Page images
PDF
EPUB

AMPÈRE METERS AND VOLT METERS.

STANLEY **

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

Mathematical Instrument Manufacturer to H.M. Government, Council of

India, Science and At Department, Admiralty, &c Mathematical, Drawing, and Surveying Instruments

of every Description,
of the Highest Quality and Finish, at the most Moderate Prices

Illustrated Price List Post Free,
W. F. S. obtained the only Medal in the Great Exhibition of 1862 for
Excellence of Construction of Mathematical Instruments, and the only
GOLD MEDAL in the International Inventions Exhibition 1885 for Mathe
matical Work. Silver Medal, Architects' Exhibition, 1886.

Address :-GREAT TURNSTILE, HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C.

MADE WITH BOILING WATER.

3

[ocr errors]

EPPS's
COCO A

CRATEFUL-COMFORTING.

MADE WITH BOILING MILK,

50
42-50 each

50

AUTOCOPYIST

NEW PRICES.

Excellent Copies of the actual, natural Handwriting, also Ampère Meters. Francs. I Volt Meters. Francs.

of Drawings, Music, even of elaborate Sketches, ProI

grammes, Plans (up to Double-Elephant s.ze). Shorthand, and 1

60 25

Type-Writing, are easily, quickly, and cheaply produced by the 25

51 each 50 40

48 ICO 37-50 »

[graphic]
[graphic]

45 »

HOLLOWAY'S PILLS

DING

"BEATALL

100
J. CARPENTIER,

Very fluid ink, used with ordinary pen and paper. Auto-Circulars PARIS-20 Rue Delambre-PARIS. resemble written letters. Used at the House of Lords, &c.

AUTOCOPYIST DEPT. (A.E.T.C.., lat.),
THE FINEST AND CHEAPEST CYCLES

London Wall, London, and 52 Princess Street, Manchester.
At the last Stanley Show were
those exhibited by the British
Cycle Manufacturing Com.

THIS
pany: Press and Cyclists
unanimous on this point. -

MEDICINE
Vide Daily Papers.
EASY TERMS OF PAYMENT.

Is unequalled in the Cure of all Disorders of the LIVER,

STOMACH, KIDNEYS AND BOWELS. A Great PUBI. from 108. down, with immediate delivery of machine. FIER of the BLOOD; a Powerful Invigorator of the Balance payable, IOS. per

System, if suffering from WEAKNESS AND DEBILITY, month. PRICES:

and is unequaller in Complaints incidental to females. £17, £15, £12 128., £11, £10, and £6 58. Several new pattern Safeties, Tricycles, &c. See our“Jubilee Rational F. H. BUTLER, M.A. Oxon., A.R.S Mines, &c., Safety. Write for Lists. 15 per cent. discount for cash, or supplied on Easy

NATURAL HISTORY AGENCY, Terms. Bicycles, £2 to 215; Tricycles, £4 to 624; exchanges made. Tuition free. Cycles bought and sold. Lists of over 1000 New and Second 148 BROMPTON ROAD, LOVDON, S.W., hand Bicycles, Tricycles, Tandems, and Safeties, together with over 1000

Near the British Natural History Museum. unsolicited Testimonials received during 1888, and Opinions of the Press, English and Foreign Rocks, Minerals, Fossils, Shells, and other sent Post free. Be sure and write for Lists and Testimonials before pur.

Objects of Natural' History chasing elsewhere.

HAND SPECIMENS OF ROCKS and ROCK-FORMING MINERALS, British Cycle Manufacturing Co.,

from 3d. each, especially selected for Private Study and Science

Teaching: 45 EVERTON ROAD, AND 20 LYTTON STREET, LIVERPOOL STUDENTS CABINETS, 12 inches x 84 inches x 34 inches, with two

Lifting Trays and Internal Fittings, containing 60 to 65 Examples of
Minerals, Rocks, and Rock-Formers, Fossils to illustrate all Formations

or Recent Shells : 175. each. AMERA

ROCK SECTIONS IN GREAT VARIETY.

MICRO GLASS SLIDES and CovER SLIPS, Round or Square (Best U STAND. This Stand combines an excellent Tripod

English make only). RACK BOXES, &c.

APPARATUS for BLOW PIPE and other ANALYSIS. and Alpenstock. It is well spiked, and has CABINETS for Minerals or Shells, or fitted with divisions for Eggs. a Leather Hand-rest at the top.

GLASS-TOPPED BOXES in all sizes, and other Scientific Requisites. A BOON The total weight for plate is 2 pounds.

Lapidary's Work executed on the Premises. TO Ο

Price for ļ and plate, 88, 6d. ; t plate 128.

GEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS. TOURISTS

The Amateur Photographer says :-"A
very excellent tripod, which shuts up into and Geological Position, in Mahogany Cabinets. 100 Specimens, 255;

Comprising Fossils, Minerals, and Rocks, labelled with Name. Locality an alpenstock of a very serviceable cha- 200 ditto, sas. The best value obtainable.

Micro-sections of Rocks in great variety. Cabinets, Glass-topped Boxes,

and other Geological Requisites.
Manufacturers and Patentees :
HARGER BROTHERS,

PRIZE MEDALLIST, HEALTH EXHIBITION,
SETTLE, YORKSHIRE. 78 NEWGATE STREET, LONDON, E.C.

The ALPENSTOCK

'EXCELSIOR.”

racter."

THOMAS D. RUSSELL,

d.

28 0

14 6

30 6

32 6

100

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE.” WILLIAM WESLEY

WESLEY AND SON, Yearly .

Scientific Booksellers and publisbers,
Half-yearly.
Quarterly

76 28 ESSEX STREET, STRAND, LONDON. To the United States, the Continent, &c. :

Yearly.
Half-yearly

15 6

The following recently-published Circulars include a portion of their

stock Quarterly To India, China, and Japan :

NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENTIFIC BOOK

CIRCULAR; No. 95.-GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY; inYearly

cluding the first part of the Library of the late W. H. BAILI, of the Half-yearly

16 6

Geological Survey of Ireland. Contents: Geology (Practical, Historical. Quarterly

8 6

and General): Geological Maps and Diagrams: Glaciers and Glacial

Theory : Petrography; Volcanoes and Earthquakes ; Geology of Great CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS.

Britain, Ireland, and Europe ; Geology of Africa, America, Asia, and

Australasia ; Mineralogy Mires and Crystallography, Coal, Gas, Three Lines in Column 2s.6d. 9d. per Line after.

Gems, Gold, Meteorites. New Purchases, 1500 Works. Price 6d.

d. One Eighth Page, or Quarter Column O 18 6

NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENTIFIC BOOK Quarter Page, or Half a Column

I 15

CIRCULAR : No. 96.--PALÆONTOLOGY; including the second Half a Page, or a Column

part of the Library of the late W. H. BAILY, Palæontologist to the

3 5 Whole Page

Geological Survey of Ireland. About 1000 Works. Price 4d. 6 6 0

NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENTIFIC BOOK Money Orders payable to MACMILLAN & CO.

CIRCULAR; No. 97.-ICHTHYOLOGY ; Reptilia and Amphibia ; OFFICE: 29 BEDFORD STREET, STRAND, W.C. General Zoology. including Ancient Works, Kiographies. Classification,

Darwinism, Manuals, Periodicals, Transactions of Societies ; Anatomy,

Physiology, and Embryology. Price 4d. MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY.

MR. HENSON, 97 REGENT STRERT, LONDON (late 277 Strand), in vites inspection of some EXCEEDINGLY CHOICE CORNISH MINE.

W. WESLEY & SON, 28 Essex Street, Strand, London. RALS, consisting of CALCITES FROM THE CELEBRATED HERODS FOOT MINE, REDRUTHITE, IRIDESCENT FAHLERZ, GOETHITE, and LARGE CRYSTALS of CASSITERITE. From CUMBERLAND: FINE EXAMPLES of the VERY INTER.

By LIONEL S. BEALE, M.B., F.R.S., ESTING " BUTTERFLY" TWIN CRYSTALS OF CALCITE.

Professor of Medicine in King's College, London, WITHERITES, GREEN AND OTHER FLUORS.

RHABDOPHANE, SCOVELLITE, FORESITE, EPISTILBITE, HOW TO WORK WITH THE MICROSCOPE.
THORITE. FINE SERIES OF POLISHED AGATES.

Plates. 215. (Harrison and Sons.)
Specimens sent on Approval.

OUR MORALITY AND THE MORAL QUESTION. 2s.6d. COLLECTIONS for STUDENTS, PROSPECTORS, and MUSEUMS 100 FIGURES OF URINARY DEPOSITS. 55. LESSONS GIVEN IN MINERALOGY. BLOWPIPE CASES AND URINARY AND RENAL DERANGEMENTS AND CALAPPARATUS. GEM STONES. Catalogues Free.

CULOUS DISORDERS, Diagnosis and Treatment. Now Ready, 5s. SAMUEL HENSON, 97 Regent Street, London, W. SLIGHT AILMENTS. Pp. 275. 55. (A FEW DOORS FROM ST. JAMES'S HALL.) THE MICROSCOPE IN MEDICINE. 86 Plates.

21S. Established 1840.

BIOPLASM: Introduction to Medicine and Physiology. 6s, 6d.

PROTOPLASM. (New Edition preparing.)
MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. ON LIFE AND ON VITAL ACTION. 55.

THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. 35. 6d.
S’ECIAL AND TYPICAL COLLECTIONS FOR STUDENTS,
LECTURERS, AND MUSEUMS.

LIFE THEORIES AND RELIGIOUS THOUGHT. 5s.6d.

THE “MACHINERY” OF LIFE. 25.
VERY REQUISITE FOR PRACTICAL WORK, CABINETS,
CASES, APPARATUS OF ALL KINDS.

DISEASE GERMS. (Soiled Copies only.) 8s. 6d.
The Largest Stock in England of Rocks, Rock-Sections,

London: J. & A. CHURCHILL.
Minerals, Fossils.
New Catalogues and Lists now ready, Free, of

NOW READY.
JAMES R. GREGORY,

CATALOGUE OF ZOOLOGICAL AND 88 CHARLOTTE STREET, FITZROY SQUARE, LONDON.

PALÆONTOLOGICAL WORKS. On the ist of every Month, Price Sixpence.

1. Protozoa. II. Cælenterata III. Mollusca. IV. Echinodermata. THE ENTOMOLOGIST: V. Vermes. VI. Crustacea. VII. Insecta. VIII. Reptila. IX. Pisces AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY.

DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, London.
Edited by JOHN T. CARRINGTON,
With the Assistance of

NOW READY.
FREDERICK BOND, F.Z.S.

RICHARD SOUTH.

THE LOG OF THE “NEREID.” A ReEDWARD A. F1TCH, F.L.S. J. JENNER Weir, F.L.S.

lation of a Recent Yachting Voyage from England to the Levant, with F. BUCHANAN WHITE, M.D.

an Account of Algeria, Malta, Syria, and Egypt. Dedicated to Captain Contains Articles by well-known Entomologists on all branches of the

WEENIE. By THOMAS GIBSON BOWLES, R.N.R. In i Vol., Science; on Insects injurious or beneficial to Farm or Garden; Notes on

Demy 8vo, Price rcs. 6d. Habits, 'Life- Histories; occurrence of Rarities, &c., there are Monthly SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO., 4 Stationers' Hall Court. Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata.

WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS and occasional LITHOGRAPHED and Chromo. LITHOGRAPHED PLATES.

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION LECTURES. SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO., Stationers' Hall Court.

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. An Outline of a On the ist of every Month.

Course of Lectures by E. A. PARKYN, M.A. (late Scholar of Christ's
JOURNAL OF BOTANY,

College, Cambridge). Crown 8vo, Cloch, 167 pp., 25.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN.

London: ALLMAN & SON (Limited), 67 New Oxford Street, W.C.
Edited by JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S., British Museum.
CONTENTS :-Original Articles by leading Botanists.-Extracts, and

Price 1s., Post Free.
Notices of Books and Memoirs. --Articles in Journals.--Botanical News.-
Proceedings of Societies,

NOSE AND THROAT DISEASES.
Price 1s. 3d. Subscription for One Year, payable in advance, 125.

GEORGE MOORE, M.D. London: WEST, NEWMAN, & co., 54 Hatton Garden, E.C. J. EPPS & CO., 170 Piccadilly; ard 48 Threadneedle Street,

By

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING

Vol. IV. Nor Ready. CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

CHAMBERS'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

A DICTIONARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE, The Romance of Science.

With Maps and Wood Engravings, in 10 Vols., DISEASES OF PLANTS. By Prof. MARSHALL

Imperial 8vo. WARD. With numerous I lustrations. Post svo, Cloth Boards, 23. 64.

ENTIRELY NEW EDITION. TIME AND TIDE: A ROMANCE OF

THE MOON. By Sir ROBERT S. BALL, LLD, F.R.S., Royal Vols. I., II., III., and IV, are Now Ready, Price 10s. each, Astroncmer of Ireland. Illustrated. Post 8vo, Coch Boards, as. 6d.

Cloth ; 155. each, Half-Morocco.
THE STORY OF A TINDER-BOX. By

CHARLES MEYNOTT TIDY, M.BM S., F.C.S. With numerous
I'lustrations. Post &vo, Cloth Boards, 25.

OPINIOVS OF THE PRESS.

Times—"The second and third volumes are marked by all TOILERS IN THE SEA. By M. C. COOKE, the good qualities that characterized the first : there is the same

M.A., LLD. With numercus Illustrations. Post Svo, Cloth Boards, 5 enterprise in securing specialists as contributors, and the WAYSIDE SKETCHES. By Prof. HULME, treatment of the articles; the illustrations and maps are

same accuracy, clearness, competency, and conciseness in the F.LS., FS A. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, Cloth Boards, 55. numerous and good.” Non-Christian Religious Systems.

Daily Telegrapk_" The advent of a new edition, accurate,

liberal, and cheap, will be welcomed with a very general [A Series of Manuals which furnish in a brief and popular form an Accurate approval." Account of the Great Non-Christian Religious Systems of the World.] NEW VOLUME.

Literary World— " The new Encyclopædia is no mere tasteISLAM AS A MISSIONARY RELIGION. information, it has a distinct literary value of its own."

less compilation, but, apart from the fullness and accuracy of its By C. R. HAINES, M.A. Fcp. 8vo, Cloth Boards, 25. Six other l'aumes kare already appeared in this Series.

Pall Mall Gasette-“For practical utility these volumes could hardly be exceeded."

GRIFFIN'S SCIENTIFIC TEXT-BOOKS.

Chief Ancient Philosophies.

W. & R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paternoster Row, London ; and This Series of Broks will deal with the Chief Systems of Ancient Thought,

Edinburgh. at werely as dry matters of History, but as having a bearing on Modern Speculation)

NEW VOLUME. ARISTOTELIANISM. Part I. The Ethics 6)F ARISTOTLE. By the Rev. I. GREGORY SMITH, M.A., Hon.

At Press, Illustrated, Crown 8vo. LLD. Part IL THE LOGICAL TREATISES, THE METAPHYSICS, THE ASSAYING (A TEXT-BOOK OF). For the

Use of Students, Mine-Managers, Assayers, &c. By J. J. BERINGER The Two Parts in One Volume. Fcap. 8vo, Cloth Boards, 2s 6d.

F.I.C., F.C.S. Lecturer to the Mining Association of Cornwall, &c.

and C. BERINGER, F.I.C., F.C.S. STAR ATLAS. By Dr. H. I. Klein. Text

FIFTH Edition, Revised, Crown 8vo, 74. 6d. Translated and Adapted by the Rev. E. MCCLURE, M.A. Imperial STEAM AND STEAM-ENGINES (A 4to. wuh 18 Charts and Eo Pages Illustrative Letterpress. Cloth Bards,

TEXT-BOOK ON). For the Use of Students preparing for Com78. 6d.

petitive Examinations. By A. JAMIESON, M.Inst C.E., F.R.S.E..

Professor of Engineering in the Technical College, Glasgow. With A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF Illustrations, 4 Folding Plates, and Examination Papers.

EUROPE. Chiefly International. From the Beginning of the Roman ** The best book yet published for the use of students."-Engineer.
Empire to the Present Day. By ARTHUR REED ROPES, M.A.
Posi 8vo, Cloth Boards, zs. od.

Second Edition, Illustrated, Crown 8vo 7s 6d.
MINE-SURVEYING (A TEXT-BOOK OF).

By B. H. BROUGH, F.G S., Instructor of Mine-Surveying, Ruyal NEW SERIES of PHOTO-RELIEVO MAPS

School of Mines (Patented).

Sixth EDITION. Pocket size. With Diagrams. 8s. 64. Presenting each Region as if in actual relief, and thus affording an

ELECTRICAL RULES AND TABLES accurate Picture of the Configuration of the Earth's Surface.

(a Pocket Book of). For the l'se of Electricians and Engineers. By J. SOUTH LONDON, stretching from London Bridge

MUNRO, C.E., and A. JAMIESON, M. Inst.C.E., &c. to Caterham, and from Greenwich to Hampton Court. This will enable

Crown 8vo, 78. d. School Buard pupils in this region to get an idea of the topography of the INORGANIC neighbourhood, and thus to arise to a conception of the geography of the

CHEMISTRY (a Short country generally. No. 2. Giving Physical Configuration, Railways,

Mannal of). By A. DUPRÉ, Ph. D. F.R.S.. È.C.S., and H. Roads, and Chief Places. 6d.

WILSON HAKE, Ph.D., Fic, F.C.S.,

Westininster Hospital SCOTLAND, 19 in. by 14 in.

Medical School. With a Coloured Table of Spectra.

No. 1. Names of Places and Rivers left to be filled in by Scholars, 6d. 2. With Rivers

With 158 fllustrations, Crown Sro, 125. 6d. and Names of Places, od. 3. With Names of Places and with County BIOLOGY (A TEXT-BOOK OF). Com Divisions in Colours, 18.

prising Vegetable and Animal Morphology and Physiology. By J. R. ENGLAND and WALES, EUROPE and ASIA, same size and price. AINSWORTH DAVIS, B.A., Lecturer on Biology in the University LARGE WALL MAP. ENGLAND and WALES.

College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Canvas and Varnished, tos. 6d.

[Ready shortly.

Royal 8vo, with 100 Illustrations, 18s.

EMBRYOLOGY (AN INTRODUCTION LONDOX: NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE,

TO). For the Use of Students. By A. C. HADDON, MA.

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin CHARING CROSS, W.C. ; 43. QUEEN VICTORIA ST., E.C. BRIGHTON : 135 NORTH ST. London : CHARLES GRIFFIN & CO., Exeter Street, Strand.

[graphic][subsumed]

A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye."—WORDSWORTH.

the last twenty years by confining our attention to the THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1889.

measure of success which these pages have won. It has been attained, as we have shown, by the aid of nearly all

the best-known scientific writers and workers, not in Britain TWENTY YEARS.

only but in many countries old and new; and we cannot

believe that they would thus have banded themselves A

REMINDER that to-day is the twentieth anni. together if evidence had not been given of an honest

versary of the first issue of NATURE, will not, desire for the good of science and for the “promotion of perhaps, be without interest to our readers, and certainly natural knowledge," or if the attainment of these objects affords food for reflection to those who in various capaci- had not been regarded by us as of more importance than ties have been more or less closely connected with this a journalistic success. Thus, on its twentieth birthday, journal from the first.

we would think not so much of the growth of NATURE “When another half-century has passed,” said Prof. as of the advance which in the last twenty years it has Huxley in our first number, "curious readers of the back chronicled. numbers of NATURE will probably look on our best 'not A formal history of science for that period would be a without a smile.""

formidable task, but it is already possible to discern what It will probably be so, but though twenty years is will probably appear to posterity to be the most salient hardly a sufficient interval to make our smiles at our characteristics of the last two decades. earlier efforts supercilious, it is enough to test whether In the physical sciences, the enormous development progress has been made, and whether the forward path of the atomic theory, and the establishment of a conis pursued with growing or with waning force.

nection between the theories of electricity and light, are As regards this journal itself, we may claim that it has perhaps the two main achievements of the years we are not disappointed the hopes of its founders, nor failed in considering. Methods of accomplishing the at first the task it undertook; and we make this claim all the sight impossible task of measuring atomic magnitudes more emphatically because we feel that what has been have been devised. Our own volumes contain some of accomplished has not been due to our own efforts so the most interesting papers of Sir William Thomson on much as to the unfailing help we have always received this subject, and the close agreement in the results from the leaders in all branches of natural science. This attained by very different methods is sufficient proof that, help has not been limited to their contributions to our if only approximations, they are approximations we may columns, but has consisted also of advice and suggestions trust. The brilliant vortex atom theory of Sir William which have been freely asked and as freely given. Not Thomson has not as yet achieved the position of a proved the least part of our duty, and even privilege, to-day is hypothesis, but has stimulated mathematical inquiry. A to state openly how small our own part has been, and number of very powerful researches have added to our to render grateful thanks to those to whom it is chiefly knowledge of a most difficult branch of mathematics, due that NATURE has a recognized place in the machinery which may yet furnish the basis of a theory which shall of science, and has secured an audience in all parts of the deduce the nature of matter and the phenomena of civilized world.

radiation from a single group of assumptions. We do not wish, however, to narrow our retrospect of The theory of gases has been extended in both direcVOL. XLI.—No. 1045.

B

tions. The able attempt of Van der Waals to bring both branches of science which relate to astronomy. Stars vapour and liquid within the grasp of a single theory is which no human eye will ever see are now known to us as complementary to the extension by Crookes, Hittorf, and surely as those which are clearly visible. The efforts Osborne Reynolds of our knowledge of phenomena which to reduce nebulæ, comets, and stars under one common are best studied in gases of great tenuity.

! law, as various cases of the collision or aggregation The gradual expansion of thermodynamics, and in, of meteoritic swarms, and the striking investigations of general of the domain of dynamics from molar to mole- 'Prof. Darwin on the effects of tidal action, and on the cular phenomena, has been carried on by Willard Gibbs, application of the laws of gases to a meteoritic plenum, J. J. Thomson, and others, until, in many cases, theory give promise of a fuller knowledge of the birth and seems to have outrun not only our present experimental death of worlds. powers, but almost any conceivable extension which they' In the biological sciences, the progress during the last may hereafter undergo.

twenty years has consisted chiefly in the firm establishThe pregnant suggestion of Maxwell that light is ment of the Darwinian doctrine, and the application of an electro-magnetic phenomenon has borne good fruit. it and its subordinate conceptions in a variety of fields of Gradually the theory is taking form and shape, and the investigation. The progress of experimental physiology epoch-making experiments of Hertz, together with the has been marked by increasing exactitude in the applirecent work of Lodge, J. J. Thomson, and Glazebrook, i cation of physical methods to the study of the properties furnish a complete proof of its fundamental hypotheses. of living bodies, but it has not as yet benefited, as The great development of the technical applications of have other branches of biology, from the fecundating electricity has stimulated the public interest in this science, influence of Darwin's writings: bence there is no very and has necessitated a more detailed study of magnetism prominent physiological discovery to be recorded. The and of the laws of periodic currents. The telephone and the generation of scientific men which is now coming to microphone have eclipsed the wonders of the telegraph,and middle age has been brought up in familiarity with Mr. furnish new means of wresting fresh secrets from Nature. Darwin's teaching, and is not affected by anything like

Science has become more than ever cosmopolitan, hostility or a priori antagonism to such views. The owing chiefly to the imperative necessity for an early result is seen in the vast number of embryological reagreement as to the values of various units for a com- searches (stimulated by the theory that the development mon nomenclature, and for simultaneous observations in of the individual is an epitome of the development of the widely separated localities. International Conferences race) which these twenty years have produced, and in the are the order of the day, and the new units which they daily increasing attention to that study of the organism as have defined are based upon experiments by many first- : living thing definitely related to its conditions which rate observers in many lands, amongst whom the name o Darwin himself set on foot. The marine laboratories Lord Rayleigh stands second to none.

of Naples, Newport, Beaufort, and Plymouth, have come On the side of chemistry the periodic law of Mendeleeff into existence (as in earlier years their forerunners on has become established as a generalization of the first the coast of France, and served to organize and faciliimportance, and the extraordinary feat of foretelling the tate the study of living plants and animals. The physical properties of an as yet undiscovered element has Challenger and other deep-sea exploring expeditions attracted to it the attention of the whole scientific world.

have sailed forth and returned with their booty, which The once permanent gases are permanent no more. has been described with a detail and precision unknown Dulong and Petit's law has found a complement in the in former times. The precise methods of microscopic methods of Raoult. The old doctrine of valency is giving study by means of section-cutting-due originally to way to more elastic hypotheses. The extraordinary pro- Stricker, of Vienna-have within these twenty years made gress of organic chemistry, which originated in the work the study of cell-structure and cell-activity as essential a and influence of Liebig and the Giessen school, has con- part of morphology as it had already become of physiotinued at an accelerated rate. The practical value of even logy. These, and the frank adoption of the theory of the most recondite investigations of pure science has again descent, have swept away old ideas of classification and been exemplified by the enormous development of the affinities, and have relegated the Ascidian “polyps ” of coal-tar industry, and by the numerous syntheses of old days to the group of l’ertebrata, and the Sponges to organic products which have added to the material re- the Coelenterates. The nucleus of the protoplasmic cell sources of the community.

--which twenty years ago had fallen from the high The increase of our knowledge of the sun by means of position of importance accorded to it by Schwannlocalized spectroscopic observation ; the application of has, through the researches of Butschli, Flemming, and photography to astronomy, and more recently still the Van Beneden, been reinstated, and is now shown to be extension and generalization of the nebular hypothesis the seat of all-important activities in connection with cellare perhaps the most remarkable developments of those division and the fertilization of the egg. The discovery of

« PreviousContinue »