaps, even how such cleavage
may be insured through an increase of mass in proportion animals. Let us suppose that half a dozen higher animals to a relatively diminishing surface nutrition. But such a could be so divided that no two cells remained in condivision would be much simpler than a process of karyo- tiguity, yet that every cell could retain a post-mortem life kinesis, and certainly than the formation of a new mouth such that by reuniting they could build up other indiand a new anus. Here there is no quesóion of a part (p. 73) viduals. Would it be reasonable to affirm that the higher growing “to resemble the whole," comparable to the re-, animals thus segmented had not been killed, or that when growth, by crystallization, to replace a fragment broken their cells had reunited-possibly in very different comfrom a crystal. We have a whole which divides itself in binations—the individual animals were the same ones as such a way as to initiate and carry out a progressively before ? An extreme illustration often best seems to bring increasing difference-a difference between the two parts out the force and significance of a principle. dividing, and a difference (but a different kind of difference) The Orthonectides, referred to (p. 126) by the Professor between each such part and the previously existing in controversy with Götte, hardly illustrate the question whole.
here discussed, but we note with much interest and satisfacPassing from the consideration of the immortality of tion that he is inclined to regard them as arrested larvæ, Monoplastides to the mortality of Polyplastides, I cannot ! Leuckart having found them? greatly to resemble the see my way to accept the Professor's definition (p. 114) new-born young of Distoma, as Gegenbaur has found of death : “An arrest of life, from which no lengthened that the Dicyemids are like a stage in the development revival, either of the whole or any of its parts, can take l of the Platyhelminthes. If this interpretation is, as it place," nor can I agree to his assertion" (loc, cit.) that probably is, correct, we have here an interesting example death “ depends upon the fact that the death of the cells of what we find in such Batrachians as Axolotl and and tissues follows upon the cessation of the vital func Triton alpestris. I am inclined to look at Menobranchus, tions as a whole." If we cut up a Begonia plant or a Proteus, and Siren as larval forms which have now altoHydra into small parts, such an individual Hydra or gether ceased to assume what was once the adult stage Bryvnia cannot surely be considered as still alive, because of their existence.? fresh Hydra or Begonice may spring from such frag Prof. Weismann's hypothesis concerning heredity is ments. Similarly with higher organisms, it would be pre- certainly the best which has yet been proposed, but I pasterous to say that a man was not dead because a have not met with any reference to that proposed by Sir
est mortem, inferior kind of life-such as can alone be Richard Owen forty years ago. It is now out of date, manifested in very lowly structures-was still persisting and his references are not of course expressly to “germin the cells of his tissues !
plasm,” but to the contents of germ-cells. Nevertheless, No doubt, as the Professor says, we cannot have death there is an undeniable resemblance between the two hypowithout a corpse, but the tissues and cells of the corpse theses, and any interested in Prof. Weismann's would do may still retain a certain sort of life without the corpse well to read over Owen's small volume on the same being any the less a corpse on account of that cir- problem. cunstance.
But the complexity of Prof. Weismann's hypothesis is But if life of some sort may be, as we agree, affirmed such as to approach, if it does not even exceed, that of of such cells, can we deny it absolutely (since no one pangenesis itself comprehends it) even to the molecules of the cells? But He tells us (p. 191): “Every detail of the whole organism body-tissues of lower Vertebrates may retain such life for must be represented in the germ-plasm by its own special a very long time. If, then, such a Vertebrate be devoured and peculiar arrangement of the groups of molecules," by another animal, who would venture to affirm that it is and (p. 146) that “the number of generations of somatic impossible that some of the micellæ or tagmate, or at least cells which can succeed one another in the course of a the molecules of some of the cells of the creature devoured single life, is predetermined in the germ." Moreover may not pass, while still retaining a sort of life, into the none of these circumstances can be explained by any Lissues of the devourer? Even tagmata must be small difference of quality," but must be exclusively due to the enough to traverse the tissues, and can the possibility that size, number, and arrangement of the component parts. they may enter into their composition while still living be Now, if we consider what must be the complexity of condogmatically denied ? May we not affirm the certainty ditions requisite to determine once for all in the germ the of the death of the animal devoured till we are sure of precise number of all the succeeding cells of epithelial the impossibility of the survival of any of the molecules tissue, including every one of the rapidly succeeding cells of its cells?
of glandular epithelium, and every blood corpuscle of the No doubt the Professor would refer us to Magosphæra whole of life ; to necessitate also every modification of as presenting phenomena (so far as regards its cells) structure which may successively appear in polymorphic which support his view. He says (p. 126) :-“The dis- organisms, which change again and again profoundly solution of a cell colony, with its component living between the egg and the imago; to arrange, at starting, elements, can only be death in the most figurative sense, the successive very complex changes of arrangement and can have nothing to do with the real death of which must be necessary to build up reflex mechanisms the individuals; it only consists of a change from a higher to a lower stage of individuality. :: Nothing P. Sin this connection may be noted a passage which occurs on p: 265 of
I "Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Leberegels," Zool. Ansciger, 1881, concrete dies in the dissolution of Magosphara, there is no death of a cell colony, but only of a conception." But Sollas is there quoted as saying that a longer mature life is possessed by surely it cannot be the same thing to exist in a coherent those forms which are "saved from the drudgery of a larval ex.stence." It interrelated mass bound together by a common jelly," and
would be interesting to know whether Rana opisthodon is longer lived than
its congeners, s nce it has n tadpole stage of life. * to exist in separate parts, living independently without 3 See his work "On Parthenogenesis" (Van Voorst, 1849). There we interrelations, and not bound together by a common
read :-"Not all the progeny of the primary, impregnated germ-cell are jelly.". If there is here" death of a conception,” there required for the formation of the body
in all animals. Certain of its derivamust be an external objective death corresponding there which has been composed of their metamorphosed and diversely combined or with. Magosphara is a very lowly organism, and its life
confluent brethren; so included, any derivative germ-cell or the nucleus of
such may commence and repeat the same processes," &c. (p. 5). At p. 68 he can be very little better than that of a Monoplastid, speaks of the retention of some of the primary germ-vesicles" Finally, on because its structure is very little more complex. It is p: 72, he says :-** How the retained spermatic force operates in the formation not wonderful, then, that there is very little difference germ-cell or nucieus, 1 do not profess to explain : 'neither is it known how it between its existence and the existence of its post-mortem operates in developing the primary germ-mass from the impregnated germsurviving cells. Yet the difference must be allowed to
vesicle of the ovum. In both we witness centres of repulsion and of attraction
antagon z'ng to produce a definite result." be, however diverse in degree, like that in the higher 4 P. 101, where the existence of "quality" is denied.
capable, not only of compelling complex instinctive constitution.” A better illustration of the Professor's coactions occurring at one time of life, but of so successively ception would seem to be that of an army very complexy changing as to be able successively to make necessary organized sending off successively regiments of different the successively occurring very different instinctive actions kinds, but always retaining in the centre a few men of of different periods of life, as e.g. in Sitaris. But this is by all arms, and always being recruited by rustics (the food no means all
. The arrangement of the molecules must be of the germ-plasm), who become organized by the central such as not only to effect all this, but also all the consti- reserve of all arms retained for that purpose. tutional pathological inherited modifications which are to But how, according to this or any other conceivable arise at different periods of life, and all the capabilities illustration, are we to understand the germ.plasm becomof reaction upon stimuli of every cell, of every tissue, ing simplified by forming tissues and organs, and then and every predisposition an organism may possess regaining its complexity so as to be able to effect the "predisposition" and "capacity” being nothing more various reparative growths which constantly take place than names for a certain collocation of particles so built after non-fatal injuries? Or if we are to deem that the up as inevitably to fall down into other collocations-upon germ-plasm only regains a portion of its complexity-one shock and impact-the original collocation again being portion in one place, another in another-how can we such as to insure not only that the first ensuing collocation conceive of the germ-plasm being so divided that each from impact shall be of an appropriately definite kind, but part of the body has just that portion of germ-plasm that its definiteness shall be such as to insure that all the which is needed for its reproduction, in spite of that being succeeding varied collocations from successive impacts the very portion which we might expect to have been shall also be appropriately definite. I confess I do not exhausted, since it is it which has built up that part of believe that such a collocation of particles is possible. the body.
This, however, is, after all, only a portion of the difficulty Moreover, all these processes of succession, profrom complication, necessarily involved in Prof. Weis- gression, simplification, and possible recomplication, of mann's hypothesis of germ-plasm. For we have to consider the germ-plasm itself, must, according to the hypothesis, the modifying effect on the germ-plasm produced by its have been laid down and necessitated in the first original effecting those developmental changes which it is its collocation of the molecules of the germ. This seems to own business to effect. After speaking of the great me to exceed the bounds of credibility, complexity of the germ-plasm in higher animals, he goes But if the hypothesis of germ-plasm be deemed one on (P. 191) to say :-"This complexity must gradually involving too much complexity for belief-that is, if the diminish during ontogeny, as the structures still to be conditions supposed by it are deemed inadequate to explain formed from any cell, and therefore represented in the results of sexual ontogeny-the hypothesis seems yet the molecular constitution of the nucleoplasm, become more unsatisfactory with respect to processes of reparaless in numbers ; ... the complexity of the molecular tive growth and reproduction by gemmation. This is a structure decreases as the potentiality for further deve- subject the Professor has not yet expressly treated, and lopment also decreases, such potentiality being repre- therefore some suggestions with respect to its difficulties sented in the molecular structure of the nucleus."
may be welcome to him, as showing what elucidations According to the hypothesis, the whole organism at some minds seem to require. He, however, tells us (pp. every stage of its existence is but a collocation of mole- 197, 211, and 322) that such processes of growth are due cules of different sizes most complexly arranged. Amongst to the presence of germ-plasm, and of course not so to them, during development, are the portions of germ- hold would be to abandon his hypothesis. It is, however, plasm, everywhere building up the increasingly complex difficult to understand how we can thus account for the structures of the developing body, while they themselves reproduction of a human elbow with a joint structurally are simultaneously decreasing in complexity of compo- and functionally much as the old one (see "On Truth, sition. Now, it seems somewhat difficult to conceive of pp. 170-171). Are we to understand that germ-plasm in such a mass, which may thus be said to both decrease | all its complexity was there? If so, is it universally dif. and increase simultaneously in complexity, both centri- fused through the organism as well as present in the sexual petally and centrifugally, and yet to preserve its com- glands, and why does it not produce rather an embryo plexity both centrally and sporadically, as must be the than an elbow-joint? If not, how comes it that the germcase in order to effect sexual reproduction and such repair plasm present happened to have the complexity needed of tissues after injury, as the organism may be capable of. I to effect that which was, anatomically and physiologicProf. Weismann continues :-" The development of the ally, effected? With respect to germination generally, the nucleoplasm during ontogeny may be, to some extent, | Professor says (p. 322) :-" The germ-plasm which passes compared to an army composed of corps which are made on into a budding individual, consists, not only of the up of divisions, and these of brigades, and so on. The unchanged idioplasm of the first ontogenetic stage (germwhole army may be taken to represent the nuceloplasm of plasm), but of this substance altered so far as to correthe germ-cell : the earliest cell-division (as into the first spond with the altered structure of the individual which cells of the ectoderm and endoderm) may be represented arises from it, viz. the rootless shoot which springs from the by the separation of the two corps, similarly formed, but stem or branches. The alteration must be very slight, with different duties : and the following cell-divisions by and perhaps quite insignificant, for it is possible that the the successive detachment of divisions, brigades, regi- difference between the secondary shoots and the primary ments, battalions, companies, &c.; and as the groups plant may chiefly depend upon the changed conditions of become simpler so does their sphere of action become development, which takes place beneath the earth in the limited. It must be admitted that this metaphor is im- latter case and in the tissues of the plant in the former," perfect in two respects : first, because the quantity of the nucleoplasm is not diminished, but only its complexity;
The term "Zielstrebig," as one used to denote a practically teleological and, secondly, because the strength of an army chiefly which we are led to regard the invention of a new name as an explasatire
process which is not really teleological, is a remarkable example of the mode in depends upon its numbers, not on the complexity of its 2 The remarkable readiness with which the fertile mind of Prof. Weismann
excogitates hypotheses on hypotheses to explain away difficulties I rather
remarkably shown by the way in which he tries to obviate the objection to " Prof. Weismann sees clearly enough the fatal complexity of the parallel his view as to parthenogenesis, which arises from the fact that in the ben the hypothesis of Nägeli, who would explain all this by "conditions of tension same egg will develop into a drone or not, according as it has or has not and movement," "How many different conditions of tension," our author been fertilized. This
would seem to emphatically contradict his doctrine, that remarks (p. 182), * ought to be possessed by one and the same idioplasm, in the one cause of parthenogenesis is the greater amount of germ-plasm which order to correspond to the thousand different structures and differentiations exists in parthenogenetic eggs than in ordinary ones. He meets this hy sug of cells in one of the higher organisins? In fact, it would be hardly pos- gesting (p. 237) that if the spermatozoon reaches the egg it may, under the sible to form even an approximate conception of an explanation based upon stimulus of internal causes, grow to double its size, thus obtaining the mere conditions of tension and movement."
dimensions of the segmentation nucleus.** What may not be thus explained!
Surely this is a very inadequate and even misleading state- tions gains new characters which are propagated by seed, ment of the matter. It is surely inconceivable that a por- he explains (p. 433) by a modification of germ-plasm thus tion of protoplasm should be affected in these diverse but induced. But such an admission is enough to satisfy most definitely diverse ways by the environment of earth much of what is demanded by those who assert the and plant-tissues respectively. The radicle and plumule inheritance of acquired characters. After all, such an are formed (e.g. in the bean) while still surrounded by the inheritance must be due to the soma, since it is only tissues of the parent plant, but no radicle is formed in a through it that the germ-plasm can be modified. growth by gemmation. Even if in all cases a radicle was If this effect on the germ-plasm itself is thus cumulative, formed, which radicle became largely developed under may it not be partly due to a cumulative effect on the the stimulus of earth-environment, it would be difficult to soma which transmits to the germ-plasm the actions which understand why it should atrophy or metamorphose itself modify the latter? Can this be declared to be absowithin those very plant-tissues under the influence of lutely impossible? Anyhow, it is plain that effects of the which it was itself first formed.
environment on Polyplastides may be transmitted to sucAgain, as regards the Begonia leaf, if it is such germ- ceeding generations. There are, however, still more plasm as Prof. Weismann conceives of, which determines striking phenomena amongst mammals which do not the development of such a leafinto a plant, what can be sup- seem to accord with Prof. Weismann's theories. I refer posed to make it different from the germ-plasm of the seed ? to the production of offspring which resemble not their However complex may be the germ-plasm of Begonia, father, but the father of preceding offspringas in the it must be a definite complexity. The germ-plasm cannot well-known case of Lord Zetland's brood mare, and the be simultaneously built up in two different ways. But a puppies of thoroughbred bitches which have once been molecular arrangement which compels growth from a coupled with a mongrel. How can the germ-plasm of seed cannot possibly be the same as a molecular arrange the first father have been acquired by the offspring of a ment which compels growth from a leaf. The initial subsequent father? I have ventured to propose these stages of the two processes are quite different.
questions, which must of course have occurred to many Čertainly the influence of the environment is sometimes other naturalists, feeling sure that Prof. Weismann will very surprising ; but these surprising results hardly, at be glad to have his attention drawn to a few points, a least at first sight, seem to harmonize with Prof. Weis- further explanation of which seems necessary for the mann's views. Thus the effect of the movements of acceptance of his most interesting hypotheses. the young of Cynips, newly hatched from an egg de September 2.
ST. GEORGE MIVART. posited in the tissues of a plant (p. 302), is to cause it to produce a gall-a result “ advantageous to the larva but Dot to the plant.” It causes “ an active growth of cells”
NOTES. around the larva, much to that larva's advantage. Now surely it is too much to ask us to believe that the germ THE Medals of the Royal Society have this year been awarded plasm of the plant, in the first instance, before even, say, as follows :—The Copley Medal to the Rev. Dr. Salmon, a single Cynips had visited it, had in the complex collo F.R.S., for his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, cation of its molecules, an arrangement such as would and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the compel the plant which was to grow from it, to grow author ; a Royal Medal to Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S., for his these cells and form a gall as just mentioned. However researches in cardiac physiology, and his important discoveries this may be, the production of the gall is certainly a Curious effect of the action of the environment on an
in the anatomy and physiology of the sympathetic nervous outgrowth from germ-plasm, conceived of as Prof. system ; a Royal Medal to Prof. Thorpe, F.R.S., for his re. Weismann conceives of it.
searches on fluorine compounds, and his determination of the But the question of the actual or possible influence of atomic weights of titanium and gold ; and the Davy Medal to the environment suggests some further difficulties which Dr. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., for his researches on magnetic rotacan hardly fail to occur to any critical reader of what tion in relation to chemical constitution. Intimation has been Prof. Weismann says concerning the inheritance of received at the offices of the Royal Society that the Queen acquired characters. Although he absolutely denies that approves the award of the Royal Medals. changes induced in the soma by the action of the environment, can be transmitted to a succeeding generation, he
We regret to learn that another officer of the Geological yet allows (p. 98) that the germ-plasm itself may be Survey of India has fallen a victim to the Indian climate. Mr. modified through the action of the environment on the E. J. Jones, who joined the Survey in 1883, died of dysentery soma increasing its nutrition, and such modifications, on at Darjiling on October 15, at the age of thirty. Mr. Jones was his hypothesis, would be inherited. But if it is true, as an Associate of the Royal School of Mines, and having also stated, that oysters transported to the Mediterranean studied chemistry at Zürich and Würzburg, he was a valuable become rapidly modified, that the Saturnia imported to member of the Survey, to the publications of which he contriSwitzerland from Texas become modified so as to trans. buted several geological and chemical papers. mit new characters in one generation, and that cats in Mombas, turkeys in India, and greyhounds in Mexico, To add to the many obligations under which he has laid Camhave also been modified, their modifications being trans- bridge University, Prof. Sidgwick has offered to give £1500 missible, it is very difficult to understand how such towards the completion of the new buildings urgently required changed climatic conditions, or increased or diminished for physiology, on condition that the work is undertaken forthnutrition, could change the molecular structure of the with. The Financial Board has accordingly recommended a germ-plasm in such a way as to compel the production in a second generation of modifications either so induced in scheme by which this can be effected. The alliance between the soma of the first, or of a nature appropriate to the mental science and physiology which this gift represents is a conditions presented by a changed environment.
bright feature of Cambridge studies at present. That the wild pansy does not change at once when planted in garden soil, and yet in the course of genera- extraordinary piece of good fortune. The sum of £100,000 has
The University of St. Andrews is to be congratulated on an * It would be very interesting to know how " natural selection" (to the been bequeathed to it by Mr. David Berry, who died last Sepcould have caused this plant to perform actions which, if not self-sacrificing tember. Mr. Berry was a native of Cupar, Fife, and in 1836 and there must be some expenditure of energy), are at least so disinterested. went to Australia, where he ultimately inherited the estate of No doubt the Professor has an hypothesis to produce, though he only says (302) here that "it would be out of place to discuss here the question." his brother, Dr. Alexander Berry. The latter had been a
student of the St. Andrews University, and at the time of his inquiry on the same subject leads to the digging out of the 57 death it was understood that he had left an unsigned will be of papers containing its record from the Kew archives." queathing a quarter of a million to his alma mater, but giving permission to his brother David to carry out the provisions as he
The remaining contents of the Kew Bulletin relate to Phys. might think proper. The legacy will not come into the pos- loxera regulations at the Cape, Rainie or Rhea, and the session of the University until 1894.
collecting and preserving of fleshy Fungi. In addition to the botanical appointments named last week, THE Manchester Field Naturalists' Society has formed a the following are announced from Russia :-Prof. Faraintzin special committee, with Mr. Leo Grindon, the President of the having resigned his post of Professor of Botany in the Society, as botanical referee, and Mr. C. J. Oglesby, as conUniversity of St. Petersburg. Prof. Borodin has been ap- vener, for the purpose of determining which trees, shrubs, and pointed in his place. M. W. Palladin succeeds the late flowers will succeed in the squares and streets of the city. The Prof. Pitra as Professor of Botanical Anatomy and Physiology opinion prevails that, notwithstanding the unfavourable clima... in the University of Charkow; and is himself succeeded in the conditions, several forest trees, climbers, and hardy plants would Botanical Chair in the Agricultural Academy at Nowo-Alexandria grow if special care were taken in planting and tending them. by M. Chmielewski. M. W. Rothert has been appointed The planting of the quadrangle at Owens College, of the inLecturer on Botanical Anatomy and Physiology at the University firmary esplanade (in the centre of the town), and of several of Kasan.
churchyards, has been attended with success. In the November number of the Kew Bulletin a curious The following money-grants have been lately made by the correspondence is printed which illustrates very well the nature
Berlin Academy of Sciences :-£75 to Prof. Brieger, for :of some of the duties undertaken by the Kew officials. Towards tinuation of his researches on the ptomaines; £60 to Dr. the end of December 1876, Dr. Hooker received from the Krabbe, for investigation of the Cladoniacere of the Hart:; Colonial Office a letter inclosing a despatch in which the £30 to Dr. von Dankelmann, for utilization of meteorological Governor of Labuan suggested that it might be well to pro observations at Finschhaven in New Guinea; 120 to Dr mote in Labuan the cultivation of the African oil palm. A Assmann, for measurements of air-temperature on the Santis : long correspondence followed, the result of which was that full
£100 for publication of Prof. G. Finsch's work on Torpediner; and accurate information as to the palm oil industry was ob £50 for publication of a memoir by Dr. Heiden, on the devetained from the Gold Coast, and transmitted to Labuan. Palm lopment of Hydrophilus piceus ; 6100 to Dr. Strehlmann, in oil nuts were also obtained, and in due time planted in the Zanzibar, for prosecution of his faunistic researches in East fertile island of Daat, where no fewer than 700 healthy trees Africa ; £125 to Prof. Lepsius, of Darmstadt, for preparation were soon raised. It recently occurred to Mr. Thiselton of his geological map of Attica; 650 to Prof. Conwentz, for Dyer to make inquiry as to the later history of this inter investigation of silicified wood in the island of Schonen : £75 esting experiment. A despatch from the Acting Governor to Dr. Fleischmann, of Erlangen, for researches in development : of Labuan to the Colonial Office, dated August 1, 1889, and and the same to Dr. Zacharias (Silesia), for micro-faunistic forwarded to Kew, closes the correspondence. It is as fol studies. lows :-“As reported in Mr. Treacher's despatch No. 72, of August, 26, 1878, it appears that 700 of these palms were
The first meeting of the one hundred and thirty-sixth session of raised in the island of Daat, and in due time produced nuts. the Society of Arts will be held on Wednesday, November 20, No attempt, as far as I am aware, was ever made to manufac
when the opening address will be delivered by the Duke of ture any oil from the nuts, and last year the palms were all Abercorn, Chairman of the Council. Before Christmas there removed to make room for cocoa-nut trees. Daat, a depend will be four ordinary meetings, in addition to the opening ency of this colony, is private property, and I venture to meeting. The following arrangements have been made :suggest that, should any further information be required by Mr.
November 27, Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S., "Scientific and Thiselton Dyer, he should apply to the owner, Dr. Peter Leys,
Technical Instruction in Elementary Schools" ; December 4, Dr. who is now in England, and who would no doubt be glad to Armand Ruffer, “Rabies and its Prevention ”; December 11, supply it. The experiment, so far as I am in a position to Mr. H. Trueman Wood, “The Paris Exhibition"; December judge, was a success."
18, Sir Robert Rawlinson, "London Sewage." The authorities of the Royal Gardens, Kew, are always glad A NOVEL and interesting application of science to art may to aid any dependency of the Empire in introducing and now be seen at the Arts and Crafts Exhibition, where Un establishing any new plant which promises to serve as the Watts Hughes shows specimens of what she calls " voice foundation of a new industry. The documents relating to the figures" (Catalogue, No. 723). These are practically Chladini's oil palm in Labuan show how much work may be involved in figures produced in a viscid medium. Semi-Auid paste is spread the carrying out even of a simple scheme of this nature, and on an elastic membrane stretched over the mouth of a receiver. how disappointing the results may be. “The enterprise," says A single note "steadily and accurately sung" into the receiver the Bulletin, "is suggested ; it is considered ; a plan for carry- throws the paste into waves and curves. The patterns formel ing it out has to be matured ; all the necessary incidental infor- are either photographed immediately after production, or are mation has to be collected ; and then the plan is carried into transferred as water-colour impressions while the membrane is execution. Sometimes it fails the first time, and then a second still vibrating. Fanciful names, e g. " wave, line, flower, tree, attempt has to be made, and so on till success is secured. All fern,” are given to these ; the effect, especially in transparencies, that then remains is to wait for the result ; and this, in any is very beautiful. Some of the forms would repay the study of appreciable shape, will in most cases not be reached for years. physicists as well as of artists; the most interesting are perhaps the But in the interval Governors and officials change. It may be, "daisy forms," in which we are told that “the number of petals though it is not always so, that the ardour with which the increases as the pitch of the note which produces them rises." experiment was launched evaporates with the individual whom The apparatus employed is not exhibited, and the descriptive it inspired. A new Colonial Government régime may regard label is not very clear, but we understand that Mrs. Hughes with apathy and even hostility the work of its predecessor, and would be most pleased to explain the matter to anyone scientithe whole enterprise may fail into oblivion till some chance fically interested in it: her address is 19 Barnsbury Park, N.