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systolice, molybdite, allanite, tengerite, and a new hydrated absorption is predominant. If this be the case, all the intermetågetum-yttrium-lead uranate, termed nivenite-have been found. diate stages of mixed metallic lines and dark carbon flutings Ningether, this is the richest find of rare earths which has been should be represented amongst the stars. hard of for some time, and will probably exert a fresh impetus

(4) A star of Group IV., of which the usual observations are

required. upan the attempts to set our knowledge of the rare-earth

(5) This is a star of Group VI. The three ordinary bands of elements upon a surer foundation.

carbon are visible, band 6, near ^ 564, being rather pale. A

study of Dunér's catalogue of the stars of this group shows The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the that some of those in which band 6 is pale give secondary pas week include a Ring-tailed Coati (Nasua rufa 8 ) from bands, whilst others do not. This appears to be mainly, though sonk America, presented by Mrs. Petre; a Common Squirrel not entirely, due to differences of magnitude. Comparative '16 waras vulgaris), British, presented by Mrs. S. Stutterd ; a

observations with the same telescope and spectroscope, with Short-cared Owl (Asio bruchyotus) from Hampshire, presented by reference to this point, are suggested

(6) Gore states the period of this variable as 378 days, Mr E Hart, F.Z.S. ; two Owen's Apteryx (Apteryx oweni) and the magnitudes at maximum and minimum as 99 and < 13 frem New Zealand, presented by Captain C. A. Findlay, R.N.R., respectively. The colour is described as trifling, but the specKM.S.S. Raagku ; four Common Vipers (Vipera berus) from trum has not yet been recorded. The maximum will occur on

A. FOWLER. Hasopshire, presented by Mr. W. H. B. Pain ; a Marsh Ich- ' December 28. Deamom (Herpestes galera) from South Africa, purchased ; a PERIOD OF U CORONÆ.—Mr. S. C. Chandler (Astronomical -- Troupial (Xanthosomus frontalis) from Brazil, received in Journal, No. 205), from the observations of the period of this exchange.

star, finds an inequality of the same order as those detected in į U Ophiuchi and 'U Cephei, variables of the Algol type. The

period appears to be shortening by 0'0036s. from minimum to OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. minimum. The results depend upon forty-five very unequally

distributed minima ; thirty-eight, however, lie in the interval OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE.

1870-74, and afford a basis to work upon. A larger series of Sudereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p. m., December 19 = 3h. which, however, is quite conformable within the limits of the

observations is required to elucidate Mr. Chandler's hypothesis, 340.45

purely accidental errors of the observations that have been

investigated. Mag Colour. R.A. 1890. Decl. 1890.

IDENTITY OF BROOKS'S COMET (d 1889) with LEXELL'S

COMET 1770.-In the same publication as the above, Mr. h. m. s. 1

Chandler gives some most interesting results of an investigation (il Ch6 exy Inden Yellowish-red.

into the orbits of these comets. The following is a summary of

- 13 46 Gr Pers Yellowish-white.

+39 39

the principal conclusions :Bluish-white. 3 51 6 +47 26 (1) The encounter of the comet with Jupiter in 1886 effected Very red.

a complete transformation of the comet's orbit. Instead of the + 942

present seven years' ellipse, it was previously moving in a large

one of twenty-seven years' period. Remarks.

(2) Several months before reaching its perihelion, it passed, 0) This is described in the General Catalogue as “a globular near the beginning of 1886, into the sphere of Jupiter's attracchester , very bright, small, round, very suddenly brighter in the tion, and was deflected into a hyperbolic path about that planet

, middle, barely resolvable (mottled as if with stars).

In 1864 satellite of Jupiter.

and narrowly escaped being drawn into a closed orbit, as a Er. Hoggias observed the spectrum, and noted that it was apparently continuous, extending from the orange to the blue,

(3) At the point of closest approach to Jupiter, May 20, 1886, mlhout any traces of either bright or dark lines. It was again

the comet was distant from it only about nine diameters of the observal by Winlock at Harvard College in December 1868,

planet, passing a little outside of the orbit of the third satellite. and strange to say, a bright line spectrum was recorded. Two near to Jupiter as to pass under his control and experience a

(4) In 1779, and not before, the comet must have come so dissect bright linen, near each other, and coincident with airlines à 3020 and 4990; a third faint line a 4900 £” (“Har

radical change of orbit at the point of longitude where Lexell's vard College Oteesvations," vol. xiii. Part 1, p. 64). These lines ever, the elements

of Lexell's comet before the disturbance were

comet underwent its notable disturbance in that year. MorePere in all probability the three ordinary nebula lines near A 500, 495, 2nd 486. Winlock describes the nebula as planetary, and

strikingly similar to those found for the present comet previous gipe exactly the same co-ordinates as those given by Huggins

to 1886. and in the General Catalogue. If both observers really saw the

Taking all the points presented into consideration, the argusimt nebula , the results are highly suggestive of variability; but fuller investigation will be made as soon as the observations for

ment for the identity of the two comets is overwhelming. A kten then there is the difficulty

of the recorded resolvability. It in quite paible that, in the four years which elapsed between

the whole apparition have been received. the observations, the spectrum changed from an apparently con

SOME PHOTOGRAPHIC STAR SPECTRA. -An examination tintuoda me to a discontinuous spectrum, by some action similar has been made by Dr. Scheiner of the star spectra photographed to that producing variability in such stars as Mira, but at the at Potsdam (Astr. Nachr., No. 2923). The wave-lengths of same time a change of brightness would also be expected, and lines in the spectra were determined by comparison with the of this there is no record. In any case, the nebula is well worthy solar spectrum, and as the probable error of the measures is of further enmination.

estimated so small as o‘005, the identification of the lines seems (2) This star of Group II. is interesting, as being a connect beyond doubt. The following are some descriptive results :ing-fink between stars like a Herculis, in which the bands are Cassiopeia. Continuous spectrum ; hydrogen lines and Dz. very wule and dark, and those like Aldebaran, in which there bright. in a line spectrum with only the remnants of the bands in a Corona. The magnesium line at 448-2 appears as a broad the road

. Duner states that the bands 2-8 are visible, but all of line in this star. then are narrow and pale. 6, and presumably D, are very a Lyra. Some fine lines, supposed to be due to iron or calcium, HrongFurther observations, with special reference to the are seen, but have not been measured. lines of hydroges, are suggested.

Sirius. 91 similar fine lines to those in the above star have (3) A star

, hitherto described as of the solar type, of which been measured, and 43 ascribed to iron. Even more of these the wonl obarvations are required. If the star appears to be lines occur in Procyon. of the same type of the sun or Capella, special attention should a Aquila. The spectrum of this star appears almost identical te directed to the presence or absence of dark carbon flutings with that of the sun. It is highly probable that stars like

the sun, in which there is a B Orionis. The hydrogen and other lines appear broad, but plutographic indication of carbon absorption, will subsequently are not diffused at the edges as in a Lyræ and similar stars. cool down and become stars of Group VI., in which carbon lines have been measured

from 2 4c0

to 2 460.

20

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a Auriga, 291 lines have been measured in the spectrum of DISCOVERY OF A NEW COMET.-A faint comet was disthis star between a 410 and 1 470, all of which appear identical covered by M. Borrelly at Marseilles, on December 12. z: with solar lines.

7h. 49-5m. G.M.T. R.A. 18h. 7m.; daily motion in RA. MAGNITUDE AND COLOUR OF 7 ARGês.--Observations of + im. 125. N.P.D. 41° 7' ; daily motion + 60'. this variable have been made at Cordoba since 1871, and some comparisons made by Mr. Thome (Astr. Nachr, No. 2922) show that it steadily decreased in magnitude until about the end

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. of 1886, when a minimum of 765 was reached, and it is now about 6'6. In 1843, Maclear gave the brightness of 7 Argûs as We regret to have to record the death of Major Peter Egertian - l'o, or between that of Sirius and Canopus, so that the Warburton, whose name will always be intimately associated with variation in magnitude is 8.5, and not 6 as heretofore assumed, the history of exploration in Australia. He died at Beaumont, this variation, extending over 44 years, gives an average yearly Adelaide, in his seventy-sixth year. His most famous achieverate of diminution of o‘2.

ment, undertaken in 1873, was the crossing of the continent from It is interesting to note that the change in magnitude was a point on the overland telegraphic line to the De Grey River, accompanied by a change in colour ; for although before mini- in Western Australia. Nothing was heard of him for about mum the star was of a dull scarlet the colour became lighter, twelve months, during which he and his party suffered terrible until in June 1889 it was a bright orange.

privations in their march across the desert. After the experiORBIT of Barnard's Comet 1884 II. — From an investigation, Major Warburton visited England, and was awarded : tion of all the available observations of this periodic comet, Dr.

Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society for his efforts Berberich has computed the following elements (Astr. Nachr.,

towards increasing our knowledge of the interior of Australia 2938-39).

He received the Companionship of the Order of St. Michael

and St. George in 1875. Epoch 1884 August 16-5, Berlin Mean Time.

The death is announced of Cardinal G. Massaja in his eighty M 359 59 49 13

first year, at St. Georgio a Cremano. For nearly half a ceatary 301 I 58.63

the name of this distinguished explorer has been intimately asso 32 5 8 59'12

ciated with the progress of geographical discoveries in Aby 5 27 38.40

sinia and the surrounding regions. It was at his suggestion that 35 44 50'92

the Italian Geographical Society organized the Antinori Espeda 657"' 0839 0":8876

tion to Shoa, which has resulted in the occupation of a vast log a = 0-4882572

region, and the extension of Italian influence over the whole of Perihelion passage 1884 August 16'516543

Ethiopia. His chief work, "I miei trentacinque Anni nell Period = 1972'35 + 2'66 days.

alta Etiopia," abounds in valuable geographical, historical, and

ethnological information on the East African regions Four » It will be seen from the foregoing period, that the comet will be at perihelion again in 1890 January 9.87.

many years explored and studied by him. The Cardinal was

born at Piova in 1809, and, in 1846, appointed Vicar Apostolic ALGOL.–At the meeting of the Royal Prussian Academy of of the Galla nation. Sciences, held on November 28, Prof. Vogel gave the results From the Berlin Correspondent of the Daily News we learn he had obtained from photographs of the spectrum of this

that a full account of the ascent of Kilimanjaro by Dr. Hans variable. Prof. Pickering had pointed out, some years ago, that Meyer and Prof. Purtscheller has been received at Berlin. It is if the variation in stars of the Algol class were due to the transit

dated "Marangu Jagga, October 9." The journey from Zanzituar of a dark satellite across the disk of its primary, producing a to Uawela took exactly a fortnight. On September 25 the in partial eclipse, then since in every case yet known the two bodies must be close to each other, and of not very dispropor a Pangani negro, on the ridge of the plateau, at a height of

vellers reached Marangu. On October 2 they encamped, with tionate size, the primary must revolve with very considerable 14,450 feet. At 2.30 a.m. they started for the lava-ribs sur rapidity in an orbit round the common centre of gravity of the rounding the valley of glaciers to the south about 1200 fee! two ; and, therefore, be sometimes approaching the earth with above. At 7 o'clock, on the right side of the valley, at an great rapidity and sometimes receding from it. Six photographs elevation of about 16,500 feet, the first snow was seen under of the spectrum of Algol-obtained, three during last winter, and cover of the rocks. The higher they went, the more clefts and three during the November just past --have shown that before fissures the field of ice had. The travellers say "After great the minimum the lines of the spectrum of Algol are markedly exertions we reached, at 1.45, the snow-line, and it was seen displaced towards the red, showing a motion of recession ; but that the highest peak, which was formed of rocks jutting out of that after the minimum the displacement is towards the blue, the snow, was about one and a half hour's march to the left. showing a motion of approach. Assuming a circular orbit for the star, and combining the details given by the spectroscope bivouac in the Lava Cave, at a height of about 15,200 feet,

After resting a day and a half we set off, on October 5, to with the known variation of the star's light, Prof. Vogel derives and on the next day we repeated the ascent. The peaks were the following elements for the system of Algol :

gained without particular difficulty, and on the central and Diameter of Algol...

... 1,074, 100 English miles. highest one, 19,680 feet above the sea, the German flag was Diameter of the dark companion 840,600

planted." Dr. Meyer proposes to call this peak Kaiser Wilhelm Distance of centre...

3,269,000

Peak. The view from here on to the Kibbs Crater--which is Speed of Algol in its orbit

27 miles per second. 6600 feet broad and 660 feet high, and the lower half of which Speed of the companion in its orbit 56

is encased in a mighty belt of ice, whilst a volcanic cone of Mass of Algol

of the sun. about 500 feet rises in the centre—is magnificent. The beauties Mass of the companion

of the landscape in the Kilimanjaro region seem to be quite Speed of translation of the entire system } 2 miles per second. ascended. The two travellers enjoy the best of health.

On October 10 the Kimawensi was to be It will be seen that the density both of Algol and its com The double number of the Bollettino of the Italian Geogra panion is much less than that of the sun--less than a quarter, in phical Society for October and November, which appears some fact. This is what we might expect, for Algol and all the weeks behind time, is largely devoted to African subjects, and variables of its class yet examined give spectra of Group IV., more particularly to the north-eastern region, which is rapidly and should therefore represent a less advanced stage of condensa- becoming an " Italian colony." Captain D. Stasio publishes : tion than that seen in our sun. This demonstration of the truth summary of Don Francesco Alvarez's "Travels in Ethiopia" of the satellite theory of variation of the Algol type derives also in the sixteenth century, enriched with valuable notes and addian especial interest from Prof. Darwin's researches on tidal tions. Alvarez, a priest attached to an embassy forwarded by evolution, for assuming, as we well may, that the cause of Portugal, in 1520, to the Emperor of Abyssinia, shows himself variation is the same in all members of the class, we now a careful observer of men and things, and his work, which was know of nine stars in which a large companion is revolving included in Ramusio's "Navigationi et Vinggi." (Venice, 1988). round its primary at but a very short distance from it, and in a abounds in details regarding the political, social, and economic very short space of time. The companion of U Ophiuchi must, relations of that region in the sixteenth century.. Gilio D. indeed, be almost in contact with its parent star.

Cocorda brings to a conclusion his important series of papers

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17.

so the South African gold-fields, which include much informa The chance of head appearing at the tion on the present condition of the whole of South Africa as

Ist, 2nd, 3rd, 4th nth throw is far north as the Zambesi. The observer points out that, while }, }, $

f". A promises to pay for head the Delagoa Bay and other lines of communication are much

1, 2, 4,

8

2n-1 florins, hence B's expectation is Irsaed, the fine artery of the perfectly navigable Limpopo is

21-/2* = 1 florin. caurely neglected, notwithstanding Captain Chaddock's navigation of it a few years ago. The writer remarks that “this river

Hence the total value of B's expectation is an infinite series, thus mainly through regions under the influence or protectorate each term of which is a shilling, or it is infinite. u England; the Transvaal people on the one side, and those of This result of the theory of probability is apparently directly Matabeleland on the other, would certainly be glad to avail them- opposed to the dictates of common-sense, since it is supposed selves of this outlet for their produce. As it traverses only a that no one would give even a large finite sum, such as £50, for all tract of Portuguese territory about its estuary, I hope and the prospect above defined. lelieve that Portugal will not be allowed to treat the Limpopo

Almost all mathematical writers on probability have allowed as she is now attempting to treat the Zambesi. The subject is the force of the objection, which they have endeavoured to evade of such importance that it cannot fail soon to be brought before by various ingenious artifices all more or less unsatisfactory. the Brirish Parliament." Referring to the negotiations at pre

The real difficulty of the problem seems to lie in the exact sest going on in connection with the Swaziland question, he meaning of infinite and value of the expectation. observes, in the same spirit :-“The Swazi people must, sooner

Since the infinite value of the result is only true if an infinite or later, yield either to the Transvaal or to England, and if to number of trials are paid for and made, all such considerations the former, it must be to the entire detriment of British interests. as want of time and the bankruptcy of A or B are precluded by England, as the suzerain power in South Africa, should be the the terms of the question. first in the field, both in her own interest and in that of her

The value of B's expectation is frequently confused with how inter colonies and subjects. If she does not assume the pro- much he can or ought to pay for it; thus Mr. Whitworth teacrate of Swaziland, besides losing the control of a vast and (“Choice and Chance," p. 234) finds that if B have 1024 florins, sich mineral district, she will deprive the colony of Natal of all he may give very little more than 6 florins for the venture. This further hope of expansion. If she ignores her responsibility in ingenious, solution seems to have no reference to the original this matter, and allows the Transvaal Republic to absorb Swazi- problem, which has been modified by Mr. Whitworth’s introducand, she will add another to the long list of blunders that tion of the word "advantageously” (p. 232). threaten to destroy all prospect of consolidating a dominion as

B can pay for his expectation in three ways: (i.) a sum before large a Canada, and may end disastrously for British interests each toss ; (ii.) a sum before each series of tosses ending with in Saath Africa."

head ; (iii.) a sum for the total result of A's operations. A FRENCH traveller has just achieved a feat of great interest.

Mr. Whitworth apparently assumes the first method of pay. Captain Trivier, equipped by the newspaper La Gironde, started safely pay for each toss, since he can continue to play longer.

ment, and shows that the larger B’s funds are the more he may me aghreen months ago for the Congo State. He went up Many mathematicians take the second method of payment. the river to Stanley Falls, and thence proceeded to Central Africa and the Lake region, accompanying caravans. He has

“However large a fee I pay for each of these sets, I shall be jus arrived at Mozambique.

sure to make it up in time" ("Logic of Chance," p. 155).

It is easy to show in this case also that what may be safely Gibus reports that during the past summer M. Thoroddsen, paid before each series increases with the number of series. he well known student of Iceland, has carried out a journey in Suppose a very large number of tosses made, about half 33€ Waste region known as Fiskivötn, lying between Hecla and would come up heads and half tails; each head would end Je Vatna Jukul, which has hitherto been unvisited for the most a series, when a fresh payment must be made by B. Suppose man by ary inquirer. To the east and north of Hecla he dis the tosses limited to one series, if B pays one florin he cannot csered a new obsidian region. Crossing the Tunguaa, he possibly lose, if he pay anything more he may lose by head Tere to the Fiskivota group of lakes, all true crater lakes. The coming up the first time, and the more he pays the greater will

land between this and the Vatna Jökul has absolutely no his chance of loss be, since the series of tails must be longer to
plaat-fife whatever ; it consists of lava-fields, and plains of vol. cover it. But, however large a finite sum he pays, he is not
cink sand. In it be found a lake, Thorisvatn, the second certain to lose, e.g. head may not come up till the hundred and
largra in the land. Thence, after a day's journey through an first toss, when he would receive
terly desotate district, he reached the hitherto unknown source 2100 = 1,267650, 600 228, 229 401,496, 703,205 376 forins.
of the Tungua. To the south of this he discovered, between If the sets are limited to one hundred, about
three ranges of hills, previously unknown, a new and very long
Like

50 heads would probably come up the ist toss.
25

2nd die DAUVERGNE has, says the Times of India, completed an

B would 13

3rd

receive for deelwous journey in the regions of North-West Cashmere.

6

4th His course was from Leh northwards to the Kilian Pass, in

each series 3

5th Kashgaris, and then northwards across the Pamir to the Upper

6th

50 florins. Oxuz He reached Sarhad in safety, and after six days' halt

7th there, crossed the Hindu Kush by the Baroghil Pass, as he did Hence for the hundred sets, B would receive about 350 florins, not wish to visit Chitral. He then turned eastwards, and after or he could pay without loss seven shillings for each set. a trying journey through the snow, crossed the Ishkaman Pass, If N be the number of sets, the total amount received by B Dirth of Yasin. Thence he travelled southwards by the will probably not be less than n terms of the series Karambar Valley, and eventually reached Gilgit, a short time

IN x 20 N x 21 after Captain Durand had started for Chitral. Mr. Dauvergne

+

+ &c.} =n{}}N, reports that the Russian explorer, Captain Grombc hevsky,

21 29 whuse atiempt to reach Kafiristan was noticed some time but n is the number of times which N is successively divisible ago, was stopped at Kila Panjah on the Oxus, by the Afghan by 2, or 2" = N, or n = log N/log 2. But the amount x which authorities

B can afford to pay per set when multiplied by the number of

sets is equal to the amount which he receives, orTHE ST. PETERSBURG PROBLEM.

{3}N,

log 2 THIS celebrated problem, which is first mentioned before

hence x = log N/o 6 nearly.

This formula, though inexact for low, is very convenient for Montmort, has been frequently discussed by Daniel Bernoulli i high, values of N. (1730) and other eminent mathematicians. It may be briefly

N =

x = 0 N = 106 x = 10 stated as follows:

= 50
= 27 = 10%

= 15 A 10 : coin, and undertakes to pay B a florin if head = 100

= 33
= 1013

= 20 omes up at the first throw, two florins if it comes up at the

= 25 Second, foar flarins if it be deferred until the third throw, and so * increases with, though much more slowly than, N, and os. What is the value of B's expectation ?

= 1000

becomes infinite when N does. But to justify a payment of

2
I

XN = log N

= 5

= 1015

£50 per set, we must expect a number of sets represented by that order found to be practically identical with that observed 301 figures.

the cortex, viz. from before back :Lastly, what is the value of B's expectations if A's operations Movements of eyes. are continued indefinitely. With great deference to contrary

head. opinions, I believe this to be the correct meaning of the problem

tongue. in its original form. The theoretical result is in this ca e

mouth. easily realized by the aid of the following illustration. Suppose ;

apper limb (shoulder preceding thumb. the person A replaced by an automatic machine similar to that

trunk. used for weighing sovereigns, which tosses continuously teni times per minute. On the average of a large number of tosses,

lower limb (hip preceding toes). B cannot receive less than one shilling a toss, £i every two

The character or nature of these movements is set out in minutes, or £720 a day for ever. If the current rate of interest table giving the average localization of each segment. Speakis be 3 per cent., he may safely pay for this perpetual annuity generally, it may be said that the movements are arranged £8,760,000. Suppose, instead of this comparatively slow rate, the same way as has already been shown by the authors to exis the machine increased the rapidity of its operations indefinitely, in the cortex (vide previous papers in Phil. "Trans., 1887, 1888 the sum to be paid for the result would also increase indefinitely, viz. that the representation of extension is situated in front or the expectation would become infinite.

flexion for the segments of the upper limb, while for the tors SYDNEY LUPTON.

flexion is obtained, as in the cortex, in front of extension.

Numerous tables and diagrams are appended, showing tha extent of appropriation of fibres for each movement.

Physical Society, November 15.-Prof. Reinold, F.R.S. UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL President, in the chair.-Mr. Enright resumed the reading INTELLIGENCE.

his paper on the electrification due to contact of gases waħ

liquids. Repeating his experiments with zinc and hydrochloris CAMBRIDGE.—The Newall Telescope Syndicate has drawn acid, the author, by passing the gas into an insulated metalls up a scheme for building a dome for the telescope on a site vessel connected with the electrometer, proved that it was always adjoining the present Observatory, with an observer's house; charged with electricity of the opposite kind to that of the soloand they recommend that an observer be appointed, at a stipend tion. The electrical phenomena of many other reactions have of £250 per annum, with a house, to devote himself to research been investigated, with the result that the gas, whether H, CO, in stellar physics, under the general direction of the Director of SO3, SH.,, or Çl, is always electrified positively when escaping the Observatory:

from acids, and negatively when leaving a solution of the sal The results of this year's commercial examination, held by the In some cases distinct reversal is not obtainable, but all the School's Examinations Board, are satisfactory. Geography was seem explicable by considering the solubility and power of still very imperfect. Elementary mechanics has now been added diffusion of the resulting salts.Various other results given to the list of compulsory subjects.

the paper tend to confirm this hypothesis. Seeking for an An influential syndicate has been appointed to consider the explanation of the observed phenomena, the author could arriv: question of the mechanical workshops, their management and at no satisfactory one excepting "contact between gases sort utility.

liquids, and if this be the true explanation he hoped to prove i | directly by passing hydrogen through acid. In this, however, he was unsuccessful, owing, he believes, to the impossibility

bringing the gas into actual contact with the liquid. True SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

contact only seems possible when the gas is in the nascent state

! Some difficulty was experienced in oblaining non-electrified gra LONDON.

for the charge is retained several bours after its production, erre

' if the gas be kept in metallic vessels connected to earth. Such Royal Society, December 12.-" An Experimental Investi- ' vessels, when recently filled, form condensers in which the gation into the Arrangement of the Excitable Fibres of the electricity pervades an inclosed space, and whose charge is avail. Internal Capsule of the Bonnet Monkey (Macacus sinicus)." able on allowing the gas to escape. Soap bubbles blown with By Charles E. Beevor, M.D., F.R.C.P., and Victor Horsley, newly generated hydrogen were also found to act as condensers. B.S., F.R.S. (from the Laboratory of the Brown Institution). the liquid of which, when broken, exhibited a negative charge.

After an historical introduction, the authors proceed to describe This fact, the author suggested, may explain the so-called "bre the method of investigation, which was conducted as follows. balls," sometimes seen during thunderstorms; for if, by any The animal being narcotized with ether, the internal capsule abnormal distribution of heat, a quantity of electrified ar was exposed by a horizontal section through the hemisphere. becomes inclosed by a film of moisture, its movements and By means of compasses the outline of the basal ganglia and behaviour would closely resemble those of fire-balls. A similar capsule were accurately transferred to paper ruled with squares of explanation was proposed for the phenomenon mentioned in a one millimetre side, so that a projection of the capsule was thus recent number of NATURE, where part of a thundercloud was obtained, divided into bundles of one millimetre square area. seen to separate from the mass, descend to the earth, and the Each of these squares of fibres was then excited by a minimal again. The latter part of the paper describes methods of stimulus, the same being an induced or secondary interrupted measuring the contact potential differences between gases and current. The movements were recorded and the capsule liquids, the most satisfactory of which is a "water dropper, photographed.

and by its means the P.D. between hydrogen and hydro In all forty-five experiments were performed, and they are chloric acid was estimated to be about 42 volts. Prof. Rucker arranged in eight groups, representing eight successive levels asked if the experiment with zinc and hydrochloric acid could te (i.e. from the centrum ovale to the crus) at which the capsule started in the second stage by having the acid partly saturated was investigated.

with salt. Dr. C. V. Burton thought it probable that canlad Before the results are described in detail a full account is given could be made between a gas and a liquid by shaking them up of previous investigations, experimental, clinical, and anatomical, together in a bottle. In reply, Mr. Enright said the experiment on the arrangement of the internal capsule.

could be started at any stage, and reversal effected as often as The anatomy of the part and the relation of the fibres to the desired by adding either acid or a solution of salt to the generatbasal ganglia are then discussed, and a full description given of | ing vessel. ---Mr. Herbert Tomlinson, F.R.S., read a paper ca each of the groups examined.

the effect of repeated heating and cooling on the electrical resist The general results are next given at length, of which the ance and temperature coefficient of annealed iron. In a paper following is a résumé.

recently presented to the Roval Society, the author has brought Firstly, the rare occurrence of bilateral movement is discussed, forward an instance of an iron wire, which when subjected to and the meaning of the phenomenon defined. Secondly, the magnetic cycles of minute vange alternately at 17 and 100*C. lateral arrangement and juxtaposition of the fibres are considered. had its molecular friction and magnetic permeability reduced Thirdly, the antero-posterior order in which the fibres for the respectively to about one-quarter and one-half their original values movements of the different segments are placed is described, and the present experiments were undertaken to see whether by

Ich heatings and coolings the temperature coefficient of iron in the tables of Jupiter's movement worked out by Le Verrier, ali be brought down to something approaching the number by M. A. Gaillot. Comparing the secular terms of the eccenven by Mattliessen for "* most pure metals.” The wire experi tricity and perihelion of Jupiter's and Saturn's orbits as deterenked an was first annealed by heating to 1000° C. for several mined by Le Verrier, Hill (Astronomical Journal, No. 204) Ban and allowing to cool slowly in a furnace placed at right came to the conclusion that there must be an error of sign in the bales to the magnetic meridian ; the process was repeated three terms of the second order relating to Jupiter's orbit. M. Gaillot me. Afterwards the wire was covered with paper and wound has now gone over the calculations again, and finds that Le bozkly into a coil. This coil was inclosed in a water-jacketed Verrier's manuscript is correct, but that, as conjectured by Hill, - Sumber, and connected with a sensitive Wheatstone bridge. a misprint of a sign occurs in the published work. In vol. x. Phermo-electric and Peltier effects were eliminated by always p. 242, the sign + appears instead of - before the term reping the galvanometer circuit closed. By repeated' heating o" 015,5548' cos(w – 7).-On the characteristic temperatures, loco C. and cooling to 17° C. for long intervals, the specific pressures, and volumes of bodies, by M. Ladislas Netanson. sistance at 17* C. was reduced from 11,162 to 10,688 These researches tend to show that for every gas there exists an Gl. units

, after which the operations produced no further infinite number of characteristic values, t, P, v, which, being Image At the same time the temperature coefficient in adopted as units of the general variables i, P. v, have the

in the proportion of 1 : 1'024. From careful determina remarkable property of eliminating all difference in the characme and the resistance at different temperatures, the formula teristic equations of the different gases. The systems usually

= R1 + 0'0051311 + 0'000008152) was deduced, whilst that employed in measuring temperatures, pressures, and volumes, alenned from Matthiessen's results for pure iron annealed in hy having nothing in common with the intimate nature of the bodies fragen is Rs=Rp1+0'0054251+0'00000831”). Taking his own themselves, give rise to differences in the equation F(t, P, v)= 0, leermination of specific resistance of impure iron as correct, which disappear when for each body the physicist employs a trupled with Matthiessen's law connecting the resistances and special system in accordance with its properties.-- On the localizaparajure welñcients of metals and their alloys, the authortion of the interference fringes in thin isotropic plates, by M. J. kods that the specific resistance of pure iron deduced from Macé de Lépinay. In studying the exact conditions of the Maschiosen's results is from 4 to 5 per cent. too high. In con fringes in thin prismatic plates, the author finds a complete Guest Mr. Tomlinson expresses a hope that the B.A. Electrical verification of the general theory expounded by him in kadards Committee may be induced to determine the absolute a previous communication (Comptes rendus, July 22, 1889). nance and temperature coefficient of the pure metals which | The consequences of the theory may be considered as entirely ere in ordinary ise. Prof. Ayrton thought Matthiessen's results verified by these experiments.-On the want of accuracy in therwere espressed in B.A. units, and hence might appear I or 2 mometers, by M. E. Renou. On a recent occasion (July 1) M. Set sot too great. Mr. Tomlinson, however, believed the Cornu remarked that hitherto these instruments have been liable pinber he took were expressed in legal ohms. Dr. Walmsley to an error of from o° 2 to 0°3. It is now shown that observawks for what value of the magnetizing force the permeability of tions hitherto recorded may give rise to the greatest inconile iron mentioned in the beginning of the paper was determined ; venience, more perhaps in future than at present. These a which Mr. Tomlinson replied that they were much smaller remarks were supplemented by M. Cornu, who pointed out that than the eartb's horizontal component.-Dr. Thompson's paper errors in the mercury thermometer as great as 0°-2 or 0°-3 occur a gromenaal optics was postponed.

only in observations taken at considerable intervals of tempera

ture and with instruments not sufficiently tested. --Variations in EDINBURGH.

the mean temperature of the air at Paris, by M. Renou. Twenty

years ago the author attempted to show that severe winters reRoyal Sotiety, December 2.—Sir Douglas Maclagan, Vice

turn in groups of five or six every forty-one years. This somePrenderit in the chair. ---Prof. Tait communicated a paper by what elastic period is perhaps reproduced better in groups of Dr. G. Plart, on the transformation of Laplace's coefficients.

years than in single years. It also appears that the Observatory Mr. A. C. Mitchell read a preliminary note on the thermal con of Paris gives a mean temperature higher by oocy than that of thaivity of aluminium. A comparatively rough first experiment the surrounding rural districts—10°7 as compared with 10°'o of shows that this metal slightly exceeds good copper in conduc the Parc Saint-Maur Observatory.-On the observations of temductivity-Dr John Murray discussed the question of the origin perature on the top of the Eiffel Tower, by M. Alfred Angot. and nature of coral reefs and other carbonate of lime formations These observations, begun on July 1, are being still continued in recent sea. He first referred to experiments which have with a Richard registering thermometer, placed 336 metres recently been made regarding secretion and solution of carbonate above the sea, and about 301 above the ground. Compared with of line, Carbonate of lime remains are found in great abund those of the Parc Saint-Maur (50 metres) they show that the ance at the sea bottom in shallow waters, but the amount normal decrease of about 1° for every 180 metres is greatly exsusadily diministies as the depth increases, until at 4000 fathoms ceeded in summer and during the day (means of the maxima), almost every trace has disappeared. This is due to solution, as

and correspondingly diminished in winter and at night (means of the organisins slowly fall to the bottom. Everywhere within the minima); or there is generally even an inversion in the 3co fathome of the surface the ocean teems with life. The

temperatures, the air being then warmer at 300 metres than near Cicely Expedītion was starving within ten feet of abundant food

the ground.-Papers were submitted by M. Raoul Varet, on the bach might have been obtained by breaking a hole through the ke and using a shirt as a drag.net. Dr. Murray then proceeded | simultaneous quantitative analysis of sulphur and carbon in

ammoniacal cyanides of mercury ; by M. L. Prunier, on the kro discuss his theory of the formation of coral reefs, bringing substances containing sulphur ; by M. E. Guinochet

, on an acid Xuward in reply to objections by Dana and others, some recently isomerous with tricarballylic acid; by M. C. Tanret, on two new kohtained facts regarding the existence of shallow regions in what sugars extracted from quebracho (Aspidosperma quebracho); by

un the whole, deep water. He showed that carbonate of M. Arnand, on carotine, its probable physiological action on the kime continually produced in great quantity in warm tropical leaf; and by MM. André 'Thil and Thouroude, on a microszer ly the action of sulphate of lime in solution on effete pro- graphic study of the woody tissues of native trees and shrubs, duce this explains the great growth of coral in tropical regions. prepared for the special exhibition of the Forest Department.The abeence of coral on certain shores in tropical districts is laplained by the uprise of cold water due to winds blowing off and sodium with ammonia gas, was opened by the Secretary,

The sealed paper, by M. A. Joannis, on compounds of potassium Nare. His paper was illustrated by an elaborate series of home-light diagrams,

BERLIN. PARIS. Academy of Sciences, December 9.-M. Herrnite in the Physical Society, November 22.-Prof. du Bois Reymond, air . -- On the nitrification of ammonia, by M. Th. Schlesing. President, in the chair

. -Dr. Lehmann spoke on the nature and In a recent communication (September 9) the author described distribution of the Babylonian metrical system. He

expressed Ihree experiments on the nitrification of ammonia in vegetable his desire to lay before the competent judgment of the Physical bratarus, tending to prove that this phenomenon is accomplished Society, the results of his most recent archæological researches, without any appreciable loss of nitrogen liberated in the gaseous so far as they are of direct physical interest, and then proceeded showing that this is no longer the case when a larger proportion Baylonians, explaining that it consisted of a sexagesimal system M ammonium carbamate is introduced into the soil. -Correction with decimal subdivisions. The unit of time, the double

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