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minute, was the time occupied by the sun's rising, measured at

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. the Equinox, and could thus be recovered at any time. It was

LONDON. measured by the mass of water which flowed out of a certain

THURSDAY, DECEMNIR 19. vessel from the instant at which the upper edge of the sun

ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4-30.-(1) Comparison of the Spectra of Nebula appeared above the horizon to the moment at which his lower edge Stars of Groups 1. and II, with those of Comers and Aurora: (' was exactly touching the horizon. The day consisted of 720 of these Presence of Bright Carbon Flutings in the Spectra of Celestial Badan units. The unit of length was the ell, which was used in two Prof. J. N. Lockyer, F.R.S.-Some Observations on the Asuruns forms, either as a single- or double-ell ; subdivisions used were

Luminous and Non-luminous Radiation emitted by a Gasflame: S

Conroy. Bart.-On the Effects of Pressure on the Magnetiratisa the foot = double-ell, the hand-width, and the finger-length. Cobalt: C. Chree. On the Steam Calorimeter : J. Loly-On the East The unit of weight was the mine, also occurring as single-mine sion and

Flexure of Cylindrical and Spherical Thin Elastic Sheil: A.. or double-mine. The derivation of units of weight from units of

Basset, F.R.S.

LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Intensive Segregation and Divergent Evolos length, as in the modern case of grams and centimetres, was

in Land Mollusca of Oahu : Rev. John T. Gulick-Dictwpteris ; also known, but of course the water used was not distilled and Remarks on the Systematic Position of the Dictyotaceæ : T. John was not weighed at 4°C. The speaker had, however, succeeded CHEMICAL Society, at 8.-0a Frangulin : Prof. Tlurpe, F.R.S., ana #,

H. Robinson.-Arabinon, the Saccharon of Arabinate: C. O'Sulk in discovering a measuring-scale on an ancient monument dating

F.R.S.-Note on the Identity or Cerebrose and Galactose : H. T Kre from the year 2500 B.C., which had enabled him to compare F.R.S., and Dr. G. H. Morris. the Babylonian measures with those of our own time. It

SUNDAY, DECEMBER 22. appeared from this that a hand-breadth = 994-99 6 mm. ; a S INDAY LECTURE Society, at 4.-Algeria and Morocco: same Afrika double-ell = 994-996 mm. ; and the foot = 331-332 mm. He Experiences (with Oxyhydrogen Lantern Illustrations): Henry Blarhad further discovered several stamped weights, and thus found

bu mn.

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 28. that the double-mine = 982'4-985-8 grams. The single-mine weighed half as much as the double-mine, but the gold mine and

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3-Electricity (adapted to a Juvenile Audiunt,

Prof. A. W. Rücker, F.R S. silver-mine were equal to five-sixths of a single-mine. The royalmine was i per cent. heavier than the gold-mine, and was employed for the payment of tribute. The coinage was based upon the mine and its sexagesimal division. Dr. Lehmann BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS Received. remarked how surprising it is to find that the length of a

East Africa and its Big Game: Sir J. C. Willoughby

(Longtuana). -

Measurement of Small Mammals, &c. : Dr. C. H. Merriam (Washington seconds-pendulum at Babylon is 992'5 mm., and was inclined North American Fauna, Nos. 1 and 2: Dr. C.H. Merriam (Washington) to advance the hypothesis that the Babylonian unit of length Report of the Ornithologist and Mammalogiet for 1888 : De C 1. Sense was derived from a seconds-pendulum, the foot being one-third (Washington). -- Physical Memoirs, vol. i., Part 2 (Taylor and Francs) – the lengh of the pendulum. He next proceeded to give an Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, October (Nurray) Mitteilung

des Vereins für Erdkunde zu Halle A/s, 1889 (Halle). --Proceeling a account of the spread of the Babylonian mine, and of the the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Part 2, 1889 (Phen Phænician which was derived from it, as a unit of weight delphia). ---Notes from the Leyden Museum, val. x., No. 3 (Leyden, Ds:ll) among the civilized nations of Europe. The discovery of an old Roman balance had enabled him to determine that the old Etrurian pound was equal in weight to the Babylonian mine.

CONTENTS.

PAGL The Babylonian unit of weight is found not only in Italy and The Epidemic of Influenza. By J. F. P. the Mediterranean generally, but also the old Dutch and French The Horny Sponges pounds and the Russian pood are equal in weight to the mine. The Flora of Suffolk By J. G. B. The speaker considered it to be quite impossible that in all The Manufacture of Iron and Steel

150 the above cases we are dealing with a chance correspondence

Our Book Shelf:between the several weights. In the discussion which ensued, Harrison : "On the Creation and Physical Structure objections were raised on several sides against the hypothesis of the Earth."-A. H. G.

191 that the ancient Babylonians had knowledge of the seconds.

Moss: "Through Atolls and Islands in the Great pendulum, which had subsequently been lost. On the other

South Sea"

131 hand, it was pointed out by others that the ancients were not

Letters to the Editor:improbably acquainted with the plummet, and used it for

Who Discovered the Teeth in Ornithorhynchus ?squaring stones, &c.; and since, further, they employed the double-minute as unit of time, it is not impossible that they were

Dr. C. Hart Merriam; Prof. W. H. Flower,
F.R.S..

131 acquainted with the seconds pendulum. The cause of their not The Pigment of the Touraco and Tree Porcupine. having employed this instrument to supply a time-unit may Frank E. Beddard perhaps be found in their ignorance of any means by which the Exact Thermometry --Dr. Sydney Young pendulum could be kept in continuous and uniform motion. In

Locusts in the Red Sea.-G. T. Carruthers.

133 conclusion, the speaker laid stress on the high state of culture

A Marine Millipede.-Edward Parfitt

133 which the Babylonians had attained three thousand years B.C., Proof of the Parallelogram of Forces. (vita Diaand expressed his regret that a complete blank exists with

grams.)-W. E. Johnson. regard to everything of an earlier dale than the cuneiform Glories. ---A. P. Coleman

154 inscriptions.

Fossil Rhizocarps. - Alfred W. Bennett

154 STOCKHOLM. The Arc Light.-Joseph McGrath

154

The Hyderabad Chloroform Commission Royal Academy of Sciences, November 13.-On the On the Cavendish Experiment. (Ilustrated.) By C. vegetation of the southmost part of the Isle of Gotland, by Prof. V. Boys, F.R.S. Wittrock.--Myxochæte, a new genus of fresh-water Alga, by William Ramsay McNab

159 Herr K. Bohlin.-On determinations of the longitude and Notes observations on the pendulum executed in Sweden during the Our Astronomical Column: year 1889, by Prof. Rosén.-On a reform in the analysis of

Objects for the Spectroscope.-A. Fowler .. log gaseous bodies, by Prof. O. Pettersson. --On the invariants of

Period of U Corona.

163 linear, homogeneous differential equations, by Prof. Mittag Identity of Brooks's Comet (4 1889) with Lexell's Leffler.-The form of the observations on linear differential Comet 1770

163 equations, by Herr A. M. Johanson.-On the case of Poincaré Some Photographic Star Spectra

103 as to the three bodies problem and some analogous dynamical Magnitude and Colour of Argus propositions, by Herr E. Phragmén.-On the observations made Orbit of Barnard's Comet 1884 II. at the Observatory of Upsala for the determination of the

Algol .. equinoctium in the spring of 1889, by Dr. K. Bohlin and Herr

Discovery of a New Comet. C. A. Schultz-Steinheil. -- Definitive orbit elements of the comet Geographical Notes. 1840 iv., by Herr Schultz-Steinheil.-Study of the infra-red The St. Petersburg Problem. By Sydney Lupton. 165 spectra of carbonic acid and of carbonic oxide, by Dr. K. University and Educational Intelligence Ångström.-On the action of nitric acid on naphthalin-a-sulphon Societies and Academies acid, by Prof. P. J. Cleve.--On naphthalin-1-5, calogene Diary of Societies.

168 sulphon-acids, by Herr R. Manselius.

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received

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165

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