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draughts of air of different temperatures and with a lamp disposal that is in any degree suitable. A large drainand scale such as are used with a galvanometer, the pipe filled with gravel and cement and covered by a slab effect of the attraction can easily be shown to a few, or, of stone forms a fairly good table. The scale is made by with a lime-light, to an audience. To obtain this result etching millimetre divisions on a strip of clear plate glass with apparatus of the ordinary construction and usual 80 centimetres long. This is secured at the other end of size is next to impossible, on account chiefly of the great the vault at a distance of 1053-8 centimetres from the disturbing effect of air currents set up by difference of mirror of the instrument. A telescope 132 centimetres temperature in the case. The extreme portability of the long with an object-glass 5'08 centimetres in diameter, new instrument is a further advantage, as is evident when rests on V's clamped to the wall, with its object-glass the enormous weight and size of the attracting masses 360 centimetres from the mirror. Thus any disturbance in the ordinary apparatus are considered.

that the observer might produce if nearer is avoided, and at the same time the field of view comprises 100 divisions While the observer is sitting at the telescope he can, by pulling a string, move an albo-carbon light, mounted on a carriage, so as to illuminate any part of the scale that may happen to be in the field of the telescope. The white and steady flame forms a brilliant background on which the divisions appear in black. The accuracy of the mirror is such that the millimetre divisions are clearly defined, and the position of the cross-wire (a quartz fibre: can be read accurately to one-tenth of a division. This corresponds to a movement of the mirror of almost exactly one second of arc.

The mode of observation is as follows: When all is quiet with the large masses in one extreme position, the position of rest is observed and a mark placed on the scale. The masses are moved to one side for a time and then replaced, which sets up an oscillation. The reading of every elongation and the time of every transit of the mark are observed until the amplitude is reduced to 3 or 4 centimetres. The masses are then moved to the other extreme position and the elongations and transits observed again, and this is repeated as often as necessary.

On the evening of Saturday, May 18, six sets of readings were taken, but during the observations there was an

almost continuous tramp of art students above, producing M

a perceptible tremor, besides which two vehicles passed, and coals were twice shovelled in the coal cellar, which is separated from the vault in which the observations were made by only a 4-inch brick wall. The result of all this was a nearly perpetual tremor, which produced a rapid oscillation of the scale on the cross-wire, extending over a little more than 1 millimetre. This increased the

difficulty of taking the readings, but to what extent it M 6

introduced error I shall not be able to tell until I can make observations in a proper place.

In spite of these disturbances, the agreement between the deflections deduced from the several sets of observations, and between the periods, is far greater than I had hoped to obtain, even under the most favourable conditions. In order to show how well the instrument behaved, I have copied from my note-book the whole series of figures of one set, which sufficiently explain themselves.

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Fig. 3.


15'05 53'20 22:48 47'28 27 28 43:40 30:42



o 805 0.808 0.807 0:807 0.805 o 806 0.802 o 808

However, this result is only one of the objects of the present inquiry. The other object which I had in view was to find. whether the small apparatus, besides being more sensitive than that hitherto employed, would also be more free from disturbances and so give more consistent results. With this object I have placed the apparatus in a long narrow vault under the private road between the South Kensington Museum and the Science Schools. This is not a good place for experiments of this kind, for when a cab passes overhead the trembling is so great that loose things visibly move ; however, it is the only place at my

S. 36'18 9 8 250 36'20 9 45'5 36-21 II 53 36'20 12 25.8 36-22

13 45'0 36'21

15 60 36*22

16 25'0 36-24 17 46'0 36'24

19 45

20 27'0 36'26 21

+ o'08
- 0.18
+ 0'24
- 0*28
+ 0'41

- 091
+ 1'13
- 158
+ 1'94

802 So 2 So'o 7999 So'T 80'1 7995 80's 798 80's


32-50 39'27

6.77 0.808




o 814




So os

It will be noticed that the true position of rest is slightly beam on the metronome principle, is employed. They naing in value, and this rise was found to continue at the are essentially the same as the Cavendish method, except rate of or36 centimetre an hour during the whole course that there is introduced the friction of the knife-edges of the experiment, and to be the same when the large and the unknown disturbances due to particles of dust at masses were in the positive or negative position. The these points, and to buoyancy, without, in my opinion, motion was perfectly uniform, and in no way interfered any compensating advantage. However, it would appear wlth the accuracy of the experiments. It was due, I that if the experiment is to be made with a balance, the believe, to the shellac fastening of the fibre, for I find considerations which I have advanced in this paper that immediately after a fibre has been attached, this would point to the advantage of making the apparatus movement is very noticeable, but after a few days it small, so that attracting masses of greater proportionate

Imost entirely ceases; it is, moreover, chiefly evident size may be employed, and the disturbance due to when the fibre is loaded very heavily. At the time that convection reduced. the experiment was made the instrument had only been It is my intention, if I can obtain a proper place in set up a few hours.

which to make the observations, to prepare an apparatus The mean decrement of three positive sets was o‘8011, specially suitable for absolute determinations. The scale and of three negative sets, 0-8035. The observed mean will have to be increased, so that the dimensions may be period of three positive sets was 79'98, and of three determined to a ten-thousandth part at least. Both pairs negative sets, 8003 seconds, from both of which o‘20 of masses should, I think, be suspended by fibres or by must be deducted as the time correction for damping. wires, so that the distance of their centres from the axis

The detiections, in centimetres, obtained from the six may be accurately measured, and so that, in the case of sets of observations taken in groups of three, so as to take the little masses, the moment of inertia of the beam, into account the effect of the slow change of the position mirror, &c., may be found by alternately measuring the of rest, were as follows:

period with and without the masses attached. The un

balanced attractions between the beam, &c., and the From sets 1, 2, and 3 ... 17:66 + O'or

large masses, and between the little masses and anything 2, 3, and 4 17.65 0'02

unsymmetrical about the support of the large masses, will 3. 4, and 5

17*65 0'02
4, 5, and 6
1765 + 0.02

probably be more accurately determined experimentally

by observing the deflections when the large and the small An examination of these figures shows that the deflec-' masses are in turn removed, than by calculation. too is known with an accuracy of about one part in two

If anything is to be gained by swinging the small thousani, while the period is known to the 4000th part masses in a good Sprengel vacuum, the difficulty will not of the whole. As a matter of fact, the discrepancies

are be so great with apparatus made on the scale I have in not more than may be due to an uncertainty in some of view, i e. with a beam about 5 centimetres long, as it the observations of 1 millimetre or less, a quantity which, would with large apparatus. With a view to reduce the under the circumstances, is hardly to be avoided. considerable decrement, I did try to maintain such a

The result of these experiments is complete and satis- vacuum in the first iustrument, in which a beam 1'2 factory. As a lecture experiment, the attraction between centimetre long was suspended by a fibre so fine as to small masses can be easily and certainly shown, even give a complete period of five minutes, but though the though the resolved force causing motion is, as in the pump would click violently for a day perhaps, leakage present instance, no more than the 1:200,000 of a dyne always took place before long, and so no satisfactory less than 1 19,000,000 of the weight of a grain), and this results were obtained. is possible with the comparatively short half period of With an apparatus such as I have described, but to seconds. Had it been necessary to make use of such arranged to have a complete period of six minutes, it will half periods as three to fifteen minutes, which have been be possible to read the scale with an accuracy of 1/10,000 employed hitherto, then, even though a considerable deflec- of the deflection, and to determine the time of vibration tron were produced, this could hardly be considered a with an accuracy about twice as great. lecture experiment. So perfectly does the instrument I hope early next year, in spite of the difficulty of bebave, that there can be no difficulty in making a fairly finding a suitable place to observe in, to prepare appaaccurate measure of the attraction between a pair of ratus for absolute determinations, and I shall be glad to Ya 3, or, I believe, even of dust shot.

receive any suggestions which those interested may be The very remarkable agreement between successive good enough to offer.

C. V. Boys. deflections and periods shows that an absolute measure made with apparatus designed for the purpose, but on the lines laid down above, is likely to lead to results of

WILLIAM RAMSAY UNAB. far greater accuracy than any that have been obtained. For instance, in the original experiment of Cavendish WILLIAM RAMSAY MCNAB, M.D., whose sudden of rest of one-tenth of the deflection obtained, while the corded, was born in Edinburgh in November 1844. He period showed discrepancies of five to fifteen seconds in was educated at the Edinburgh Academy, and afterseven minutes. The experiments of Baily, made in the most wards in the University of that city, obtaining the degree elaborate manner, were more consistent, but Cornu was of Doctor of Medicine when twenty-two years of age. the first to obtain from the Cavendish apparatus results His grandfather and father, in succession, held office having a precision in any way comparable to that of as Curators of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden ; and the other physical measurements. The three papers, pub- late Dr. McNab early manifested an inherited capacity lished by him in the Comptes rendus of 1878, referred to for botanical work ; for, while still an undergraduate, he above, contain a very complete solution of some of the was appointed assistant to Prof. Balfour, who then held problems to which the investigation has given rise. The the Edinburgh botanical chair. He also entered the agreement between the successive values, decrement, and University of Berlin as a student-in botany under Profs. period is much the same as I have obtained, nevertheless Braun and Koch, and in pathological anatomy and the means of the summer and of the winter observations histology under Prof. Virchow. Three years of his differ by about i per cent.

later life were spent in medical practice ; but his love I have not referred to the various methods of determin- of botany was his dominant feeling, and in 1870 he ing the constant of gravitation in which a balance, embarked upon a purely biological career, having been wbether with the usual horizontal beam, or with a vertical | then appointed to the Professorship of Natural History

in the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 'Two appointed, and the following motion was adopted :-" That the years later he succeeded to the Chair of Botany in the movement be directed to secure, not only a marble statue of to Royal College of Science, Dublin, and this post he held late Dr. James Prescott Joule as a companion to that of the late until his death. During his student life he paid con- Dr. Dalton by Sir Francis Chantrey, but also a replica in brone siderable attention to the practical study of geology; and for many years he collected Coleoptera, of which he to occupy some public place in the city, and that the executa possessed a very fine collection, now in the Dublin committee be instructed to take all needful steps for the Museum of Science and Art.

purpose.” Many subscriptions have been already promised. During the nineteen years exclusively devoted to natural science, Prof. McNab published a considerable number national monument to James Watt at Greenock, his birthpla2

An attempt is being made to secure the erection of an inte of technical papers ; most of these were short, but some forty or fifty of them are fit to rank as original communi- It is proposed that the memorial shall be "a large and thorougis cations. The work by which he is best known was that

equipped technical school." upon the movements of water in plants. Following a A NEW fortnightly scientific periodical is about to a suggestion of Prof. A. H. Church, that lithium might published in Paris. It will be entitled Revue Générale prove useful in his researches, he instituted experiments Sciences Pures et Appliquées, and will deal with the matk which proved the value of this method, and paved the matical, physical, and natural sciences, and with their ap." way for later investigators. McNab's chief claim to distinction lay, however, not in the direction of pure research, ca-tions in geodesy, navigation, engineering, manufacture but in the fact of his having been the first to introduce to agriculture, hygiene, medicine, and surgery. According to te British students the methods of Sachs, now universally preliminary statement, the new periodical will take as its mo? adopted. He inaugurated the modern methods of teach the method of exposition adopted in NATURE. The editor ing botany at Cirencester, in the year 1871, and at Dublin M. Louis Olivier, and the list of contributors includes may two years later ; and he fully admitted his indebtedness the most eminent French men of science. The first names to the first edition of Sachs's celebrated “ Lehrbuch der will appear on January 15, 1890. Botanik." Dr. McNab was, at the time of his death, an examiner in botany to the Victoria University, Man The second Report of the Committee appointed by th: chester. The appointment of Scientific Superintendent British Association to inquire into, and report apon, the prea of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin, was methods of teaching chemistry, which was presented at the created for him in 1880, and in connection with this office Newcastle meeting, and to which we called attention in the he issued, five years later, an enlarged and considerably columns a short time ago, has now been put on sale by the revised Guide-book. He was joint author, with Prof. Council. It may be obtained from the office of the Association Alex. Macalister, of a “Guide book to the County, of 22 Albemarle Street, W. Dublin,” prepared on the occasion of the visit of the British Association to that city. In 1878 he published, in

On Tuesday evening, after the distribution of the prizes ant Longmans?“London Science Series,” two botanical class-certificates to the students of the City and Guilds of Loan books, entitled “Outlines of Morphology and Physiology," Institute, at Goldsmiths' Hall, Sir Henry Roscoe congratulate and “Outlines of Classification”; and he leaves behind the students of the various schools upon the reports he hal him the first few chapters, and a large amount of manu- heard. He observed that the City Guilds were now engaged script in a nearly completed condition, of a contemplated separately and collectively in nobly carrying out the work iv "Text-book of Botany," which he was to have written for which they were, to a certain extent, originally founded. The Messrs. C. Griffin and Co. In 1888 he was appointed Technical Instruction Bill which was passed in the last sesava Swiney Lecturer to the British Museum of Natural of Parliament had materially changed the whole aspect of affain. History, and in that capacity he has lectured for two sessions. His discourses, which were upon “The and sooner or later a complete scheme for technical educat Fossil Plants of the Palæozoic Epoch ” and “Ferns would have to be framed. The beginning of such a scheme bread and Gymnosperms of the Palæozoic and Mesozoic been made by the efforts of the City of London Institution Epochs, and dawn of the Angiospermous Flora” re- which, with its many branches, was a nucleus of such a syster spectively, were attended with much success. He has the importance of which would only be recognized when the left behind him carefully written manuscript lectures, history of that important movement came to be written. It se which it is sincerely boped may be published as a a satisfactory thing to hear that employers of skilled labour wer: memorial volume. At the time of his decease he was actively engaged upon his intended third course, in which beginning to find out that the men who had been trained at such he would have dealt with the Cainozoic fora. He was an Colleges as these were of greater value than those who had a excellent teacher, possessed of a natural aptitude for the received such training. It was not only necessary to educate work; and his laboratory instruction was characterized the craftsman ; the employer needed it equally, if not more by thoroughness and precision. As a lecturer he was He thought that the Council of the Institute had fully reorg fluent and entertaining; and, in his several capacities, he nized that fact at their Central Institution, but a demand is endeared himself to those with whom he came in contact. high-class education had yet to be created. Friends, colleagues, and students, alike mourn his loss.

The British Medical Journal says that owing to the somenta

late period in the year at which the invitation to hold the amea! NOTES.

meeting of the British Medical Association in Birmingham el The death of Prof. Lorenzo Respighi, Director of the received and accepted, the arrangements are not yet so complet Osservatorio Campidoglio, Rome, which we deeply regret to as in former years ; but a large general committee and all the announce, is a great loss to science. He died on December 10. necessary sub-committees have been formed, and the use of the

In a recent number we gave some account of a meeting held requisite public buildings has been obtained. in Manchester on November 25 for the purpose of preparing the

On March 1, 1890, a new marine laboratory will be opened at way for the erection of a memorial of James Prescott Joule in Saint-Wast-la-Hougue. that city. It was resolved that the memorial should be We are glad to know that there will soon be well-equipped in the form of a white marble statue, and a committee was physical and chemical laboratories at Bedford College, Lot appointed to carry out this resolution. At the first meeting of don. Mr. Tate, who has already given icoo towards the the committee, on November 29, an executive committee was new College buildings, which are on the eve of completion, has

taffered a second £100 towards the fitting up and equipment of due to the earth's rotation, and pointed out that these two the laboratories, contingent on the friends of the College con gradients are always superposed, and that their distinction was Tributing an equal amount. We purpose shortly giving an a matter of importance, for if the first case predominates (a scount and plans of these laboratories.

gradient due to difference of temperature), the wind force may MORE than a quarter of a century has passed since it was

increase and the depression become deeper, while in the second decided that the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine should be case the depression tends to disappear. He thought it was not started. The editors have now resolved to issue a new series, the wind we might calculate the moment of inertia and the cor

impossible to make this distinction, for if we know the force of exsi voinme of which will begin in January and end in Decemter There will be no radical change in the constitution of the bution of atmospheric pressure over the surface of the globe.

responding gradient. He also presented a work on the distrimagazine, but the number of pages and illustrations will often He showed that the distribution of pressure over different iz increased.

meridians varies upwards of an inch on the same parallel accordThe result of the poll for a free library at Whitechapel, ing to the season. With the view of finding out the arrangement declared last Saturday night, is interesting and significant. On of the isobars in higher regions of the atmosphere, the author a register vf 6000, there were 3553 affirmative votes and only | has calculated the pressures by formulæ at various heights, from 435 dissentients. This is the more noteworthy, because about the pressure and temperature observed at the earth's surface, and plesen years ago a like proposal was rejected by a majority of compared their accuracy by the readings at some mountain about two to one.

stations, and he has found that most of the irregularities in the THz following science lectures will be given at the Royal distribution of the isobars tend to disappear as we reach the Viestia Hall during January : January 7, "A Visit to the Chief higher regions of the air, and to be replaced by inflexions in the Cmes of Italy," by Rev. W. W. Edwards ; January 14, “The opposite sense. A summary of this paper will be found in the Elation of the Sea," by Dr. P. H. Carpenter ; January 21, “To Comptes rendus of the French Academy for December 2. Vancrever Island and back," by Mr. W. L. Carpenter ; January 28, ** Musical Sounds and how we hear them," by Dr.

At a meeting of the Linnean Society of New South Wales F, W Mott

on October 30, Mr. A. Sidney Olliff called attention to the ex

traordinary abundance of a large Noctuid moth-apparently A SECOND edition of Sir William Aitken's " Animal Alka- Agrotis spina, Gu. (A. vastator, Sc.)—during the early part of lord: * ?11. K. Lewis) has been published. The work has been October in various parts of the country, especially in the vicinity carefully revised, and the author's aim has been to bring the of Sydney, where it appeared in such vast numbers as to cause issok up to the present state of knowledge regarding the im- great consternation amongst those who were not aware that its portant subject to which it relates.

food in the larval state is confined to low-growing herbage, and Ta first part of a monograph of Oriental Cicadidæ, by W. L. that at no stage of its existence does it eat cloth, furs

, or feathers. T'istant, has been published by order of the Trustees of the A similar visitation of these moths occurred in October 1867. Indian Museum, Calcutta. It is printed in clear type, and in- | Mr. Olliff said that Agrotis spina was found in great numbers cludes two fine plates. The monograph, when completed, will on the summit of Mount Kosciusko and other high points in the evidently be of much scientific value.

Australian Alps, and added that he was of opinion, after exM. VAYSSIEKE has now completed the publication of his tended inquiry, that this species, and no other, was the true "Allas d'Anatomie Comparée des Invertébrés.” It comprises Bugong moth, which formerly formed an important article of sixty plates, with corresponding letterpress, and is much food amongst the blacks of the Upper Tumut district. appreciated by French zoologists.

MR. THOMAS CORNISH, Penzance, recently recorded in Th Trix Proceedings and Transactions of the International Agri- Zoologist the occurrence of the "Old English” or “ Black" cultural Congress held in Paris last summer have just been issued. Rat, captured at a place about five miles north-east of Penzance.

A Revter's telegram from Madrid says that a shock of In the current number of the same periodical he says that imrarthquake was ielt at Granada on the evening of December 16. mediately after that capture a perfectly trustworthy observer saw There was great alarm for the moment, and the people rushed near Cambourne, at a place ten miles south-east from where the is panic out of the theatre, where a performance was going on first specimen was obtained, a Black Rat, which was certainly at the time. Apparently no damage was done.

not the ordinary Hanoverian Rat; and at a later time Mr. THL Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for December Parish, about three miles south-west of Penzance.

Cornish saw and handled another specimen, captured in Paul

“ These states that stormy weather has been prevalent during the month facts,” says Mr. Cornish, “apparently point to an incursion of - November. Two notable cyclones have occurred; the first this animal, which is gregarious certainly, and probably a vagrant moved eastward from Chesapeake Bay on the night of the 9th. in herds, but not a migrant.” On the Inths it was central in about latitude 41° N., longitude 57* W.; and from this position it moved nearly due north-east, MR. J. R. DOBBINS, San Gabriel, California, contributes to and rapidly increased in energy. The other cyclore moved east- the new number of Insect Life (vol. ii. No. 4) a note on the ward from the New Jersey coast on the 13th, and was central on spread of the Australian ladybird. The note is dated July 2, the 14th in latitude 42° 40' N., longitude 63° 20' W. This 1889. At that time the Vedolia had multiplied in numbers, and worth attained great violence during the 14th and 15th. After had spread so rapidly that every one of Mr. Dobbins's 3200 the 16h, gales of varying force occurred along the coast north | orchard trees was literally swarming with them. All his of Florida. There was very little fog during the month ; a ornamental trees, shrubs, and vines which had been infested with dense bank was reported on the 17th on the north coast of Cuba. white scale were practically cleansed by this wonderful parasite. A number of icebergs are still reported in the vicinity of Belle 'About one month since," says Mr. Dobbins, “ I made a public Isle, and several smaller bergs have been seen over the New statement that my orchard would be free from 'Icerya by Novemfirandland Banks.

ber 1,' but the work has gone on with such amazing speed and At the meeting of the French Meteorological Society on thoroughness, that I am to-day confident that the pest will have November 3, M. Teisserenc de Bort gave an account of his been exterminated from my trees by the middle of August. restarcha on barometric gradients. He distinguished two kinds of people are coming here daily, and by placing infested branches gradients, one due to the differences of temperature, and another upon the ground beneath my trees for two hours, can secure

colonies of thousands of the Vedolia, which are there in count- sun on the top of a laurel, from which it climbed easily to a bitch less numbers sucking food. Over 50,000 have been taken away cherry-tree fixed against a wall, its night quarters. Sometima to other orchards during the present week, and there are after lying still for hours, it would hasten down into a millions still remaining, and I have distributed a total of 63,000 pond (about 4 square yards surface) containing gold-fish, since Jane I. I have a list of 130 names of persons who have / hide itself for a long time, quite under water, behind some stone, taken the colonies, and as they have been placed in orchards ex or plants, the tongue constantly playing. When a fish me tending from South Pasadena to Azusa, over a belt of country near, the snake would make a dart at its belly. Often miss ten miles long and six or seven in width, I feel positive, from my it would lose patience, and swim after the fishes, driving the own experience, that the entire valley wil be practically free into some corner, where it at length seized one in the middle con from Icerya before the advent of the new year.”

the belly, and carried it to land, much as a dog would a pieczof

wood. Curiously, the fish, after being seized, became et COCOA-nut butter is now being made at Mannheim, and, still and stiff, as if dead. If one then liberated it, the skin according to the American Consul there, the demand for it is the belly was seen to be quite uninjured, and the fish real, steadily increasing. The method of manufacture was discovered swam away in the water. The author thinks the snake he by Dr. Schlunk, a practical chemist at Ludwigshafen. Liebig hypnotic influence on its prey (and he hail observed sim:'= and Fresenius knew the value of cocoa-nut oil or fat, but did effects with a ringed snake). It would otherwise be very de not succeed in producing it as a substitute for butter. The new cult for the snake to retain hold of a wriggling fish. The sauce butter is of a clear whitish colour, melts at from 26° to 28° C., usually carried off the fish some distance to a safe corner, a and contains 0'0008 per cent. water, o‘006 per cent. mineral devour it in peace. stuffs, and 99 9932 per cent. fat. At present it is chiefly used in hospitals and other State institutions, but it is also rapidly i A SPLENDID find of minerals containing the rare metals of this finding its way into houses or homes where people are too poor yttrium and thorium groups has been made in Llano County, to buy butter. The working classes are taking to it instead Texas (Amer. Journ. of Science, December 1889). The whole of the oleomargarines against which so much has been said i district for many miles round consists almost entirely of Archesa during the last two or three years.

rocks, granite being met with everywhere, and forming the

common wayside rock. Throughout the granite are dispereed A Point of great importance for the progress of Western veins of quartz, and it is in these veins, and especially the sweliscience in the Chinese Empire is whether it should be taught in the , ings of the veins, that large masses of rare minerals have bec: Chinese or in a foreign language. The subject has been frequently found. The largest of these deposits consist of gadolinite anul fe discussed, and quite recently the opinions of a large number of gusonite, and of two entirely new minerals, to which the name men most prominently engaged in the education of Chinese were yttrialite and thoro-gummite have been given. The first discovery collected and published in a Shanghai magazine, the Chinese 1 of gadolinite in Texas was made in 1886, when a pocket Recorder. The editor says that nine-tenths of these authorities huge crystals and masses aggregating to about 500 kelap are of opinion that the Chinese language is sufficient for ali grammes was unearthed. Since that time a more complete pro purposes in teaching Western science. One gentleman states that Chinese students can only be taught science in their own spection

of the district has revealed the existence of still large

! quantities. The gadolinite is generally found in small lung language, and that the long time necessary for them to acquire weighing about half a pound, but frequently also in much heavies English for this purpose is wasted ; another says that "science

masses, and sometimes in immense crystals. One double crea! must be planted in the Chinese language in order to its per

was found weighing 42 pounds, and a still larger single crystal manent growth and development”; a third sees no reason why weighed no less than 60 pounds. And these immense crazka the vernacular should not be enough to allow the Chinese actually contain over 50 per cent. of oxides of the yıtrium nostal, student to attain the very highest proficiency in Western science,

as do also the massive varieties. The crust of the gadolimate although he admits that there is at present a want of teachers crystals, which appear to be of monoclinic habit, was generally and text-books. Prof. Oliver, of the Imperial University at Pekin, altered into a brownish-red hydrate of waxy lustre ; but cock says he has never found English necessary, but has always taught sionally, as in case of two particular specimens, the crystals were in Chinese. Prof. Russell, of the same institution, finds Chinese found in a state of rare beauty and perfection. The new mineral sufficient for popular astronomy. On the other hand, Mr. yttrialite, a thorium-yttrium silicate, was discovered associated Tenney says that it can only be for the most popular views of with and often upon the gadolinite. It was generally altered at science that the vernacular is sufficient. " It is impossible,” he the surface to an orange-yellow hydrate of quite different strie says, " for scholars who are ignorant of any European language ture to that of the hydrate of gadolinite. One mass of this is to attain any such excellence in modern sciences as to enable crustation was found to weigh over 10 pounds. It contains 40 them to bear comparison with the finished mathematical and per cent. of oxides of the yttrium metals

. Fergusonite, hithena scientific scholars of Europe and America.” Thus, he continues, an exccedingly rare mineral, occurs in large quantities in the as a medium of thought, any Western language is incomparably Llano County district, generally in the form of broken interlacing superior to Chinese in precision and clearness ; the student prisms several inches long. Two varieties of it have been identiacquainted with a foreign language has a vast field of collateral fied-one a monohydrated and the other a trihydrated variety thought open to him which does not and never will exist in the monohydrated kind forms tetragonal prisms with Chinese, and he can keep abreast of the times, which the Chinese pyramidal terminations, of dull gray exterior

, but possessing a student who must depend on translations cannot do. The relation of the Chinese student “to the world of thought is earths and 46 per cent. of columbic acid, Cb,Os The trihydrated

brilliant bronze-like fracture. It contains 42 per cent of yiriami analogous to that of a blind and deaf person in the West, whose variety is similar, but of a dark brown colour. Associated with the only sources of knowledge are the few and slowly increasing fergusonite is the new mineral thoro.gummite, a hydrated uranite volumes of raised type letters which make up the libraries of the thoro-silicate. This mineral is frequently found in well-developed blind.” As has been said, however, the weight of opinion is crystals resembling, and having angles very nearly the same as against Mr. Tenney.

those of zircon. It contains 22 per cent. of UOS: 41 per cent. of In a recent number of Humboldt, Herr Fischer-Sigwart de ThO., and 6 per cent. of yttrium earths. Its probable esentiel scribes the ways of a snake, Tropidonotus tessellatus, which he composition is UO; · 3THO, - 3510, 61,0. Besides these four kept in his terrarium in Zurich. It was fond of basking in the minerals of special interest to chemists, many more--such 15

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