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For determination of the air-temperature at great heights, The Caucasus is a region of great interest in the study of prethe Berlin Society for Ballooning (we learn from Humboldt) is historic times, and a fresh impulse was lately given to its exgoing to try a method of Herr Siegsfeld, who uses a thermo ploration, by Beyern's discovery of an extensive burial-ground aneter, which, by closure of an electric circuit when certain tem- south of Kura (in the district of the Anticaucasus). At the peratures are reached, gives a light-signal. Small balloons, recent annual meeting of the German Anthropological Society, each containing such a thermometer, will be sent up by night, Dr. Virchow gave some account of this bed (which Beyern has and the light will affect photographically a so-called "photo- named after General Repkin). The region is rich in ores, but theodolite," while the height then attained will be indicated in bronze articles are absent ; for, while copper is plentiful, there is a mechanical way. It is hoped that more exact formulæ for the no tin. On the other hand, various ornaments of pure antimony decrease of temperature with height may thus be obtained. have been met with ; also antimony buttons (or knobs), like
The rapid decrease in the number of kangarons is beginning those of Beni-Hassan in Egypt. The ground is largely of to attract the attention of scientific Societies in Australia. From, volcanic nature, and many articles of obsidian (chiefly knives the collective reports of the various stock inspectors it was and arrow-heads) have been found in the graves
. One curious estimated that in 1887 there were 1,881,510 kangaroos. In 1888 find was that of a skeleton having an arrow-head of obsidian the number fell to 1,170,380, a decrease of 711,130. The chief | in one of the leg-bones, partly overgrown by a callus. The obstacle to the adoption of measures for the effectual protection metallic girdles in this burial-ground have figures of animals of the kangaroo is his vigorous appetite. One full-grown engraved on them ; in the Koban ground, such figures are conLangaroo eats as much grass as six sheep; and graziers—who as fined to the clasp, but this, in the Repkin ground, is wanting. a class are not, it is to be feared, readily accessible to the influence of sentiment–find that the food eaten by this interest number of the Journal of the Franklin Institute a short paper
PROF. EDWIN J. HOUSTON contributes to the November ing animal might be more profitably utilized otherwise. In a on a bail-storm at Philadelphia, October 1, 1889. After noting communication on the subject, lately submitted to the Linnean various points common to most hailstones, he refers to a characSociety of New South Wales, Mr. Trebeck suggested that the teristic which he had never before observed. “On some of the National Park might be used for the preservation not only of hailstones," he says, “though not in the majority of them, wellkargaroos but of very many members of the Australian fauna marked crystals of clear transparent ice projected from their und flora.
outer surfaces for distances ranging from an eighth to a quarter Ar the monthly meeting of the Royal Society of Tasmania on of an inch. These crystals, as well as I could observe from the September 9, the President (His Excellency Sir Robert G. C. evanescent nature of the material, were hexagonal prisms with Hamilton) said he desired to bring before the Society a matter clearly-cut terminal facets. They resembled the projecting relating to the young salmon at the Salmon Ponds. These were crystals that form so common a lining in geodic masses, in the undoubted product of the ova brought out by Sir Thomas which they have formed by gradual crystallization from the Brady, which had been stripped from the male and female fish mother-liquor. They differed, however, of course, in being on and artificially fertilized, and the utmost care had been taken to the outer surface of the spherules.” keep them apart from any other fish bred in the ponds. He recently visited the ponds, accompanied by the Chairman of the
IN Das Wetter for October, Dr. W. J. van Bebber discusses Fisheries Board, the Secretary, and two of the members, when a paper, by the late Prof. Loomis, on the rainfall of the earth. they carefully examined a number of the young salmon, among rain : (1) an unsettled state of the atmosphere
, caused by
The following are noted as some of the conditions favourable to which they were surprised to find marked differences existing, not only in size, but in their characteristics. It has often been unusually high temperature, with great humidity, a condition lield that the Salmonidu caught in Tasmanian waters cannot
which occurs when the pressure is below the average value ; be true Salmo salar because so many of them have spots on the (2) cold northerly or westerly winds on the west side of a dorsal fin, and a tinge of yellow or orange on the adipose fin, but depression, by which the winds on the east side receive a stronger nearly half of the young salmon they examined, which had never impulse ; (3) proximity to mountains, the ocean or large lakes ; left the ponds, had these characteristics. Again, many of them (4) deep depressions of small area and steep gradients. With were almost “bull-headed” in appearance-another character regard to the rainfall which accompanies barometric depressions, i»uc which is not supposed to distinguish the true Salmo salar.
it is found that in the United States, south of latitude 36° N., He would suggest to the Chairman of the Fisheries Board, whom a rainfall of 2'5 inches occurs oftener on the east side than on he saw •present, that the Secretary should be asked to make a the west side of a depression in the ratio of 26: 1; on the formal report of the result of this visit
, and to obtain some speci- eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, a rainfall of 9 inches occurs meds of the young fish, which could be preserved in spirits, and more frequently on the east than on the west of a barometric 1 erhaps sent to Sir Thomas Brady 10 be submitted for the minimum, in the ratio of 6*2 : 1. In the North Atlantic Ocean, consideration and opinion of naturalists at home.
the ratios of large rain areas on the east and west sides of a
depression are as 2.6:1 ; while in Europe a rainfall of 2'5 inches At the same meeting of the Tasmanian Royal Society, Mr. in twenty-four hours on the east and west sides of a depression James Barnard read a remarkably interesting paper on the last occurs in the ratio of 2 : 1. The rainfall with a falling or rising living aboriginal of Tasmania. It has hitherto been generally barometer is also investigated. believed that the aboriginal Tasmanians are extinct. Mr. Barnard, however, contends that there is still one survivor We have received the fifth and last part of vol. i. of M. Fanny Cochrane Smith, of Port Cygnet, the mother of six sons Fabre's comprehensive “Traité Encyclopédique de Photo. and five daughters, all of whom are living. She is now about | graphie” (Paris : Gauthier-Villars, 1889). The subject of fifty-five years of age. Fanny's claims to the honour of being a lenses is considered in great detail, and the theory and use of pa re representative of the ancient race have been disputed, but diaphragms are fully gone into. The relation of the time of Mr. Barnard makes out a good case in her favour. He himself exposure to the subject and lens employed is also considered, remembers her as she was forty years ago, when there were still and studios, dark rooms, and their various accessories are fully about thirty or forty Datives at Oyster Cave ; "and certainly at described and illustrated. From both the theoretical and practhat time," he says, “I never heard a doubt expressed of her not tical point of view the work still bears out its original promise being a true aboriginal."
of becoming the most complete one on the subject.
A SECOND edition of Prof. Tait's “Light” (A. and C. Black) being formed. The absorption of hydrogen occurred 30 readily has been issued. The author says that in revising the work he that it was only necessary to warm one end of the boat when the has made use of various notes jotted down from time to time on heat of the reaction was found sufficient to complete the reder his own copy, mainly as the result of questions asked, or of tion of the whole. Pd(NH3),C1, + H, = Pd + 2NH.Cl. Afer difficulties pointed out, by students who were reading the book raising the temperature so as to volatilize the ammoninm with care. Suggestions of this kind he has found to be almost chloride, the finely divided palladium adhered together in the always of value, as they tend to make the book better suited to form of a porous bar having the shape of the boat. It was the wants of the class of readers for whom in particular it was allowed to cool before weighing until just below a red heat in the designed.
current of hydrogen so as to prevent oxidation, and afterwards Persons interested in ferneries and aquaria will find much the hydrogen was displaced by dry air to prevent its occlusion to attract them in a little volume entitled “Ferneries and Two series of determinations were made, the salt for the second Aquaria : a Complete Guide to their Formation, Construction, series being prepared from the reduced palladium of the first and Management,” by George Eggett, Sen. This is one of a The mean of eleven experiments in the first series gave the dum series of " practical guide-books”
issued by Messrs. Dean and ber 106-352, and of eight in the second series 106'350 The Son.
maximum value obtained was 106'459, and the minimum
106-286. The mean result 106 35 practically confirms tha The third volume (new series) of the Reliquary (Bemrose and obtained by recalculating the results of Berzelius's second Sans) has been issued. It opens with an interesting illustrated
analyses. article on two Assyro-Phoenician shields from Crete, by the Rev. Joseph Hirst. Mr. John Ward contributes three illustrated
In our note in these columns three weeks ago (vol. xl. p. 655) papers of scientific value--on Rains Cave, Longcliffe, Derby upon pinol, the new isomer of camphor, it was pointed out that the shire ; on relics of the Roman occupation, Little Chester, nitrosochloride of pinol forms with B-naphthylamine an interest Derby; and on recent diggings at Harborough Rocks, ing base, C2H2 N 0,, isomeric with quinine. This base, how Derbyshire.
ever, is not the first isomer of quinine which has been preparet. Messrs. DULAU AND Co. have sent us a “Catalogue of Zoo- was described by Dr. Kohn, of University College, Liverpool, in
for an artificially prepared base of the same empirical formula logical and Palæontological Works.” It includes works on the Journal of the Chemical Society for 1886, p. 500. Reptilia and Amphibia, and on Pisces. The atomic weight of palladium has been redetermined by
The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the Dr. E. H. Keiser (Amer. Chem. Journ.). Among all the past week include three Rhesus Monkeys (Maraemus rassus atomic weights at present adopted by chemists, that of palladium
8 8 8 ) from India, presented respectively by Colonel Cuthbert has been one of the most imperfectly determined, for the dis- Larking, Mr. James T. Wilson, and Mrs. Charles Sainsbury; crepancy between the results of the various previous investiga a Hairy-rumped Agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopka) from Gaianz tions is most unsatisfactory. In 1826, Berzelius obtained the presented by Mr. Henry E. Blandford ; a Common Poleca! value 113-63 from a consideration of the proportion in which (1/ustela putorius) from Norfolk, presented by the Earl of palladium combines with sulphur. Two years later, the same North America, presented by Miss E. Breton ; two White
Romney; a Northern Mocking Bird (Mimus polyglotlis) from distinguished chemist derived a much lower value from analyses Pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus), a Crested Pelican (Pelecanus of potassium palladious chloride, 2KCI. POCI, ; known quantities of this salt were heated in a current of hydrogen, and the crispus) from Roumania, a Common Boa (Boa constrictor). residuary potassium chloride and reduced palladium weighed. Mocassin Snake (Tropidonotus fasciatus) from North America,
a Neck-marked Snake (Geoplyas collaris) from Panama, a Recalculated by Profs. Meyer and Seubert, utilizing all the refined corrections of the present day, these analyses yield the deposited; two Common Siskins (Chrysomitris spinus), two value 1062—a number which is almost identical with the atomic Twites (Linota flavirostris), two Lesser Redpoles (Linota weight obtained by Dr. Keiser. In 1847, however, Quintus Knots (Tringa canutus), a Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica),
rufescens), four Snow Buntings (Plectrophanes niralis), two Icilius also investigated the subject, and, from determinations of British, a Rosy-billed Duck (Metopiana peposaca 8) from South the loss in weight which potassium palladious chloride undergoes when heated in a current of hydrogen, obtained the value
America, purchased. III88. No other determinations having since been attempted, and the number 112 or 113 being certainly too high from considerations of the position of palladium among the metals, the
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMV. number 106'2 obtained from Berzelius's second analysis recalcu- !
OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE. lated by Meyer and Seubert has been universally adopted. To Sidereal Time at 10 p.m. at Greenwich, November 14 = th. place the subject out of all doubt, Dr. Keiser has re-examined 36m. 45s. it from a totally different standpoint. The double chlorides of palladium and the alkalies, such as 2KCI. Paci, and
röra 2NH,CI. PdCl,, are found to be unsuitable for atomic weight determinations ; they retain water of decrepitation with great tenacity, and, after drying, are too hygroscopic for accurate (1)
(G. C. 385 weighing
(G. C. 386 On the other hand, the yellow crystalline (2) 57 Ceti
Yellowish-red. salt, palladammonium chloride, Pa(NH3),Cly, is a much
Yellow, à Cassiopeia
Bluish-white. more suitable substance. It is eminently stable, can be (5) 7 Schj....
Reddish-yellow. obtained in a state of practically perfect purity, contains no
R Pegasi (7) V Tauri
Reddish. water of crystallization, does not retain water after drying in a desiccator, and the dried salt is not hygroscopic. Weighed quantities of it contained in a platinum boat were introduced into
Remarks. a combustion tube and heated in a stream of pure hydrogen. notes that both components give a gaseous spectrum, but could
(1) This is one of Herschel's double nebulæ. Dr. Huggins The hydrogen was rapidly absorbed, changing the bright yellow only be certain of the presence of the chief nebula line near 500, colour into black, metallic palladium and ammonium chloride although 495 was strongly suspected. He notes, also, that there
3 3 70
1 35 30
+ sa 30 1 36 39 + 39 313 I 54 36 1 45 35 # 18 36 +994 1 TO 5 +251
7 + 9 T 4 45 50
is a faint continuous spectrum at the preceding edge of No. 386. Catalogue included 2248 double and multiple stars, and of them, The point chiefly requiring attention at present is the character 2130 are shown upon these charts. In addition to this, 275 of of the line near 500. Many recorded observations describe this the double stars discovered by Mr. S. W. Burnham have been 110e as having a fringe of light on the more refrangible side, mapped, this
being the whole of those included in his first four whilst others state that it is perfectly sharp on both edges. Low catalogues, and a selection from his other catalogues. The maps despersion only should be employed in making this observation. have been drawn to a scale of one-third of an inch to a degree, The observation of continuous spectrum in a special part of the which is a much larger scale than any hitherto published, and nella 386 is also worthy of attention ; the spectrum should be as each map includes but a small portion of the heavens, there examined for maxima of brightness, as in the case of the nebula is practically no distortion, whilst the epoch being 1890, in Andromeda
the positions will hold good, without any serious errors, for (2) Duner records this as a star of Group II. (see below), but fifteen or twenty years beyond that date. The projection is states that the spectrum is very feebly developed. The star is conical, or, in those charts which extend any distance both north probably, therefore, either just condensing into a fully-developed and south of the equator, cylindrical. Hence it will be easy to star of Group II., or is just passing into Group III. If the lay down any additional objects that may be required. There former, there will practically be nothing but very narrow bands, is no doubt that these charts will be eminently useful, one of and is the latter, absorption lines will accompany the bands. In their great advantages being that they will enable possessors of the earlier stages of this group, the bands in the blue are telescopes mounted on altazimuth stands or without circles to stmngest, whilst in the later stages red bands are strongest, find with ease a large number of interesting objects, and thus and this point should also receive attention. As a check, the will help to extend the knowledge of the heavenly bodies and to colour of the star should be noted at the time of observation. popularize the most fascinating of sciences. We may say that
(3) This star belongs to either Group III. or to Group V., the publisher of these charts is Edward Stanford, Cockspur and the criteria (see p. 20) should be observed in order to Street, S.W., and that the first issue is limited to 200 sets, determine which.
many of which have been already subscribed for. (4) According to Vogel, the spectrum of this star is of the
BARNARD'S COMET, II. 1889, MARCH 31.—The following same type as a Lyræ, 1.2. Group IV. The relative intensities of ephemeris is given in Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 2931 :the metallic lines and those of hydrogen, which vary from star
Decl. to star, should be noted for future classification of the stars of
h. m. S. this group according to temperature.
Nov. 6 ... I 8 54 ... - 16 36-2 Nov. 22 ...O 28 2... - 17 25-4 (5) This is a star of Group VI. Danér describes the spectrum
7. 5 49
- 17 25 7 as consisting of four zones, the zones being the bright spaces
2 49 – 16 436 24. 24 8...
- 17 25-6 between the dark carbon flutings. The presence of slight traces 9., O 59 53
25 22 17 - 17 25*2 of carbon absorption in the solar spectrum indicates that stars of
57 I ...
- 17 247 this group only differ in temperature from stars like the sun.
-- 17 23'9 The passage from one group to the other will probably be found
51 29 - 17 4'1
28 ... 17 5
- 17 228 to be very gradual, and the widths of the carbon flutings and
- 17 2146 the presence or absence of other absorptions should therefore be 14
- 17 II 6
30... 13 55 -- 17 20'0 noted,
15 43 44 -17 14'8 Dec. 1...
17 18:3 (6) Period given by Gore as 382 days, and magnitude at
41 17 17 174
10 58 ... -17 16-3 maximum (November 13) as 69-77. The spectrum has not 17
38 55 17 197 3.. 9 34 - 17 143 yet been recorded, and the present maximum may, therefore,
36 36 - 17 215 4 ...
– 17 12'0 conveniently be taken advantage of.
- 17 97 171 Period given by Gore as 168 days, and magnitude at
- 17 24'0
- 17 71 maximam (November 15) as 8-3-9. Spectrum not yet recorded.
30 5 - 17 249
7 ... 4 29 -17 44 Val-Lockyer's classification will, in future, be exclusively
28 2 -17 2594
3 20.., -17 1'5 used, so that there will be no necessity for a double reference. THE STRUCTURE OF JUPITER'S BELT 3, III.-- This dark The relation of this to Vogel's classification is shown in the band appears under ordinary conditions to be made up of two following diagram :
parallel bands, but Dr. Terby (Astronomische Nachrichten, No. Group IV. (Class I.a).
2928) says this appearance of parallelism is the result of the
special structure represented in the accompanying figure, and Group III.
31. (Class IIa).
R.A. h. m. S.
- 16 372
- 16 49-5
10... II.. 12...
48 50 46 15
- 17 8.1
34 21 32 11
20. 21 ** 22...
Group VI. (Class III.a)
Structure of Jupiter. Group 1.
Group VII. that, therefore, the band 3, III., is composed of a lot of dark (Classes I a and IL), and
bands inclined in the same direction. The circular parts A are Gebulæ).
distinguished by Dr. Terby as emitting a sort of diffused light of Lockyer's Temperature Curve.
an entirely different character from the white equatorial spots, The temperature increases from Group I. to Group IV., and properly so called ; these luminous balls seem always to occur at then decreases to Group V. On the ascending side of the the interval between two of the inclined bands, and touching ** temperature curve" we have probably to deal with con what is generally their darkest part, B. The brilliant white densing meteoritic swarms; and, on the descending side, with spots D also appear at the dissolution of two successive bands, gradually condensing masses of meteoritic vapours.
and occupy by preference their northern extremities. When the A. FOWLER. definition was very good, Dr. Terby observed that the interval
between two of these fragmentary bands had the appearance LARGE-SCALE CHARTS OF THE CONSTELLATIONS. – Mr. of a series of globules, as shown in the figure. The structure Arthur Cottam has projected a series of thirty-six most excellent appears so general and regular that it may be the means of charts of the constellations from the North Pole to between 35o adding considerably to our knowledge of the physical constitution and 40% of south declination, and showing stars in half mag. of this planet. nitudes down to 6 by disks of various sizes. Although the primary object in constructing these charts was to make them companions to Webb's "Celestial Objects for Common Tele
GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. scopes" and Smyth's "Cycle of Celestial Objects,” their scope At the first meeting of the session of the Royal Geographical has been considerably enlarged, and a number of double, mul- Society, the paper was on Cyprus, by Lieut.-General Sir Robert tiple, and variable stars have been laid down which are not
Biddulph, G.C.M.G., C.B. The island of Cyprus is the third included in either of the above-mentioned works. The Earl of largest in the Mediterranean, being inferior in size only to Sicily Crawford's (Dun Echt) summary of F. G. W. Struve's Dorpat ) and Sardinia. Its area is 3584 square miles. Its principal
features are two mountain ranges, running pretty well parallel to at the foot of the last well, and it is thence raised to the surface each other from east to west. The northernmost of these two by a water-wheel; or in some cases the level of the ground ranges extends almost the whole length of the island from Cape admits of the channel being brought out on the surface. In thu Kormakiti on the north-west to Cape St. Andrea at the end of way the town of Nicosia is supplied with excellent water, whid the horn-like promontory which stretches for 40 miles from the is brought in two aqueducts from a distance of some miles north-east of the island. This promontory is called the Carpas, Larnaca and Famagusta and other towns have similar aquedues. and the low mountain chain running through it is called the closely connected with the water supply is the forest question Carpas range. The westernmost and higher portion of the Sir Robert Biddulph then entered into detail with reference in northern range is called the Kyrenia range, and rises to an the denudation of Cyprus of its forests, and the great locusaltitude of 3340 feet. This range is of a remarkably picturesque plagues which have been so successfully treated since the Knie outline, in some parts extremely rugged. It is mostly a single occupation. ridge without any remarkable spurs, and its summit is about two miles from the northern coast. It can be crossed in many places. The chief mountain peaks of this range are Kornos, 3105 feet; Buffavento, 3140 ; and Pentedaktylos, 2400. The last named is
THE FLORA OF CHINA. a remarkably shaped rock in the centre of the Kyrenian range, owing its name to its shape, the word Pentedaktylos signifying SINCE the last meeting of the British Association, two addi
"southward from the mountain side, at an altitude of 870 feet, published, bringing the enumeration of known, and the descrip a torrent of water, which never ceases to flow summer or tion of new, species as far as the Loganiacea. The Committee winter, and which, descending into the great plain in the centre now, therefore, look forward with some confidence to the com of the island, carries its fertilizing streams to the lands of several pletion of their labours at no distant date. villages, its course marked by mills, gardens, and trees, until its Further extensive and valuable collections have been recervei water is exhausted by various irrigating channels. A similar from China in aid of the work, more especially from Dr. Angerstream of water gushes from the northern side, about 12 miles tine Henry, late of Ichang. The novelty and richness of the west of the Kyrenia Pass. Smaller streams descend on either material obtained by this indefatigable botanist far exceeds any side of the range at various places ; their waters are used for expectations the Committee could have formed. It is to be re irrigation in the valleys. The southern range of mountains is gretted that his duties as an officer of the Chinese Imperial of a much more extensive nature than the northern range. The Maritime Customs have necessitated his removal to Hainan. Il easternmost point of this range is the mountain of Santa Croce, is probable, however, that he had practically exhausted the im so called from the church of the Holy Cross which stands on its mediate neighbourhood of Ichang, and that without opportunisummit. This mountain, which is 2260 feet in height, is of a ties of travelling over a wider radius, which the Committtee peculiar shape. Beginning then from this point the southern regret they were unable to procure for him, he would not have range rapidly rises to considerable altitudes, finally culminating been able to add much of material novelty to the large collesin Mount Troodos, the highest point in Cyprus, being 6406 feet tions already transmitted by him to Kew. above the sea-level. The other chief peaks in the southern range, The Committee have met with the kindest sympathy and are Adelphe, 5305 feet ; and Machera, 4674 feet. But it is not assistance in their labours from Dr. C. J. de Maximowies, of only in altitude that the Troodos range is distinguished; numerous the Académie Imperiale of St. Petersburg, who has long been spurs run down to the north and south, and as we proceed further engaged on the elaboration of the collections made by Russian west these radiate out to greater distances, so that half way be travellers in China, and from M. Franchet, of the Museum tween Troodos and the sea, the mountain range is not less than d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris, who is describing and publishing 20 miles wide. Here there are very considerable forests, many the extremely rich collections made by the French missionaries miles in extent, rarely visited save by wandering flocks and by in Yunnan. wood-cutters, and affording shelter to the mouttion, or wild sheep The Committee have received striking profs of the appreciaof Europe, some 200 or 300 of which still roam over these hills. tion of their labours by botanists of all countries. They permit On the map it will be seen that numerous rivers descend from themselves to quote the following passage from a letter receivel both sides of the southern range. These are mostly dry in early in the present year from Baron Richthofen, than whom no summer, but after rain their waters descend with violence, filling one is more competent to estimate the value of work connected up the river-beds in the plains, carryiny away trees and cultivated with the scientific exploration of China :patches, and often rushing in a turbid stream into the bays of " It is of great value to have, now, a Flora of China, embodyFamagusta and Morphou. Between the two mountain ranges ing all the species known from that country. You have evi. there lies a great plain called the Mesaorea, which is the most dently succeeded at Kew in getting a very complete collection fertile part of Cyprus, growing large crops of wheat, barley, and At the same time, in looking over the localities mentioned in cotton. It was evidently once the bottom of the sea, for in the book, it strikes me that large portions of China are still many parts are large beds of marine shells-gigantic oysters and unexplored botanically. There remains a splendid field for a others-all clustered in masses. A noticeable feature of this good collector in the Tsingling Mountains, the province of plain is the number of flat-topped plateaux of various sizes, Sz'chuen, and chiefly its elevated region west of Ching-tu-fu. where the rock seems to have resisted the action of the water. Work in those parts will be greatly facilitated by the solid The tops of these plateaux are clothed with short herbage, atford-foundation laid through the work of Forbes and Hemsley." ing a scanty provision for flocks, and are usually from 100 to 200 The Committee derive an independent existence as a Subfeet above the plain. The rivers which descend from the hills Committee of the Government Grant Committee of the Royal carry down large quantities of alluvial soil, and this forms in the Society. They are at present in possession of sufficient funds eastern part of the Mesaorea a rich deposit, something similar to to enable them to carry on the work. They do not therefore the Delta of the Nile. The two rivers which mainly contribute ask for their reappointment at the hands of the British Associato this plain are the Pediæus and the Idalia, the former taking tion. its rise from the northern slopes of Mount Machera, and the latter from the eastern slopes of the same mountain. The beds of these rivers have, however, become so choked up with alluvial deposit towards the end of their course, that their waters overflow the plain and mingle together, so that their separate mouths
SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. can with difficulty be distinguished. The normal condition of American Journal of Science, October.— Assuming that the these rivers is to be without water, but whenever there is a heavy earth's crust rests on a layer of liquid as a floating body, Mr. Le rainfall in the mountains, the river “comes down,” as it is Conte here offers an explanation of normal faults. The crust * called, and runs for one, two, or more days. It occasionally supposed to be raised into an arch, by intumescence of the happens that the water descends with great suddenness and liquid, caused by steam or hydrostatic pressure ; it is thus broken violence, causing disastrous foods. Considerable supplies of by long more or less parallel fissures into oblong prismatic water for irrigation purposes are obtained by sinking wells. A long chain of wells are sunk at distances of five or six yards I Third Report of the Com nitree, consisting of Mr. Thiselton-Dyet apart, and being connected by underground galleries, a channel
(Secretary), Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Ball, Pryf. Oliver and Mr. Forbes ap
pointed for the purpose of continuing the preparation of a Report on our is thus formel which conveys the water to a reservoir constructed present knowledge of the Flora of China.
blecks, which, on relief of the tension by escape of lava or and break the primary circuit of a small transformer, the vapour, are readjusted by gravity, in new positions. The blocks secondary circuit of which is completed through the electromay be rectangular in section, but are more likely to be rhom magnet actuating the fork. The prongs of the fork are magnetboidal or wedge-shaped ; giving level tables with fault cliffs (as ized and receive two impulses in each period. Another device in the plateau region) in the one case, and tilted blocks with was suggested, where the prongs respectively operate contacts normal faults (as in the basin region) in the other. The author which successively charge and discharge a condenser thruugh considers the Sierra and Wahsatch to have been formed by the coils of the actuating magnet. Prof. S. P. Thompson said lateral crushing and folding; and the region between to have the methods, if perfect, would be of great service, and suggested beea arched, broken, and readjusted, as described, in the end of that a fork so driven be tested optically by comparison with a the Tertiary.-Two determinations of the ratio of the electro- freely vibrating one. He regarded the mercury contacts used magnetic to the electrostatic unit are furnished from the Johns Hop as objectionable, for their capillarity and adhesion would Lins L'niversity; one made this year, by Mr. Rosa, by Maxwell's probably cause the impulses to lag behind the appointed epochs. method of measuring a resistance, the other ten years ago, by Prof. McLeod remarked that Lissajous' figures gave a satisMessrs. Rowland, Hall, and Fletcher, by measuring a quantity factory method of testing the constancy of period, and could be of electricity electrostatically, and then measuring it electro readily observed without using lenses, and in reference to liquid magnetically with a galvanometer. The former gives v = condensers suggested by the author for his second device, said 2-9993 * 1olo centimetres per second ; the latter, 2.9815 X 100 that platinum plates in sulphuric acid were found to disintegrate centimetres. It seems certain, according to Mr. Rosa, that v is when used for this purpose. He thought lead plates would within a tenth per cent, of 300 million metres per second.-Mr prove suitable. Prof. Jones, who read a paper on a similar Long continues his account of the circular polarization of certain subject in March last, said he now used bowed forks, with which. tartrate solutions; and his experiments point to a law that the to synchronize the speed of the disk there described, and the Tifanion of a double tartrate may be made to approach that of a frequency is determined by causing the disk to complete the neatral tartrate of either of the metals present, by addition of a circuit of his Morse receiver once each revolution. -- On a salt of that metal (the effects being apparently explained by physical basis for the theory of errors, by Mr. C. V. Burton. abstitution).-Mr. Eldridge proposes a new grouping and After pointing out that the law of error for any particular Romenclature for the middle Cretaceous in America. There are measurement depends on the nature of the conditions governing als papers on the gustatory organs of the American hare (Mr. such measurement, the author considers several simple cases, and Tuckerman); on the output of the non-condensing engine, as a deduces their curves of error. A kinematic method of combin. fuoction of speed and pressure (Mr. Nipher); and on some ing two or more independent errors, each following known laws. Florida Miocene (Mr. Langdon).
is then described and applied, and the general formula obtained leads to Laplace's law of error in the case of an infinite number of similar errors. Referring to Most Advantageous Com
binations of measures, it is shown that the method of least SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
squares is only a particular solution of the general equation,
and is derived by assuming the individual errors to conform to LONDON.
Laplace's law. Subjective errors are next considered, and ir Paysical Society, November 1.-Prof. Reinold, F.R.S., conclusion the author says that “the law of error in a set of I'resident, in the chair.-The following communications were observations depends on the nature of each special case, and read:-On a new electric-radiation meter, by Mr. W. G. Gregory. what may be called the probable law of error is determined by The meter consists of a long fine platinum wire attached to a our knowledge of the conditions. The combination of three or delicate magnifying spring of the Aryton and Perry type, and more sources of error of comparable importance gives in general stretched within a compound tube of glass and brass. At the a law not seriously differing from that of Laplace, so that the junction between the wire and spring a small mirror is fixed. method of least squares will be practically the most advantage. Wten the tube is placed parallel to a Hertz's oscillator in action, ous, except where a single source of error with a very different the mirror is turned in a direction indicating an extension of the law is predominant above all the rest."-A note on the wire. The arrangement is so sensitive that an elongation of behaviour of twisted strips, by Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S., had Voss of a mm. can be detected, and when placed at a dis- been prematurely announced by mistake, and he accordingly tance of 4 metres from the oscillator the apparent extension is gave only a brief outline of the paper. In a previous comsuch as would correspond to a change of temperature of o*'003 C.munication, Prof. Ayrton and the author enunciated a working By its aid the author has roughly verified Hertz's statements hypothesis in which the strips were imagined to be split up into ikat at considerable distances the intensity of radiation varies as pairs of filaments, each pair acting as a bifilar suspension. The the inverse distance ; but before he can proceed further it is resulting formula for the rotation produced by a given load did necessary to greatly increase the sensibility of the apparatus ; not agree with experiment, and quite recently the author had and wuh a view of obtaining some suggestions in this direction, recognized why the formula was incorrect. The bifilar law they he exhibited it before the Society, Prof. Perry asked if the had assumed was only true for small twists, but he now saw E M.F. required to produce the observed results had been cal. another method of treatment by which he hoped to verify the cuisied; he also believed that the sensibility might be increased formula derived from experiment before the next meeting. Prof. by using copper instead of platinum wire, and replacing the spring Fitzgerald reminded Prof. Perry of a method of attacking the by a twisted strip. Mr. Blakesley inquired whether the effect problem suggested by the speaker some time ago, in which each of increasing the capacity of the ends of the wire had been tried. filament was supposed to be wrapped round a smooth cylinder ; Mr. Boys said that if the observed effect was due to rise of and said that on working it out the formula was found to be temperature he would like to see it measured thermally. He very complicated. Mr. Trotter thought the pairs of strips also thought the effect might be due to extension caused by might be regarded as twisted ladders, and Mr. Gregory said this rapid electric oscillations in some such way as the elongation of suggestion reduced the problem to a series of bifilar suspensions an iron bar caused by magnetization. In answer to this, Prof. which had already been worked out.-On electrifications due to S. P. Thompson said the matter had been investigated experi- contact of gases and liquids, by Mr. J. Enright. For some mentally, but with negative results. Prof. Herschel suggested time past the author has been studying the electrical phenomena ihe use of a compound spring such as is used in Breguet's attending solution, by connecting an insulated vessel in which metallic thermometers, In reply, Mr. Gregorv said he had the solution takes place with an electrometer, As a general rule, estimated the E.M.F. by observing that a Leclanché cell | no effect is observed if nothing leaves the vessel, but when through 50 ohms produced about the same result. No improve gases are produced and allowed to escape the vessel becomes ment in sensitiveness was obtained by using copper wire or by charged with + or - electricity, depending on the nature of the increasing its capacity, and attempts to measure the rise of liquid from which the gas passes into the air. As an example, temperature by an air thermometer had been given up as hope. when zinc is placed in hydrochloric acid, the deflection of the less. The President, in thanking the author ior his paper, con electrometer is in one direction whilst the liquid is chiefly acid, gratulated him on the ingenuity and courage displayed in pro- but decreases and reverses as more and more zinc chloride is ducing an apparatus to measure such microscopic quantities as produced. From such observations the author hopes to obtain are here involved.-On a method of driving tuning-forks some information relating to atomic charges. Owing to the electrically, by Mr. Gregory. In order to give the impulses lateness of the hour, the latter portion of the paper and the about the middle of the stroke, the fork is arranged to make discussion on it were postponed until next meeting.